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Special Issue "Curcumin in Health and Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Beatrice E. Bachmeier
Website
Guest Editor
Competence Center for Complementary Medicine and Naturopathy, Technical University, 80801 Munich, Germany
Interests: molecular oncology; prevention; curcumin; biomolecular research; cellular biology; plant derived bioactives; biomarkers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant-derived polyphenol Curcumin has been used in health and disease for thousands of years and its therapeutic effects have been successfully utilized in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine in order to treat inflammatory diseases. Current results from modern biomolecular research reveal the modulatory effects of Curcumin on a variety of signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation and cancer. In this context, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and even anti-metastatic activities are discussed. On the cellular level, reduced activity of several transcription factors, such as NFkB or AP-1 and suppression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix degrading enzymes, metastasis related genes and even microRNAs are reported. On functional levels, these molecular effects translate into reduced proliferative, invasive and metastatic capacity, as well as induced tumor cell apoptosis. All these effects have been observed not only in vitro but also in animal models. In combination with anti-neoplastic drugs like taxols or kinase inhibitors or radiation therapy, Curcumin potentiates their therapeuthic power and shows even protective effects against undesired side effects.

Natural plant-derived compounds like Curcumin have one significant advantage: They largely do not exert side effects. This feature qualifies Curcumin for primary prevention, in healthy persons with a predisposition to cancer, arteriosclerosis or chronic inflammatory dieseases. Nonetheless, Curcumin is considered "safe", however, toxic effects especially concerning high dosages, long-term intake and pharmacological interactions with other compounds have to be tested.

This Special Issue examines in detail, and provides an update on, the molecular targets, protective effects, and modes of action of natural plant-derived compounds and their roles in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Prof. Dr. Beatrice E. Bachmeier
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Curcumin
  • natural compounds
  • bioactives
  • biomarkers
  • molecular pathways
  • cancer
  • inflammation
  • prevention
  • combination therapy
  • toxicity / safety

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin—From Traditional Past to Present and Future Clinical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153757 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The efficacy of the plant-derived polyphenol curcumin, in various aspects of health and wellbeing, is matter of public interest. An internet search of the term “Curcumin” displays about 12 million hits. Among the multitudinous information presented on partly doubtful websites, there are reports [...] Read more.
The efficacy of the plant-derived polyphenol curcumin, in various aspects of health and wellbeing, is matter of public interest. An internet search of the term “Curcumin” displays about 12 million hits. Among the multitudinous information presented on partly doubtful websites, there are reports attracting the reader with promises ranging from eternal youth to cures for incurable diseases. Unfortunately, many of these reports are not based on scientific evidence, but they feed the desideratum of the reader for a “miracle cure”. This circumstance makes it very difficult for researchers, who work in a scientifically sound and evidence-based manner on the therapeutic benefits (or side effects) of curcumin, to demarcate their results from sensational reports that circulate in the web and in other media. This is only one of many obstacles making it difficult to pave curcumin’s way into clinical application; others are its nonpatentability and low economic usability. A further impediment comes from scientists who never worked with curcumin or any other natural plant-derived compound in their own labs. They have never tested these compounds in any scientific assay, neither in vitro nor in vivo; however, they claim, in a sometimes polemic manner, that everything that has so far been published on curcumin’s molecular effects is based on artefacts. The here presented Special Issue comprises a collection of five scientifically sound articles and nine reviews reporting on the therapeutic benefits and the molecular mechanisms of curcumin or of chemically modified curcumin in various diseases ranging from malignant tumors to chronic diseases, microbial infection, and even neurodegenerative diseases. The excellent results of the scientific projects that underlie the five original papers give reason to hope that curcumin will be part of novel treatment strategies in the near future—either as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs or therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Curcumin-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Markedly Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122918 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from a perennial herb Curcuma longa has been verified for many physiological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. The direct use of curcumin cytotoxicity studies are limited due to its unstable chemical structure, low bioavailability, easy [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from a perennial herb Curcuma longa has been verified for many physiological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. The direct use of curcumin cytotoxicity studies are limited due to its unstable chemical structure, low bioavailability, easy oxidation, and degradation by ultraviolet (UV) light etc. Trying to overcome this problem, silica-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (SCNP) and chitosan with silica co-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (CSCNP) were prepared by silicification and biosilicification methods, respectively, and encapsulated curcumin within it. We investigated the antitumor properties of SCNP and CSCNP on different tumor cell lines. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that both SCNP and CSCNP were almost spherical in shape and the average particle size of CSCNP was 75.0 ± 14.62 nm, and SCNP was 61.7 ± 23.04 nm. The results show that CSCNP has more anti-oxidant activity as compared to curcumin and SCNP. The higher cytotoxicity towards different cancerous cell lines was also observed in CSCNP treated tumor cells. It was noted that the SCNP and CSCNP has a high percentage of IC50 values in Hep G2 cells. The encapsulation of curcumin improved instability, antioxidant activity, and antitumor activity. Our results demonstrated that nanoencapsulation of curcumin with silica and chitosan not only increase curcumin stability but also enhance its cytotoxic activity on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. On the basis of these primary studies, the curcumin-loaded nanoparticles appear to be promising as an innovative therapeutic material for the treatment of tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Growth and Proliferation of Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells Is Blocked by Low Curcumin Concentrations Combined with Visible Light Irradiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061464 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The anti-cancer properties of curcumin in vitro have been documented. However, its clinical use is limited due to rapid metabolization. Since irradiation of curcumin has been found to increase its anti-cancer effect on several tumor types, this investigation was designed to determine whether [...] Read more.
The anti-cancer properties of curcumin in vitro have been documented. However, its clinical use is limited due to rapid metabolization. Since irradiation of curcumin has been found to increase its anti-cancer effect on several tumor types, this investigation was designed to determine whether irradiation with visible light may enhance the anti-tumor effects of low-dosed curcumin on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell growth and proliferation. A498, Caki1, and KTCTL-26 cells were incubated with curcumin (0.1–0.4 µg/mL) and irradiated with 1.65 J/cm2 visible light for 5 min. Controls were exposed to curcumin or light alone or remained untreated. Curcumin plus light, but not curcumin or light exposure alone altered growth, proliferation, and apoptosis of all three RCC tumor cell lines. Cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylated (p) CDK1 and pCDK2, along with their counter-receptors Cyclin B and A decreased, whereas p27 increased. Akt-mTOR-signaling was suppressed, the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 became elevated, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bax diminished. H3 acetylation was elevated when cells were treated with curcumin plus light, pointing to an epigenetic mechanism. The present findings substantiate the potential of combining low curcumin concentrations and light as a new therapeutic concept to increase the efficacy of curcumin in RCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Extrinsic or Intrinsic Apoptosis by Curcumin and Light: Still a Mystery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040905 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Curcumin—a rhizomal phytochemical from the plant Curcuma longa—is well known to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis in a broad range of cell lines. In previous studies we showed that combining low curcumin concentrations and subsequent ultraviolet A radiation (UVA) or [...] Read more.
Curcumin—a rhizomal phytochemical from the plant Curcuma longa—is well known to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis in a broad range of cell lines. In previous studies we showed that combining low curcumin concentrations and subsequent ultraviolet A radiation (UVA) or VIS irradiation induced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. There is still debate whether curcumin induces apoptosis via the extrinsic or the intrinsic pathway. To address this question, we investigated in three epithelial cell lines (HaCaT, A431, A549) whether the death receptors CD95, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor I and II are involved in apoptosis induced by light and curcumin. Cells were incubated with 0.25–0.5 µg/mL curcumin followed by irradiation with 1 J/cm2 UVA. This treatment was combined with inhibitors specific for distinct membrane-bound death receptors. After 24 h apoptosis induction was monitored by quantitative determination of cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments. Validation of our test system showed that apoptosis induced by CH11 and TNF-α could be completely inhibited by their respective antagonists. Interestingly, apoptosis induced by curcumin/light treatment was reversed by none of the herein examined death receptor antagonists. These results indicate a mechanism of action independent from classical death receptors speaking for intrinsic activation of apoptosis. It could be speculated that a shift in cellular redox balance might prompt the pro-apoptotic processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Potential of Single Metabolites of Curcuma longa Assessed in the Total Extract by Thin-Layer Chromatography-Based Bioautography and Image Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040898 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Curcuma longa from Zingiberaceae belongs to the major spices consumed around the world, known from its cholagogue, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Lack of data on the activity of single components of turmeric extract encouraged the authors to apply TLC (thin-layer chromatography) based bioautography [...] Read more.
Curcuma longa from Zingiberaceae belongs to the major spices consumed around the world, known from its cholagogue, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Lack of data on the activity of single components of turmeric extract encouraged the authors to apply TLC (thin-layer chromatography) based bioautography studies to reveal its antimicrobial constituents and construct a universal platform for the bioactivity assessment of crude extracts, with help of a freeware ImageJ software. This optimized chromatographic bioassay performed on diethyl ether and methanol extracts of Curcuma longa was successfully applied on the total extract and revealed the antimicrobial potential of single components against a variety of Gram-positive strains, with no need for their isolation from the mixture. The obtained results were further confronted with a classic microdilution antimicrobial assay on the isolates, purified from the crude extracts by centrifugal partition chromatography in the following solvent system: heptane-chloroform-methanol-water (5:6:3:2) (v/v/v/v). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Curcumin and Solid Lipid Curcumin Particles Induce Autophagy, but Inhibit Mitophagy and the PI3K-Akt/mTOR Pathway in Cultured Glioblastoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020399 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Autophagy and the (PI3K-Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway play significant roles in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell death and survival. Curcumin (Cur) has been reported to prevent several cancers, including GBM. However, the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of natural Cur limits its application in preventing [...] Read more.
Autophagy and the (PI3K-Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway play significant roles in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell death and survival. Curcumin (Cur) has been reported to prevent several cancers, including GBM. However, the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of natural Cur limits its application in preventing GBM growth. Previously, we have shown the greater apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic effects of solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP) than natural Cur in cultured GBM cells. Here, we compared the autophagic responses on cultured U-87MG, GL261, F98, C6-glioma, and N2a cells after treatment with Cur or SLCP (25 µM for 24 h). Different autophagy, mitophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) markers, along with the PI3K-AKkt/mTOR signaling pathway, and the number of autophagy vacuoles were investigated after treatment with Cur and or SLCP. We observed increased levels of autophagy and decreased levels of mitophagy markers, along with inhibition of the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway after treatments with Cur or SLCP. Cell survival markers were downregulated, and cell death markers were upregulated after these treatments. We found greater effects in the case of SCLP-treated cells in comparison to Cur. Given that fewer effects were observed on C-6 glioma and N2a cells. Our results suggest that SLCP could be a safe and effective means of therapeutically modulating autophagy in GBM cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Curcumin and Intestinal Inflammatory Diseases: Molecular Mechanisms of Protection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081912 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent. While knowledge of the pathogenesis of these related diseases is currently incomplete, each of these conditions is thought to involve a dysfunctional, or overstated, host immunological response [...] Read more.
Intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent. While knowledge of the pathogenesis of these related diseases is currently incomplete, each of these conditions is thought to involve a dysfunctional, or overstated, host immunological response to both bacteria and dietary antigens, resulting in unchecked intestinal inflammation and, often, alterations in the intestinal microbiome. This inflammation can result in an impaired intestinal barrier allowing for bacterial translocation, potentially resulting in systemic inflammation and, in severe cases, sepsis. Chronic inflammation of this nature, in the case of inflammatory bowel disease, can even spur cancer growth in the longer-term. Recent research has indicated certain natural products with anti-inflammatory properties, such as curcumin, can help tame the inflammation involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases, thus improving intestinal barrier function, and potentially, clinical outcomes. In this review, we explore the potential therapeutic properties of curcumin on intestinal inflammatory diseases, including its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties, as well as its potential to alter the intestinal microbiome. Curcumin may play a significant role in intestinal inflammatory disease treatment in the future, particularly as an adjuvant therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Curcumin: New Insights into an Ancient Ingredient against Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081808 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Cancer patients frequently use complementary medicine. Curcumin (CUR) and its derivates (from the extract of Curcuma longa L.) represent some of the most frequently used ones, having a long history in traditional Asian medicine. CUR was demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, [...] Read more.
Cancer patients frequently use complementary medicine. Curcumin (CUR) and its derivates (from the extract of Curcuma longa L.) represent some of the most frequently used ones, having a long history in traditional Asian medicine. CUR was demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to have significant anti-inflammatory effects, thus potentially counteracting cancer-promoting inflammation, which is a hallmark of cancer. CUR modulate a plethora of signaling pathways in cancer cells, comprising the NF-κB (nuclear factor k-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), the JAK/STAT (Janus-Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription), and the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) pathways. Furthermore, CUR confers properties of electron receptors, which destabilize radical oxygen species (ROS), explaining its antioxidant and anti-apopototic effects. Although CUR has a low bioavailability, its role in advanced cancer treatment and supportive care was addressed in numerous clinical trials. After promising results in phase I–II trials, multiple phase III trials in different indications are currently under way to test for direct anti-cancer effects. In addition, CUR exerts beneficial effects on cancer treatment-related neurotoxcity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hemato-toxicity, and others. More efficient galenic formulations are tested to optimze CUR’s usability in cancer treatment. This review should provide a comprehensive overview of basic science, and pre-clinical and clinical data on CUR in the field of oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Curcumin: A Potent Protectant against Esophageal and Gastric Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061477 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Turmeric obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa has been used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases since the ancient times. Curcumin is the principal polyphenol isolated from turmeric, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antitumor, and antimetastatic activities. The existing evidence [...] Read more.
Turmeric obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa has been used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases since the ancient times. Curcumin is the principal polyphenol isolated from turmeric, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antitumor, and antimetastatic activities. The existing evidence indicates that curcumin can exert a wide range of beneficial pleiotropic properties in the gastrointestinal tract, such as protection against reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and gastric mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and necrotizing agents. The role of curcumin as an adjuvant in the treatment of a Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental animals and humans has recently been proposed. The evidence that this turmeric derivative inhibits the invasion and proliferation of gastric cancer cells is encouraging and warrants further experimental and clinical studies with newer formulations to support the inclusion of curcumin in cancer therapy regimens. This review was designed to analyze the existing data from in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies in order to highlight the mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in the protection and ulcer healing of the upper gastrointestinal tract, with a major focus on addressing the protection of the esophagus and stomach by this emerging compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Uncovering the Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Curcumin on Transthyretin Amyloidosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061287 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses (ATTR amyloidosis) are diseases associated with transthyretin (TTR) misfolding, aggregation and extracellular deposition in tissues as amyloid. Clinical manifestations of the disease are variable and include mainly polyneuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. The reasons why TTR forms aggregates and amyloid are related [...] Read more.
Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses (ATTR amyloidosis) are diseases associated with transthyretin (TTR) misfolding, aggregation and extracellular deposition in tissues as amyloid. Clinical manifestations of the disease are variable and include mainly polyneuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. The reasons why TTR forms aggregates and amyloid are related with amino acid substitutions in the protein due to mutations, or with environmental alterations associated with aging, that make the protein more unstable and prone to aggregation. According to this model, several therapeutic approaches have been proposed for the diseases that range from stabilization of TTR, using chemical chaperones, to clearance of the aggregated protein deposited in tissues in the form of oligomers or small aggregates, by the action of disruptors or by activation of the immune system. Interestingly, different studies revealed that curcumin presents anti-amyloid properties, targeting multiple steps in the ATTR amyloidogenic cascade. The effects of curcumin on ATTR amyloidosis will be reviewed and discussed in the current work in order to contribute to knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in TTR amyloidosis and propose more efficient drugs for therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Curcumin in the Modulation of Ageing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051239 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment of particular age-related diseases. Compounds which could delay symptoms of ageing, especially natural products present in a daily diet, are intensively studied. One of them is curcumin. It [...] Read more.
It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment of particular age-related diseases. Compounds which could delay symptoms of ageing, especially natural products present in a daily diet, are intensively studied. One of them is curcumin. It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. It has been demonstrated that the elimination of senescent cells significantly improves the quality of life of mice. There is a continuous search for compounds, named senolytic drugs, that selectively eliminate senescent cells from organisms. In this paper, we endeavor to review the current knowledge about the anti-ageing role of curcumin and discuss its senolytic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Curcumin and its Potential for Systemic Targeting of Inflamm-Aging and Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051180 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Pleiotropic effects of curcumin have been the subject of intensive research. The interest in this molecule for preventive medicine may further increase because of its potential to modulate inflamm-aging. Although direct data related to its effect on inflamm-aging does not exist, there is [...] Read more.
Pleiotropic effects of curcumin have been the subject of intensive research. The interest in this molecule for preventive medicine may further increase because of its potential to modulate inflamm-aging. Although direct data related to its effect on inflamm-aging does not exist, there is a strong possibility that its well-known anti-inflammatory properties may be relevant to this phenomenon. Curcumin’s binding to various proteins, which was shown to be dependent on cellular oxidative status, is yet another feature for exploration in depth. Finally, the binding of curcumin to various metabolic enzymes is crucial to curcumin’s interference with powerful metabolic machinery, and can also be crucial for metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. This review offers a synthesis and functional links that may better explain older data, some observational, in light of the most recent findings on curcumin. Our focus is on its modes of action that have the potential to alleviate specific morbidities of the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Nutrition and Wound Healing: An Overview Focusing on the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051119 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Wound healing implicates several biological and molecular events, such as coagulation, inflammation, migration-proliferation, and remodeling. Here, we provide an overview of the effects of malnutrition and specific nutrients on this process, focusing on the beneficial effects of curcumin. We have summarized that protein [...] Read more.
Wound healing implicates several biological and molecular events, such as coagulation, inflammation, migration-proliferation, and remodeling. Here, we provide an overview of the effects of malnutrition and specific nutrients on this process, focusing on the beneficial effects of curcumin. We have summarized that protein loss may negatively affect the whole immune process, while adequate intake of carbohydrates is necessary for fibroblast migration during the proliferative phase. Beyond micronutrients, arginine and glutamine, vitamin A, B, C, and D, zinc, and iron are essential for inflammatory process and synthesis of collagen. Notably, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin might reduce the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and restore the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant activity. Since curcumin induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells during the early phase of wound healing, it could also accelerate the healing process by shortening the inflammatory phase. Moreover, curcumin might facilitate collagen synthesis, fibroblasts migration, and differentiation. Although curcumin could be considered as a wound healing agent, especially if topically administered, further research in wound patients is recommended to achieve appropriate nutritional approaches for wound management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Curcumin and Its Derivatives as Anticancer Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051033 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 27
Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and one of the major public health problems. Despite the great advances in cancer therapy, the incidence and mortality rates of cancer remain high. Therefore, the quest for more efficient and less [...] Read more.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and one of the major public health problems. Despite the great advances in cancer therapy, the incidence and mortality rates of cancer remain high. Therefore, the quest for more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment strategies is still at the forefront of current research. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the Curcuma longa plant, has received great attention over the past two decades as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. In this review, a summary of the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of curcumin and its derivatives in regard to anticancer activity, their main mechanisms of action, and cellular targets has been provided based on the literature data from the experimental and clinical evaluation of curcumin in cancer cell lines, animal models, and human subjects. In addition, the recent advances in the drug delivery systems for curcumin delivery to cancer cells have been highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Neuroprotective and Neurological/Cognitive Enhancement Effects of Curcumin after Brain Ischemia Injury with Alzheimer’s Disease Phenotype
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124002 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
In recent years, ongoing interest in ischemic brain injury research has provided data showing that ischemic episodes are involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease-like neuropathology. Brain ischemia is the second naturally occurring neuropathology, such as Alzheimer’s disease, which causes the death of [...] Read more.
In recent years, ongoing interest in ischemic brain injury research has provided data showing that ischemic episodes are involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease-like neuropathology. Brain ischemia is the second naturally occurring neuropathology, such as Alzheimer’s disease, which causes the death of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In addition, brain ischemia was considered the most effective predictor of the development of full-blown dementia of Alzheimer’s disease phenotype with a debilitating effect on the patient. Recent knowledge on the activation of Alzheimer’s disease-related genes and proteins—e.g., amyloid protein precursor and tau protein—as well as brain ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology indicate that similar processes contribute to neuronal death and disintegration of brain tissue in both disorders. Although brain ischemia is one of the main causes of death in the world, there is no effective therapy to improve the structural and functional outcomes of this disorder. In this review, we consider the promising role of the protective action of curcumin after ischemic brain injury. Studies of the pharmacological properties of curcumin after brain ischemia have shown that curcumin has several therapeutic properties that include anti-excitotoxic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperhomocysteinemia and anti-inflammatory effects, mitochondrial protection, as well as increasing neuronal lifespan and promoting neurogenesis. In addition, curcumin also exerts anti-amyloidogenic effects and affects the brain’s tau protein. These results suggest that curcumin may be able to serve as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative brain disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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