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Special Issue "Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sanjay K. K. Srivastava

1. Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology, Suite 1305, 1718 Pine Street, Abilene, TX 79601, USA
2. Associate Dean for Sciences, Suite 2101 ARB, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1406 Coulter Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: development of phytochemicals for cancer prevention and therapeutics; targeting STAT-3, NF-kB, HER2, MCL-1, AKT/FOXO, GLI1/2, and related signaling pathways with agents such as capsaicin, piperlongumine, penfluridol, isothiocyanates, diindolylmethane, panabinostat, cucurbitacin B, and deguelin in pancreatic, ovarian, breast, melanoma, and brain cancer; drug repurposing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sung-Hoon Kim

Department of Oriental Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyunghee University, Seoul, South Korea
E-Mail
Interests: development of chemopreventive cancer agents (metastasis and angiogenesis inhibitors) and functional food (pharmaceuticals); isolation of effective compounds for the prevention or treatment of kidney stones from medicinal herbs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants have been an important source of bioactive phytochemicals since historic times. Phytochemicals are synthesized by plants as their defensive mechanisms. Several epidemiological studies indicate inverse correlation between intake of specific plant foods and cancer incidence. Thousands of phytochemicals have been identified to date, but only a few have been explored in depth for their beneficial roles. Phytochemicals available from dietary plant sources can be classified based on their chemical structures. For example, isothiocyanates, indoles, carotenoids, flavonoids, isoflavones, terpenoids are some of the major classes studied for their anti-cancer effects. Phytochemicals are considered to be advantageous over current chemotherapeutic options available. This is because cancer etiology involves multiple mechanisms, and phytochemicals, being pleiotropic, can counter more pro-carcinogenic mechanisms. Moreover, being a component of dietary plants, phytochemicals are also relatively non-toxic and generally have broader safety windows. This special issue has been envisaged to document studies on well-known phytochemicals and their role in cancer prevention. The articles in this issue are contributed by eminent researchers in the field of cancer chemoprevention, all around the world. This issue will be beneficial to all the basic, clinical and applied researchers and physicians interested in cancer chemoprevention.

Prof. Dr. Sanjay K. Srivastava
Prof. Dr. Sung-Hoon Kim
Guest Editors

Prof. Dr. Sanjay K. Srivastava Prof. Dr. Sung-Hoon Kim

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • chemoprevention
  • phytochemicals
  • dietary agents
  • functional foods
  • bioactive agents
  • anti-cancer
  • molecular mechanism
  • signaling mechanism
  • cell cycle
  • apoptosis

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I from the Functional Food Salvia miltiorrhiza Exhibits Anticancer Activity in Human HL-60 Leukemia Cells: in Vitro and in Vivo Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19387-19400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160819387
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS) is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge which is a functional food in Asia. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of DHTS on the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type III HL-60 cell line. We found that treatment with [...] Read more.
15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS) is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge which is a functional food in Asia. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of DHTS on the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type III HL-60 cell line. We found that treatment with 1.5 μg/mL DHTS increased proapoptotic Bax and Bad protein expressions and activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, thus leading to poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and resulting in cell apoptosis. DHTS induced sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Fas ligand (FasL) expression. The anti-Fas blocking antibody reversed the DHTS-induced cell death, and the JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, inhibited DHTS-induced caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARP cleavage. In a xenograft nude mice model, 25 mg/kg DHTS showed a great effect in attenuating HL-60 tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that DHTS can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibit HL-60 cell growth in vivo; the underlying mechanisms might be mediated through activation of the JNK and FasL signal pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits Colon Cancer by Regulating Cancer Cell Stemness in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9976-9997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059976
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rare subpopulation of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), may be responsible for tumor relapse and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The development of a non-toxic, natural treatment for the elimination of CSCs is considered a strategy for cancer treatment with minimal [...] Read more.
A rare subpopulation of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), may be responsible for tumor relapse and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The development of a non-toxic, natural treatment for the elimination of CSCs is considered a strategy for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. In the present study, the potential for Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) and its two bioactive compounds, tricin and p-coumaric acid, to exert anti-CSC effects by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics were evaluated in colon cancer cells. CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HT29 and HCT116 cell lines using flow-activated cell sorting (FACs). SQE treatment was found to significantly suppress the self-renewal capacity of both cell lines. SQE treatment was also associated with the down-regulation of β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3β, while significantly enhancing cell differentiation by up-regulating CK20 expression and blocking the expression of several stem cell markers, including DLK1, Notch1, and Sox-2. In vivo, SQE supplementation suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model by down-regulating stem cell markers and β-catenin as well as HIF-1α signaling. Compared with two bioactive compounds of SQE, SQE exhibited the most effective anti-CSC properties. Taken together, these results provide evidence that SQE inhibits colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of CSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Autophagy Induction by Silibinin Positively Contributes to Its Anti-Metastatic Capacity via AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8415-8429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16048415
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (4011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silibinin, a dietary cancer chemopreventive flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to exhibit anti-metastatic effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role [...] Read more.
Silibinin, a dietary cancer chemopreventive flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to exhibit anti-metastatic effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in regulating silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells. Using RCC ACHN and 786-O cells as a model system in vitro, we found that silibinin treatment increased the expression of LC3-II, resulted in the formation of autophagolysosome vacuoles, and caused a punctate fluorescence pattern with the monomeric red fluorescence protein-enhanced green fluorescence protein-LC3 (mRFP-EGFP-LC3) protein, which all are markers for cellular autophagy. Autophagy flux was induced by silibinin in RCC cells, as determined by LC3 turnover assay. Mechanically, the adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was identified as involved in regulation of silibinin-induced autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy induction was demonstrated to positively contribute to silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells in vitro. Activation of autophagy enhanced silibinin-induced inhibition of migration and invasion of RCC cells, while inhibition of autophagy attenuated it. These findings thus provide new information about the potential link between autophagy and metastasis inhibition induced by silibinin, and the induction of autophagy may shed some light into future treatment strategies for metastatic RCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7861-7875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047861
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria [...] Read more.
Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus) Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collection standard and clinically isolated bacterial strains, and three fungal strains. Both showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains and matched clinical isolates, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus from standard and clinical sources. Among the fungi tested, Rhizoctonia solani was the most sensitive. The antiproliferative effects of the extract and parietin were also investigated in human breast cancer cells. The extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, both effects being accompanied by modulation of expression of cell cycle regulating genes such as p16, p27, cyclin D1 and cyclin A. It also mediated apoptosis by activating extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, modulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and inducing Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Xanthoria parietina is a major potential source of antimicrobial and anticancer substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Induces Apoptosis via Reduction of COX-2 Expression in TPA-Induced HT-29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7577-7586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047577
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is one of the bioactive compounds found in cheonggukjang, a fast-fermented soybean paste widely utilized in Korean cooking. PGA is reported to have a number of beneficial health effects, and interestingly, it has been identified as a possible anti-cancer [...] Read more.
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is one of the bioactive compounds found in cheonggukjang, a fast-fermented soybean paste widely utilized in Korean cooking. PGA is reported to have a number of beneficial health effects, and interestingly, it has been identified as a possible anti-cancer compound through its ability to promote apoptosis in cancer cells, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our findings demonstrate that PGA inhibits the pro-proliferative functions of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a known chemical carcinogen in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. This inhibition was accompanied by hallmark apoptotic phenotypes, including DNA fragmentation and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. In addition, PGA treatment reduced the expression of genes known to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Lastly, PGA promoted activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMPK) in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PGA treatment enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, in part by modulating the activity of the COX-2 and AMPK signaling pathways. These anti-cancer functions of PGA make it a promising compound for future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Displays Anti-Inflammatory Responses during Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumorigenesis through Simultaneous and Differential Regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2426-2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16022426
Received: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trianthema portulacastrum, a medicinal and dietary plant, has gained substantial importance due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. We have recently reported that a characterized T. portulacastrum extract (TPE) affords a considerable chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis [...] Read more.
Trianthema portulacastrum, a medicinal and dietary plant, has gained substantial importance due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. We have recently reported that a characterized T. portulacastrum extract (TPE) affords a considerable chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis though the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TPE during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in rats by monitoring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumors were harvested from our previous study in which TPE (50–200 mg/kg) was found to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of intratumor COX-2, HSP90, NF-κB, inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IκBα) and Nrf2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. TPE downregulated the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, blocked the degradation of IκBα, hampered the translocation of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus and upregulated the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis. These results in conjunction with our previous findings suggest that TPE prevents DMBA-induced breast neoplasia by anti-inflammatory mechanisms mediated through simultaneous and differential modulation of two interconnected molecular circuits, namely NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Morin, a Flavonoid from Moraceae, Induces Apoptosis by Induction of BAD Protein in Human Leukemic Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 645-659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010645
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence suggests that phytochemicals can safely modulate cancer cell biology and induce apoptosis. Here, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of morin, a flavone originally isolated from members of the Moraceae family in human leukemic cells, focusing on apoptosis. An anti-cancer effect of morin [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that phytochemicals can safely modulate cancer cell biology and induce apoptosis. Here, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of morin, a flavone originally isolated from members of the Moraceae family in human leukemic cells, focusing on apoptosis. An anti-cancer effect of morin was screened with several human leukemic cell lines. U937 cells were most sensitive to morin, where it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. It also induced loss of MMP (ΔΨm) along with cytochrome c release, down-regulated Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulated BAX proteins. The apoptotic activity of morin was significantly attenuated by Bcl-2 augmentation. In conclusion, morin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through an intrinsic pathway by upregulating BAD proteins. In addition, Bcl-2 protein expression is also important in morin-induced apoptosis of U937 cells. This study provides evidence that morin might have anticancer properties in human leukemic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Soy and Breast Cancer: Focus on Angiogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11728-11749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160511728
Received: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have revealed that high consumption of soy products is associated with low incidences of hormone-dependent cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Soybeans contain large amounts of isoflavones, such as the genistein and daidzain. Previously, it has been demonstrated that genistein, one [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have revealed that high consumption of soy products is associated with low incidences of hormone-dependent cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Soybeans contain large amounts of isoflavones, such as the genistein and daidzain. Previously, it has been demonstrated that genistein, one of the predominant soy isoflavones, can inhibit several steps involved in carcinogenesis. It is suggested that genistein possesses pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of action including inhibition of tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerase II, 5α-reductase, galectin-induced G2/M arrest, protein histidine kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases, modulation of different signaling pathways associated with the growth of cancer cells (e.g., NF-κB, Akt, MAPK), etc. Moreover, genistein is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is considered as a key step in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Genistein was found to inhibit angiogenesis through regulation of multiple pathways, such as regulation of VEGF, MMPs, EGFR expressions and NF-κB, PI3-K/Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby causing strong antiangiogenic effects. This review focuses on the antiangiogenic properties of soy isoflavonoids and examines their possible underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10907-10920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160510907
Received: 19 February 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, [...] Read more.
The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Combinations of Polyphenols, or Polyphenols and Anticancer Drugs: Perspectives on Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9236-9282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059236
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
Cited by 100 | PDF Full-text (1256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all [...] Read more.
Carcinogenesis is a multistep process triggered by genetic alterations that activate different signal transduction pathways and cause the progressive transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. Polyphenols, compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, all of which are beneficial to human health. Due to their ability to modulate the activity of multiple targets involved in carcinogenesis through direct interaction or modulation of gene expression, polyphenols can be employed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, the main problem related to the use of polyphenols as anticancer agents is their poor bioavailability, which might hinder the in vivo effects of the single compound. In fact, polyphenols have a poor absorption and biodistribution, but also a fast metabolism and excretion in the human body. The poor bioavailability of a polyphenol will affect the effective dose delivered to cancer cells. One way to counteract this drawback could be combination treatment with different polyphenols or with polyphenols and other anti-cancer drugs, which can lead to more effective antitumor effects than treatment using only one of the compounds. This report reviews current knowledge on the anticancer effects of combinations of polyphenols or polyphenols and anticancer drugs, with a focus on their ability to modulate multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Chemopreventive Potential of Green Tea Catechins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6124-6139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16036124
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a common malignancy worldwide, usually develops in a cirrhotic liver due to hepatitis virus infection. Metabolic syndrome, which is frequently complicated by obesity and diabetes mellitus, is also a critical risk factor for liver carcinogenesis. Green tea catechins [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a common malignancy worldwide, usually develops in a cirrhotic liver due to hepatitis virus infection. Metabolic syndrome, which is frequently complicated by obesity and diabetes mellitus, is also a critical risk factor for liver carcinogenesis. Green tea catechins (GTCs) may possess potent anticancer and chemopreventive properties for a number of different malignancies, including liver cancer. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are key mechanisms through which GTCs prevent the development of neoplasms, and they also exert cancer chemopreventive effects by modulating several signaling transduction and metabolic pathways. Furthermore, GTCs are considered to be useful for the prevention of obesity- and metabolic syndrome-related carcinogenesis by improving metabolic disorders. Several interventional trials in humans have shown that GTCs may ameliorate metabolic abnormalities and prevent the development of precancerous lesions. The purpose of this article is to review the key mechanisms by which GTCs exert chemopreventive effects in liver carcinogenesis, focusing especially on their ability to inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases and improve metabolic abnormalities. We also review the evidence for GTCs acting to prevent metabolic syndrome-associated liver carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3350-3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023350
Received: 9 January 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
Cited by 76 | PDF Full-text (1969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Potential Application of Curcumin and Its Analogues in the Treatment Strategy of Patients with Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 21703-21722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151221703
Received: 22 October 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid [...] Read more.
Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin—A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21505-21537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151121505
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food [...] Read more.
Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals in Functional Foods for Cancer Prevention)
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