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Special Issue "Molecular Chaperones 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hideaki Itoh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life Science, Graduate School and Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502, Japan
Interests: hsp60, eurodegeneration microglia innate immunity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Homeostasis is essential for maintaining cell function. For that purpose, proteins must fold to their native state in order to achieve functionality. Many heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform chaperone functions by stabilizing new proteins to ensure correct folding or by helping to refold proteins that were damaged by cell stress. Molecular chaperones belong to the family of conservative proteins with a high homology of the primary structure in both the prokaryote and eukaryote. HSPs are often classified according to their molecular weight and members include HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and the small HSPs. Molecular chaperones have a large functional diversity. Their fundamental roles include de novo folding and the refolding of misfolded protein. Chaperones also regulate critical cellular processes, such as protein trafficking, protein degradation, protein complex assembly, and regulate functional proteins, such as steroid hormone receptors. The uniqueness of molecular chaperones results from their ability to interact with a very large number of different proteins, called clients. HSPs provide protection from cellular and environmental stress factors as molecular chaperones to maintain protein homeostasis. This Special Issue will include original research papers and outstanding reviews that show the role of molecular chaperones in the functionality of homeostasis in the cell.

Prof. Dr. Hideaki Itoh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • molecular chaperone
  • Heat shock protein (HSPs)
  • HSP90, HSP70, HSP60
  • de novo folding
  • misfolded protein
  • protein trafficking
  • protein degradation
  • protein complex assembly
  • homeostasis

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Hsp90 Relieves Heat Stress-Induced Damage in Mouse Kidneys: Involvement of Antiapoptotic PKM2-AKT and Autophagic HIF-1α Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051646 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Heat stress can particularly affect the kidney because of its high rate of adenosine triphosphate consumption. Competition between apoptosis and autophagy-mediated survival always exists in damaged tissue. And Hsp90 can enhance cellular protection to resist heat stress. However, the relationship between Hsp90 and [...] Read more.
Heat stress can particularly affect the kidney because of its high rate of adenosine triphosphate consumption. Competition between apoptosis and autophagy-mediated survival always exists in damaged tissue. And Hsp90 can enhance cellular protection to resist heat stress. However, the relationship between Hsp90 and the above competition and its underlying mechanism in the kidney are unclear. The present study found that heat stress induced obvious histopathological and oxidative injury, which was connected with cellular apoptosis and autophagy in the kidney and was associated with the levels of Hsp90 expression or function. The data showed that during heat stress, Hsp90 activated the PKM2-Akt signaling pathway to exert antiapoptotic effects and induce Hsp70 expression regulated by HSF-1, stimulated autophagy-mediated survival through the HIF-1α-BNIP3/BNIP3L pathway, and finally protected the kidney from heat-stress injury. Moreover, the nuclear translocation of PKM2, (p-) Akt, HSF-1, and HIF-1α was enhanced by heat stress, but only intranuclear p-Akt and HSF-1 were specifically influenced by Hsp90, contributing to regulate the cellular ability of resisting heat-stress damage. Our study provided new insights regarding the molecular mechanism of Hsp90 in the kidney in response to heat-stress injury, possibly contributing to finding new targets for the pharmacological regulation of human or animal acute kidney injury from heat stress in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
The Major Heat Shock Proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in 2-Methoxyestradiol-Mediated Osteosarcoma Cell Death Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020616 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 705
Abstract
2-Methoxyestradiol is one of the natural 17β-estradiol derivatives and a potential novel anticancer agent currently being under evaluation in advanced phases of clinical trials. However, the mechanism of anticancer action of 2-methoxyestradiol has not been yet fully established. In our previous studies we [...] Read more.
2-Methoxyestradiol is one of the natural 17β-estradiol derivatives and a potential novel anticancer agent currently being under evaluation in advanced phases of clinical trials. However, the mechanism of anticancer action of 2-methoxyestradiol has not been yet fully established. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that 2-methoxyestradiol selectively induces the expression and nuclear translocation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in osteosarcoma 143B cells. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are factors involved in the regulation of expression and activity of nitric oxide synthases. Herein, we chose osteosarcoma cell lines differed in metastatic potential, metastatic 143B and highly metastatic MG63.2 cells, in order to further investigate the anticancer mechanism of 2-methoxyestradiol. The current study aimed to determine the role of major heat shock proteins, Hsp90 and Hsp70 in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced osteosarcoma cell death. We focused on the implication of Hsp90 and Hsp70 in control under expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, localization of the enzyme, and further generation of nitro-oxidative stress. To give the insight into the role of Hsp90 in regulation of anticancer efficacy of 2-methoxyestradiol, we used geldanamycin as a potent Hsp90 inhibitor. Herein, we evidenced that inhibition of Hsp90 controls the protein expression of 2-methoxyestradiol-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase and inhibits enzyme nuclear translocation. We propose that decreased level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein after a combined treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol and geldanamycin is directly associated with the accompanying upregulation of Hsp70 and downregulation of Hsp90. This interaction resulted in abrogation of anticancer efficacy of 2-methoxyestradiol by geldanamycin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Gene Copy Number and Post-Transductional Mechanisms Regulate TRAP1 Expression in Human Colorectal Carcinomas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010145 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Protein 1 (TRAP1) is a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone overexpressed in 60–70% human colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and the co-upregulation of TRAP1 and associated 6-related proteins identifies metastatic CRCs with poor prognosis. Since the molecular mechanisms responsible [...] Read more.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Protein 1 (TRAP1) is a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone overexpressed in 60–70% human colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and the co-upregulation of TRAP1 and associated 6-related proteins identifies metastatic CRCs with poor prognosis. Since the molecular mechanisms responsible for TRAP1 regulation are still unknown, the significance of TRAP1 gene copy number (CN) and the role of post-transductional protein modifications were addressed. TRAP1 gene aneuploidy accounted for 34.5% of cases in a cohort of 58 human CRCs and TRAP1 CN correlated with its mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for TRAP1 upregulation. Furthermore, the analysis of the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium/The Cancer Genome Atlas (CPTAC/TCGA) CRC database showed that TRAP1 polysomy significantly correlates with lymph node involvement. However, a subgroup of tumors showed TRAP1 protein levels independent from its CN. Of note, a direct correlation was observed between TRAP1 protein levels and the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a denitrosylase involved in the regulation of protein S-nitrosylation. Furthermore, CRC cell lines exposed to hypoxia or dichloroacetate treatment showed the downregulation of TRAP1 upon GSNOR silencing and this resulted in increased TRAP1 mono/polyubiquitination. These data suggest that transcriptional and post-transductional mechanisms account for TRAP1 expression in human CRCs and GSNOR protects TRAP1 from S-nitrosylation and consequent proteasome degradation mostly in conditions of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
The Mitochondrial Small Heat Shock Protein HSP22 from Pea is a Thermosoluble Chaperone Prone to Co-Precipitate with Unfolding Client Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010097 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that share an alpha-crystallin domain but display a high diversity of sequence, expression, and localization. They are especially prominent in plants, populating most cellular compartments. In pea, mitochondrial HSP22 is induced by heat or [...] Read more.
The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that share an alpha-crystallin domain but display a high diversity of sequence, expression, and localization. They are especially prominent in plants, populating most cellular compartments. In pea, mitochondrial HSP22 is induced by heat or oxidative stress in leaves but also strongly accumulates during seed development. The molecular function of HSP22 was addressed by studying the effect of temperature on its structural properties and chaperone effects using a recombinant or native protein. Overexpression of HSP22 significantly increased bacterial thermotolerance. The secondary structure of the recombinant protein was not affected by temperature in contrast with its quaternary structure. The purified protein formed large polydisperse oligomers that dissociated upon heating (42 °C) into smaller species (mainly monomers). The recombinant protein appeared thermosoluble but precipitated with thermosensitive proteins upon heat stress in assays either with single protein clients or within complex extracts. As shown by in vitro protection assays, HSP22 at high molar ratio could partly prevent the heat aggregation of rhodanese but not of malate dehydrogenase. HSP22 appears as a holdase that could possibly prevent the aggregation of some proteins while co-precipitating with others to facilitate their subsequent refolding by disaggregases or clearance by proteases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Molecular Chaperone Hsp60 and Its Apical Domain Suppress Amyloid Fibril Formation of α-Synuclein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010047 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Heat shock proteins play roles in assisting other proteins to fold correctly and in preventing the aggregation and accumulation of proteins in misfolded conformations. However, the process of aging significantly degrades this ability to maintain protein homeostasis. Consequently, proteins with incorrect conformations are [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins play roles in assisting other proteins to fold correctly and in preventing the aggregation and accumulation of proteins in misfolded conformations. However, the process of aging significantly degrades this ability to maintain protein homeostasis. Consequently, proteins with incorrect conformations are prone to aggregate and accumulate in cells, and this aberrant aggregation of misfolded proteins may trigger various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Here, we investigated the possibilities of suppressing α-synuclein aggregation by using a mutant form of human chaperonin Hsp60, and a derivative of the isolated apical domain of Hsp60 (Hsp60 AD(Cys)). In vitro measurements were used to detect the effects of chaperonin on amyloid fibril formation, and interactions between Hsp60 proteins and α-synuclein were probed by quartz crystal microbalance analysis. The ability of Hsp60 AD(Cys) to suppress α-synuclein intracellular aggregation and cytotoxicity was also demonstrated. We show that Hsp60 mutant and Hsp60 AD(Cys) both effectively suppress α-synuclein amyloid fibril formation, and also demonstrate for the first time the ability of Hsp60 AD(Cys) to function as a mini-chaperone inside cells. These results highlight the possibility of using Hsp60 AD as a method of prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of σE-Dependent Promoter Upstream of clpB from the Pathogenic Spirochaete Leptospira interrogans by Applying an E. coli Two-Plasmid System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246325 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 950
Abstract
There is limited information on gene expression in the pathogenic spirochaete Leptospira interrogans and genetic mechanisms controlling its virulence. Transcription is the first step in gene expression that is often determined by environmental effects, including infection-induced stresses. Alterations in the environment result in [...] Read more.
There is limited information on gene expression in the pathogenic spirochaete Leptospira interrogans and genetic mechanisms controlling its virulence. Transcription is the first step in gene expression that is often determined by environmental effects, including infection-induced stresses. Alterations in the environment result in significant changes in the transcription of many genes, allowing effective adaptation of Leptospira to mammalian hosts. Thus, promoter and transcriptional start site identification are crucial for determining gene expression regulation and for the understanding of genetic regulatory mechanisms existing in Leptospira. Here, we characterized the promoter region of the L. interrogans clpB gene (clpBLi) encoding an AAA+ molecular chaperone ClpB essential for the survival of this spirochaete under thermal and oxidative stresses, and also during infection of the host. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that transcription of clpB in L. interrogans initiates at a cytidine located 41 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon, and, to a lesser extent, at an adenine located 2 bp downstream of the identified site. Transcription of both transcripts was heat-inducible. Determination of clpBLi transcription start site, combined with promoter transcriptional activity assays using a modified two-plasmid system in E. coli, revealed that clpBLi transcription is controlled by the ECF σE factor. Of the ten L. interrogans ECF σ factors, the factor encoded by LIC_12757 (LA0876) is most likely to be the key regulator of clpB gene expression in Leptospira cells, especially under thermal stress. Furthermore, clpB expression may be mediated by ppGpp in Leptospira. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Puf6 and Loc1 Are the Dedicated Chaperones of Ribosomal Protein Rpl43 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235941 - 26 Nov 2019
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Ribosomal proteins are highly expressed, and the quality of ribosomal proteins must be rigorously controlled to build up a functional ribosome. Rpl43, ribosomal protein large subunit 43, is located nearby the E-site of ribosomes. In our previous study, we found that Puf6, Loc1, [...] Read more.
Ribosomal proteins are highly expressed, and the quality of ribosomal proteins must be rigorously controlled to build up a functional ribosome. Rpl43, ribosomal protein large subunit 43, is located nearby the E-site of ribosomes. In our previous study, we found that Puf6, Loc1, and Rpl43 form a trimeric complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rpl43 protein levels are under-accumulated in the absence of PUF6 or LOC1. However, why the loss of Puf6 or Loc1 decreased the protein levels of Rpl43 remained unclear. In the present study, we further dissected the connections among these three proteins and found that the processing defects of pre-ribosomal RNA in puf6Δ and loc1Δ are similar to those of the mutant with depletion of Rpl43. The stability of newly synthesized Rpl43 protein decreased slightly in puf6Δ and significantly in loc1Δ. We also found that Puf6 and Loc1 could interact with nascent Rpl43 co-translationally via the N-terminus of Rpl43. While the association and dissociation of Rpl43 with karyopherins did not depend on Puf6 and Loc1, Puf6 and Loc1 interacted with nascent Rpl43 in collaboration. While the N-terminus of Puf6 contained nuclear localization signals for transport, the PUF (Pumilio) domain was essential to interaction with Loc1, Rpl43, and 60S subunits. The C-terminus of Loc1 is more important for interaction with Puf6 and Rpl43. In this study, we found that Puf6 and Loc1 are the dedicated chaperones of ribosomal protein Rpl43 and also analyzed the potential interaction domains among the three proteins. Correct formation of the Puf6, Loc1, and Rpl43 ternary complex is required to properly proceed to the next step in 60S biogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Heat Shock Cognate 70 Functions as A Chaperone for the Stability of Kinetochore Protein CENP-N in Holocentric Insect Silkworms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235823 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 859
Abstract
The centromere, in which kinetochore proteins are assembled, plays an important role in the accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes during cell mitosis. Although the function of the centromere and kinetochore is conserved from monocentric to holocentric, the DNA sequences of the centromere [...] Read more.
The centromere, in which kinetochore proteins are assembled, plays an important role in the accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes during cell mitosis. Although the function of the centromere and kinetochore is conserved from monocentric to holocentric, the DNA sequences of the centromere and components of the kinetochore are varied among different species. Given the lack of core centromere protein A (CENP-A) and CENP-C in the lepidopteran silkworm Bombyx mori, which possesses holocentric chromosomes, here we investigated the role of CENP-N, another important member of the centromere protein family essential for kinetochore assembly. For the first time, cellular localization and RNA interference against CENP-N have confirmed its kinetochore function in silkworms. To gain further insights into the regulation of CENP-N in the centromere, we analyzed the affinity-purified complex of CENP-N by mass spectrometry and identified 142 interacting proteins. Among these factors, we found that the chaperone protein heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is able to regulate the stability of CENP-N by prohibiting ubiquitin–proteasome pathway, indicating that HSC70 could control cell cycle-regulated degradation of CENP-N at centromeres. Altogether, the present work will provide a novel clue to understand the regulatory mechanism for the kinetochore activity of CENP-N during the cell cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Isoform-Selective Ligands for the Middle Domain of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215333 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a current inhibition target for the treatment of diseases, including cancer. In humans, there are two major cytosolic isoforms of Hsp90 (Hsp90α and Hsp90β). Hsp90α is inducible and Hsp90β is constitutively expressed. Most Hsp90 [...] Read more.
The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a current inhibition target for the treatment of diseases, including cancer. In humans, there are two major cytosolic isoforms of Hsp90 (Hsp90α and Hsp90β). Hsp90α is inducible and Hsp90β is constitutively expressed. Most Hsp90 inhibitors are pan-inhibitors that target both cytosolic isoforms of Hsp90. The development of isoform-selective inhibitors of Hsp90 may enable better clinical outcomes. Herein, by using virtual screening and binding studies, we report our work in the identification and characterisation of novel isoform-selective ligands for the middle domain of Hsp90β. Our results pave the way for further development of isoform-selective Hsp90 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Suppress P-Glycoprotein Activity and Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184575 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone interacts with a broad range of client proteins involved in cancerogenesis and cancer progression. However, Hsp90 inhibitors were unsuccessful as anticancer agents due to their high toxicity, lack of selectivity against cancer cells and extrusion by membrane [...] Read more.
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone interacts with a broad range of client proteins involved in cancerogenesis and cancer progression. However, Hsp90 inhibitors were unsuccessful as anticancer agents due to their high toxicity, lack of selectivity against cancer cells and extrusion by membrane transporters responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Recognizing the potential of new compounds to inhibit P-gp function and/or expression is essential in the search for effective anticancer drugs. Eleven Hsp90 inhibitors containing an isoxazolonaphtoquinone core were synthesized and evaluated in two MDR models comprised of sensitive and corresponding resistant cancer cells with P-gp overexpression (human non-small cell lung carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma). We investigated the effect of Hsp90 inhibitors on cell growth inhibition, P-gp activity and P-gp expression. Structure–activity relationship analysis was performed in respect to cell growth and P-gp inhibition. Compounds 5, 7, and 9 directly interacted with P-gp and inhibited its ATPase activity. Their potential P-gp binding site was identified by molecular docking studies. In addition, these compounds downregulated P-gp expression in MDR colorectal carcinoma cells, showed good relative selectivity towards cancer cells, while compound 5 reversed resistance to doxorubicin and paclitaxel in concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, compounds 5, 7 and 9 could be promising candidates for treating cancers with P-gp overexpression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Immunomorphological Pattern of Molecular Chaperones in Normal and Pathological Thyroid Tissues and Circulating Exosomes: Potential Use in Clinics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184496 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The thyroid is a major component of the endocrine system and its pathology can cause serious diseases, e.g., papillary carcinoma (PC). However, the carcinogenic mechanisms are poorly understood and clinical useful biomarkers are scarce. Therefore, we determined if there are quantitative patterns of [...] Read more.
The thyroid is a major component of the endocrine system and its pathology can cause serious diseases, e.g., papillary carcinoma (PC). However, the carcinogenic mechanisms are poorly understood and clinical useful biomarkers are scarce. Therefore, we determined if there are quantitative patterns of molecular chaperones in the tumor tissue and circulating exosomes that may be useful in diagnosis and provide clues on their participation in carcinogenesis. Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 were quantified by immunohistochemistry in PC, benign goiter (BG), and normal peritumoral tissue (PT). The same chaperones were assessed in plasma exosomes from PC and BG patients before and after ablative surgery, using Western blotting. Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 were increased in PC in comparison with PT and BG but no differences were found for Hsp70. Similarly, exosomal levels of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 were higher in PC than in BG, and those in PC were higher before ablative surgery than after it. Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 show distinctive quantitative patterns in thyroid tissue and circulating exosomes in PC as compared with BG, suggesting some implication in the carcinogenesis of these chaperones and indicating their potential as biomarkers for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
The Molecular Chaperone DNAJB6, but Not DNAJB1, Suppresses the Seeded Aggregation of Alpha-Synuclein in Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184495 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) can misfold and aggregate, causing the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, as seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We recently demonstrated that DNAJB6, a co-chaperone found in Lewy bodies (LB), suppresses the aggregation of α-Syn in cells and in vitro. In this study, [...] Read more.
Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) can misfold and aggregate, causing the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, as seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We recently demonstrated that DNAJB6, a co-chaperone found in Lewy bodies (LB), suppresses the aggregation of α-Syn in cells and in vitro. In this study, we compared the capacities of DNAJB1 and DNAJB6 to suppress the seeded α-Syn aggregation in HEK293 cells expressing α-Syn tagged with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). The aggregation of α-Syn was seeded by the transfection of the cells with recombinant α-Syn pre-formed fibrils (PFFs), following the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated knockout (KO) of these two genes, respectively. We quantified the α-Syn aggregation by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. We detected significantly more aggregates in the DNAJB6 KO cells compared with the parental cells, whereas the DNAJB1 KO had no effect on the α-Syn aggregation. This is the first evidence that DNAJB6 can suppress α-Syn aggregation, induced by exogenous α-Syn seeds, in cells. Next, we explored whether this mechanism could be dependent on protein degradation pathways. We observed that the increase in the α-Syn PFF-induced aggregation in the DNAJB6 KO cells compared with the parental cells was strongly diminished upon the incubation of the cells with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. These results consolidate that DNAJB6 is a suppressor of α-Syn aggregation, and suggest that DNAJB6 may target misfolded and/or aggregated α-Syn for proteasomal degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
GRP94 Is Involved in the Lipid Phenotype of Brain Metastatic Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163883 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Metabolic adaptation may happen in response to the pressure exerted by the microenvironment and is a key step in survival of metastatic cells. Brain metastasis occurs as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of tumor cells, a fact that correlates with poor prognosis [...] Read more.
Metabolic adaptation may happen in response to the pressure exerted by the microenvironment and is a key step in survival of metastatic cells. Brain metastasis occurs as a consequence of the systemic dissemination of tumor cells, a fact that correlates with poor prognosis and high morbidity due to the difficulty in identifying biomarkers that allow a more targeted therapy. Previously, we performed transcriptomic analysis of human breast cancer patient samples and evaluated the differential expression of genes in brain metastasis (BrM) compared to lung, bone and liver metastasis. Our network approach identified upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) as well as proteins related to synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in BrM. Here we report that BrM cells show an increase in FA content and decreased saturation with regard to parental cells measured by Raman spectroscopy that differentiate BrM from other metastases. Moreover, BrM cells exerted a high ability to oxidize FA and compensate hypoglycemic stress due to an overexpression of proteins involved in FA synthesis and degradation (SREBP-1, LXRα, ACOT7). GRP94 ablation restored glucose dependence, down-regulated ACOT7 and SREBP-1 and decreased tumorigenicity in vivo. In conclusion, GRP94 is required for the metabolic stress survival of BrM cells, and it might act as a modulator of lipid metabolism to favor BrM progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
mRNA Engineering for the Efficient Chaperone-Mediated Co-Translational Folding of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133163 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
The production of soluble, functional recombinant proteins by engineered bacterial hosts is challenging. Natural molecular chaperone systems have been used to solubilize various recombinant proteins with limited success. Here, we attempted to facilitate chaperone-mediated folding by directing the molecular chaperones to their protein [...] Read more.
The production of soluble, functional recombinant proteins by engineered bacterial hosts is challenging. Natural molecular chaperone systems have been used to solubilize various recombinant proteins with limited success. Here, we attempted to facilitate chaperone-mediated folding by directing the molecular chaperones to their protein substrates before the co-translational folding process completed. To achieve this, we either anchored the bacterial chaperone DnaJ to the 3ʹ untranslated region of a target mRNA by fusing with an RNA-binding domain in the chaperone-recruiting mRNA scaffold (CRAS) system, or coupled the expression of DnaJ and a target recombinant protein using the overlapping stop-start codons 5ʹ-TAATG-3ʹ between the two genes in a chaperone-substrate co-localized expression (CLEX) system. By engineering the untranslated and intergenic sequences of the mRNA transcript, bacterial molecular chaperones are spatially constrained to the location of protein translation, expressing selected aggregation-prone proteins in their functionally active, soluble form. Our mRNA engineering methods surpassed the in-vivo solubilization efficiency of the simple DnaJ chaperone co-overexpression method, thus providing more effective tools for producing soluble therapeutic proteins and enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
The Biophysical Interaction of the Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern (DAMP) Calreticulin with the Pattern-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Lipopolysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020408 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, calreticulin (CRT), is essential for proper glycoprotein folding and maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis. During ER stress, CRT is overexpressed as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In addition, CRT can be released as a damage-associated molecular [...] Read more.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, calreticulin (CRT), is essential for proper glycoprotein folding and maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis. During ER stress, CRT is overexpressed as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In addition, CRT can be released as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that may interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) during the innate immune response. One such PAMP is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall. In this report, we show that recombinant and native human placental CRT strongly interacts with LPS in solution, solid phase, and the surface of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, LPS induces oilgomerization of CRT with a disappearance of the monomeric form. The application of recombinant CRT (rCRT) to size exclusion and anion exchange chromatography shows an atypical heterogeneous elution profile, indicating that LPS affects the conformation and ionic charge of CRT. Interestingly, LPS bound to CRT is detected in sera of bronchiectasis patients with chronic bacterial infections. By ELISA, rCRT dose-dependently bound to solid phase LPS via the N- and C-domain globular head region of CRT and the C-domain alone. The specific interaction of CRT with LPS may be important in PAMP innate immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel DnaJ Protein Facilitates Thermotolerance of Transgenic Tomatoes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020367 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
DnaJ proteins, which are molecular chaperones that are widely present in plants, can respond to various environmental stresses. At present, the function of DnaJ proteins was studied in many plant species, but only a few studies were conducted in tomato. Here, we examined [...] Read more.
DnaJ proteins, which are molecular chaperones that are widely present in plants, can respond to various environmental stresses. At present, the function of DnaJ proteins was studied in many plant species, but only a few studies were conducted in tomato. Here, we examined the functions of a novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DnaJ protein (SlDnaJ20) in heat tolerance using sense and antisense transgenic tomatoes. Transient conversion assays of Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlDnaJ20 was targeted to chloroplasts. Expression analysis showed that SlDnaJ20 expression was induced by chilling, NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and H2O2, especially via heat stress. Under heat stress, sense plants showed higher fresh weights, chlorophyll content, fluorescence (Fv/Fm), and D1 protein levels, and a lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than antisense plants. These results suggest that SlDnaJ20 overexpression can reduce the photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) by relieving ROS accumulation. Moreover, higher expression levels of HsfA1 and HsfB1 were observed under heat stress in sense plants, indicating that SlDnaJ20 overexpression contributes to HSF expression. The yeast two-hybrid system proved that SlDnaJ20 can interact with the chloroplast heat-shock protein 70. Our results indicate that SlDnaJ20 overexpression enhances the thermotolerance of transgenic tomatoes, whereas suppression of SlDnaJ20 increases the heat sensitivity of transgenic tomatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Neuromuscular Diseases Due to Chaperone Mutations: A Review and Some New Results
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041409 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Skeletal muscle and the nervous system depend on efficient protein quality control, and they express chaperones and cochaperones at high levels to maintain protein homeostasis. Mutations in many of these proteins cause neuromuscular diseases, myopathies, and hereditary motor and sensorimotor neuropathies. In this [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle and the nervous system depend on efficient protein quality control, and they express chaperones and cochaperones at high levels to maintain protein homeostasis. Mutations in many of these proteins cause neuromuscular diseases, myopathies, and hereditary motor and sensorimotor neuropathies. In this review, we cover mutations in DNAJB6, DNAJB2, αB-crystallin (CRYAB, HSPB5), HSPB1, HSPB3, HSPB8, and BAG3, and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which they cause neuromuscular disease. In addition, previously unpublished results are presented, showing downstream effects of BAG3 p.P209L on DNAJB6 turnover and localization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Mycoplasma Chaperone DnaK in Cellular Transformation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041311 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Studies of the human microbiome have elucidated an array of complex interactions between prokaryotes and their hosts. However, precise bacterial pathogen–cancer relationships remain largely elusive, although several bacteria, particularly those establishing persistent intra-cellular infections, like mycoplasmas, can alter host cell cycles, affect apoptotic [...] Read more.
Studies of the human microbiome have elucidated an array of complex interactions between prokaryotes and their hosts. However, precise bacterial pathogen–cancer relationships remain largely elusive, although several bacteria, particularly those establishing persistent intra-cellular infections, like mycoplasmas, can alter host cell cycles, affect apoptotic pathways, and stimulate the production of inflammatory substances linked to DNA damage, thus potentially promoting abnormal cell growth and transformation. Consistent with this idea, in vivo experiments in several chemically induced or genetically deficient mouse models showed that germ-free conditions reduce colonic tumor formation. We demonstrate that mycoplasma DnaK, a chaperone protein belonging to the Heath shock protein (Hsp)-70 family, binds Poly-(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-1, a protein that plays a critical role in the pathways involved in recognition of DNA damage and repair, and reduces its catalytic activity. It also binds USP10, a key p53 regulator, reducing p53 stability and anti-cancer functions. Finally, we showed that bystander, uninfected cells take up exogenous DnaK—suggesting a possible paracrine function in promoting cellular transformation, over and above direct mycoplasma infection. We propose that mycoplasmas, and perhaps certain other bacteria with closely related DnaK, may have oncogenic activity, mediated through the inhibition of DNA repair and p53 functions, and may be involved in the initiation of some cancers but not necessarily involved nor necessarily even be present in later stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
A History of Molecular Chaperone Structures in the Protein Data Bank
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246195 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Thirty years ago a class of proteins was found to prevent the aggregation of Rubisco. These proteins’ ability to prevent unwanted associations led to their being called chaperones. These chaperone proteins also increased in expression as a response to heat shock, hence their [...] Read more.
Thirty years ago a class of proteins was found to prevent the aggregation of Rubisco. These proteins’ ability to prevent unwanted associations led to their being called chaperones. These chaperone proteins also increased in expression as a response to heat shock, hence their label as heat shock proteins (Hsps). However, neither label encompasses the breadth of these proteins’ functional capabilities. The term “unfoldases” has been proposed, as this basic function is shared by most members of this protein family. Onto this is added specializations that allow the different family members to perform various cellular functions. This current article focuses on the resolved structural bases for these functions. It reviews the currently available molecular structures in the Protein Data Bank for several classes of Hsps (Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp104). When possible, it discusses the complete structures for these proteins, and the types of molecular machines to which they have been assigned. The structures of domains and the associated functions are discussed in order to illustrate the rationale for the proposed unfoldase function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Combination of Anti-Cancer Drugs with Molecular Chaperone Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215284 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Most molecular chaperones belonging to heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to protect cancer cells from pathologic, environmental and pharmacological stress factors and thereby can hamper anti-cancer therapies. In this review, we present data on inhibitors of the heat shock response (particularly [...] Read more.
Most molecular chaperones belonging to heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to protect cancer cells from pathologic, environmental and pharmacological stress factors and thereby can hamper anti-cancer therapies. In this review, we present data on inhibitors of the heat shock response (particularly mediated by the chaperones HSP90, HSP70, and HSP27) either as a single treatment or in combination with currently available anti-cancer therapeutic approaches. An overview of the current literature reveals that the co-administration of chaperone inhibitors and targeting drugs results in proteotoxic stress and violates the tumor cell physiology. An optimal drug combination should simultaneously target cytoprotective mechanisms and trigger the imbalance of the tumor cell physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Glaucoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205160 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Glaucoma, one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide, is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by damage of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration. However, the exact mechanism leading to glaucoma is still not understood. Evidences suggest an immunological involvement in [...] Read more.
Glaucoma, one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide, is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by damage of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration. However, the exact mechanism leading to glaucoma is still not understood. Evidences suggest an immunological involvement in the pathogenesis. Among other immune responses, altered autoantibody patterns were found in glaucoma patients. Especially elevated antibody levels against heat shock proteins (HSPs), like HSP27 or HSP60, were identified. In an animal model, an immunization with these HSPs induced a pressure-independent retinal ganglion cell degeneration and axon loss, hence mimicking glaucoma-like damage. In addition, development of autoreactive antibodies, as well as a glia and T-cell activation, were described in these animals. Recently, we noted that intravitreal HSP27 injection likewise led to a degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Therefore, HSP27 might have a direct damaging effect on retinal cells, and might play a key role in glaucoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Carcinogenic Chromium on the Cellular Response to Proteotoxic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194901 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Worldwide, several million workers are employed in the various chromium (Cr) industries. These workers may suffer from a variety of adverse health effects produced by dusts, mists and fumes containing Cr in the hexavalent oxidation state, Cr(VI). Of major importance, occupational exposure to [...] Read more.
Worldwide, several million workers are employed in the various chromium (Cr) industries. These workers may suffer from a variety of adverse health effects produced by dusts, mists and fumes containing Cr in the hexavalent oxidation state, Cr(VI). Of major importance, occupational exposure to Cr(VI) compounds has been firmly associated with the development of lung cancer. Counterintuitively, Cr(VI) is mostly unreactive towards most biomolecules, including nucleic acids. However, its intracellular reduction produces several species that react extensively with biomolecules. The diversity and chemical versatility of these species add great complexity to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying Cr(VI) toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a consequence, these mechanisms are still poorly understood, in spite of intensive research efforts. Here, we discuss the impact of Cr(VI) on the stress response—an intricate cellular system against proteotoxic stress which is increasingly viewed as playing a critical role in carcinogenesis. This discussion is preceded by information regarding applications, chemical properties and adverse health effects of Cr(VI). A summary of our current understanding of cancer initiation, promotion and progression is also provided, followed by a brief description of the stress response and its links to cancer and by an overview of potential molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Epigenetic Alterations of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) in Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194758 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with various physiological processes (protein refolding and degradation) involved in the responses to cellular stress, such as cytotoxic agents, high temperature, and hypoxia. HSPs are overexpressed in cancer cells and play roles in their apoptosis, invasion, proliferation, [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with various physiological processes (protein refolding and degradation) involved in the responses to cellular stress, such as cytotoxic agents, high temperature, and hypoxia. HSPs are overexpressed in cancer cells and play roles in their apoptosis, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The regulation or translational modification of HSPs is recognized as a therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs. Among the regulatory processes associated with HSP expression, the epigenetic machinery (miRNAs, histone modification, and DNA methylation) has key functions in cancer. Moreover, various epigenetic modifiers of HSP expression have also been reported as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers of cancer. Thus, in this review, we describe the epigenetic alterations of HSP expression in cancer cells and suggest that HSPs be clinically applied as diagnostic and therapeutic markers in cancer therapy via controlled epigenetic modifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Roles of Extracellular HSPs as Biomarkers in Immune Surveillance and Immune Evasion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184588 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
Extracellular heat shock proteins (ex-HSPs) have been found in exosomes, oncosomes, membrane surfaces, as well as free HSP in cancer and various pathological conditions, also known as alarmins. Such ex-HSPs include HSP90 (α, β, Gp96, Trap1), HSP70, and large and small HSPs. Production [...] Read more.
Extracellular heat shock proteins (ex-HSPs) have been found in exosomes, oncosomes, membrane surfaces, as well as free HSP in cancer and various pathological conditions, also known as alarmins. Such ex-HSPs include HSP90 (α, β, Gp96, Trap1), HSP70, and large and small HSPs. Production of HSPs is coordinately induced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), while matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and heterochromatin protein 1 are novel inducers of HSPs. Oncosomes released by tumor cells are a major aspect of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP) by which immune evasion can be established. The concepts of RASP are: (i) releases of ex-HSP and HSP-rich oncosomes are essential in RASP, by which molecular co-transfer of HSPs with oncogenic factors to recipient cells can promote cancer progression and resistance against stresses such as hypoxia, radiation, drugs, and immune systems; (ii) RASP of tumor cells can eject anticancer drugs, targeted therapeutics, and immune checkpoint inhibitors with oncosomes; (iii) cytotoxic lipids can be also released from tumor cells as RASP. ex-HSP and membrane-surface HSP (mHSP) play immunostimulatory roles recognized by CD91+ scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells-1 (SREC-1)+ Toll-like receptors (TLRs)+ antigen-presenting cells, leading to antigen cross-presentation and T cell cross-priming, as well as by CD94+ natural killer cells, leading to tumor cytolysis. On the other hand, ex-HSP/CD91 signaling in cancer cells promotes cancer progression. HSPs in body fluids are potential biomarkers detectable by liquid biopsies in cancers and tissue-damaged diseases. HSP-based vaccines, inhibitors, and RNAi therapeutics are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
HSP-Target of Therapeutic Agents in Sepsis Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174255 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Sepsis is a syndrome characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response, cellular stress, and organ injury. Sepsis is the main cause of death in intensive care units worldwide, creating need for research and new therapeutic strategies. Heat shock protein (HSP) analyses have recently been [...] Read more.
Sepsis is a syndrome characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response, cellular stress, and organ injury. Sepsis is the main cause of death in intensive care units worldwide, creating need for research and new therapeutic strategies. Heat shock protein (HSP) analyses have recently been developed in the context of sepsis. HSPs have a cytoprotection role in stress conditions, signal to immune cells, and activate the inflammatory response. Hence, HSP analyses have become an important focus in sepsis research, including the investigation of HSPs targeted by therapeutic agents used in sepsis treatment. Many therapeutic agents have been tested, and their HSP modulation showed promising results. Nonetheless, the heterogeneity in experimental designs and the diversity in therapeutic agents used make it difficult to understand their efficacy in sepsis treatment. Therefore, future investigations should include the analysis of parameters related to the early and late immune response in sepsis, HSP localization (intra or extracellular), and time to the onset of treatment after sepsis. They also should consider the differences in experimental sepsis models. In this review, we present the main results of studies on therapeutic agents in targeting HSPs in sepsis treatment. We also discuss limitations and possibilities for future investigations regarding HSP modulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Fine Tuning: Effects of Post-Translational Modification on Hsp70 Chaperones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174207 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
The discovery of heat shock proteins shaped our view of protein folding in the cell. Since their initial discovery, chaperone proteins were identified in all domains of life, demonstrating their vital and conserved functional roles in protein homeostasis. Chaperone proteins maintain proper protein [...] Read more.
The discovery of heat shock proteins shaped our view of protein folding in the cell. Since their initial discovery, chaperone proteins were identified in all domains of life, demonstrating their vital and conserved functional roles in protein homeostasis. Chaperone proteins maintain proper protein folding in the cell by utilizing a variety of distinct, characteristic mechanisms to prevent aberrant intermolecular interactions, prevent protein aggregation, and lower entropic costs to allow for protein refolding. Continued study has found that chaperones may exhibit alternative functions, including maintaining protein folding during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) import and chaperone-mediated degradation, among others. Alternative chaperone functions are frequently controlled by post-translational modification, in which a given chaperone can switch between functions through covalent modification. This review will focus on the Hsp70 class chaperones and their Hsp40 co-chaperones, specifically highlighting the importance of post-translational control of chaperones. These modifications may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of diseases of protein misfolding and aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
The Complex Phosphorylation Patterns That Regulate the Activity of Hsp70 and Its Cochaperones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174122 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Proteins must fold into their native structure and maintain it during their lifespan to display the desired activity. To ensure proper folding and stability, and avoid generation of misfolded conformations that can be potentially cytotoxic, cells synthesize a wide variety of molecular chaperones [...] Read more.
Proteins must fold into their native structure and maintain it during their lifespan to display the desired activity. To ensure proper folding and stability, and avoid generation of misfolded conformations that can be potentially cytotoxic, cells synthesize a wide variety of molecular chaperones that assist folding of other proteins and avoid their aggregation, which unfortunately is unavoidable under acute stress conditions. A protein machinery in metazoa, composed of representatives of the Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp110 chaperone families, can reactivate protein aggregates. We revised herein the phosphorylation sites found so far in members of these chaperone families and the functional consequences associated with some of them. We also discuss how phosphorylation might regulate the chaperone activity and the interaction of human Hsp70 with its accessory and client proteins. Finally, we present the information that would be necessary to decrypt the effect that post-translational modifications, and especially phosphorylation, could have on the biological activity of the Hsp70 system, known as the “chaperone code”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
14-3-3 Proteins Are on the Crossroads of Cancer, Aging, and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143518 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory adaptor molecules which are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. These proteins participate in a variety of intracellular processes by recognizing specific phosphorylation motifs and interacting with hundreds of target proteins. Also, 14-3-3 proteins act as [...] Read more.
14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory adaptor molecules which are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. These proteins participate in a variety of intracellular processes by recognizing specific phosphorylation motifs and interacting with hundreds of target proteins. Also, 14-3-3 proteins act as molecular chaperones, preventing the aggregation of unfolded proteins under conditions of cellular stress. Furthermore, 14-3-3 proteins have been shown to have similar expression patterns in tumors, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we put forward the idea that the adaptor activity and chaperone-like activity of 14-3-3 proteins might play a substantial role in the above-mentioned conditions. Interestingly, 14-3-3 proteins are considered to be standing at the crossroads of cancer, aging, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. There are great possibilities to improve the above-mentioned diseases and conditions through intervention in the activity of the 14-3-3 protein family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
The Physics of Entropic Pulling: A Novel Model for the Hsp70 Motor Mechanism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092334 - 11 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
Hsp70s use ATP to generate forces that disassemble protein complexes and aggregates, and that translocate proteins into organelles. Entropic pulling has been proposed as a novel mechanism, distinct from the more familiar power-stroke and Brownian ratchet models, for how Hsp70s generate these forces. [...] Read more.
Hsp70s use ATP to generate forces that disassemble protein complexes and aggregates, and that translocate proteins into organelles. Entropic pulling has been proposed as a novel mechanism, distinct from the more familiar power-stroke and Brownian ratchet models, for how Hsp70s generate these forces. Experimental evidence supports entropic pulling, but this model may not be well understood among scientists studying these systems. In this review we address persistent misconceptions regarding the dynamics of proteins in solution that contribute to this lack of understanding, and we clarify the basic physics of entropic pulling with some simple analogies. We hope that increased understanding of the entropic pulling mechanism will inform future efforts to characterize how Hsp70s function as motors, and how they coordinate with their regulatory cochaperones in mechanochemical cycles that transduce the energy of ATP hydrolysis into physical changes in their protein substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones 2.0)
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