ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 44385

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Malaga, 29010 Malaga, Spain
Interests: adult hippocampal neurogenesis; addiction; behavior
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since Altman and Das (1965) first reported on the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult rats, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) has remained as an exciting and a prolific topic of investigation, because modulating AHN may provide a valuable opportunity to restore or potentiate hippocampal function. Preclinical research has generally linked a reduced AHN to impaired cognitive–emotional regulation and vulnerability to disease, while an increased AHN is associated with improved hippocampal functioning and resilience to adverse events. Nevertheless, recent reports show that aberrantly increased AHN aggravates the outcome of brain injury conditions; suggesting that the incorporation of AHN to the hippocampal circuits is a complex phenomenon, in which multiple modulatory factors may determine an advantageous or a disadvantageous outcome.

As the adult-born neuron originates from the neural progenitor cell in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, abundant molecular factors may regulate its proliferation, differentiation, functional maturation, and/or survival in different ways. These factors include neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, and inflammatory mediators, which may be triggered by neurological (brain insults, degenerative diseases, etc.), pharmacological (antidepressants, drugs of abuse, etc.), or environmental (novel stimuli, exercise, stress, learning opportunities, social interaction, etc.) events.

This Special Issue aims to exhibit the latest preclinical and clinical research findings regarding the molecular factors that regulate AHN and/or its function in both health and disease conditions. Original research articles, short communications, and review manuscripts on the latest literature will be considered. While this Issue strongly focuses on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, novel research on adult neurogenesis in other brain areas is also welcome.

We welcome your participation to this Special Issue.

Dr. Estela Castilla Ortega
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Adult hippocampal neurogenesis
  • Cell proliferation, survival, and/or differentiation
  • Animals and humans
  • In vitro and in vivo
  • Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
  • Neurotrophins
  • Growth factors
  • Hormones
  • Inflammation
  • Pharmacological modulation
  • CNS pathology
  • Environmental enrichment, exercise
  • Learning and memory
  • Emotion, depression, and stress
  • Addiction
  • Aging
  • Sex differences
  • Others

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Cell Cycle Regulation of Hippocampal Progenitor Cells in Experimental Models of Depression and after Treatment with Fluoxetine
by Patrícia Patrício, António Mateus-Pinheiro, Ana Rita Machado-Santos, Nuno Dinis Alves, Joana Sofia Correia, Mónica Morais, João Miguel Bessa, Ana João Rodrigues, Nuno Sousa and Luísa Pinto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111798 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Changes in adult hippocampal cell proliferation and genesis have been largely implicated in depression and antidepressant action, though surprisingly, the underlying cell cycle mechanisms are largely undisclosed. Using both an in vivo unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) rat model of depression and in [...] Read more.
Changes in adult hippocampal cell proliferation and genesis have been largely implicated in depression and antidepressant action, though surprisingly, the underlying cell cycle mechanisms are largely undisclosed. Using both an in vivo unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) rat model of depression and in vitro rat hippocampal-derived neurosphere culture approaches, we aimed to unravel the cell cycle mechanisms regulating hippocampal cell proliferation and genesis in depression and after antidepressant treatment. We show that the hippocampal dentate gyrus (hDG) of uCMS animals have less proliferating cells and a decreased proportion of cells in the G2/M phase, suggesting a G1 phase arrest; this is accompanied by decreased levels of cyclin D1, E, and A expression. Chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed the G1 phase arrest and promoted an up-regulation of cyclin E. In vitro, dexamethasone (DEX) decreased cell proliferation, whereas the administration of serotonin (5-HT) reversed it. DEX also induced a G1-phase arrest and decreased cyclin D1 and D2 expression levels while increasing p27. Additionally, 5-HT treatment could partly reverse the G1-phase arrest and restored cyclin D1 expression. We suggest that the anti-proliferative actions of chronic stress in the hDG result from a glucocorticoid-mediated G1-phase arrest in the progenitor cells that is partly mediated by decreased cyclin D1 expression which may be overcome by antidepressant treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2579 KiB  
Communication
Decline in Constitutive Proliferative Activity in the Zebrafish Retina with Ageing
by Ismael Hernández-Núñez, Ana Quelle-Regaldie, Laura Sánchez, Fátima Adrio, Eva Candal and Antón Barreiro-Iglesias
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111715 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
It is largely assumed that the teleost retina shows continuous and active proliferative and neurogenic activity throughout life. However, when delving into the teleost literature, one finds that assumptions about a highly active and continuous proliferation in the adult retina are based on [...] Read more.
It is largely assumed that the teleost retina shows continuous and active proliferative and neurogenic activity throughout life. However, when delving into the teleost literature, one finds that assumptions about a highly active and continuous proliferation in the adult retina are based on studies in which proliferation was not quantified in a comparative way at the different life stages or was mainly studied in juveniles/young adults. Here, we performed a systematic and comparative study of the constitutive proliferative activity of the retina from early developing (2 days post-fertilisation) to aged (up to 3–4 years post-fertilisation) zebrafish. The mitotic activity and cell cycle progression were analysed by using immunofluorescence against pH3 and PCNA, respectively. We observed a decline in the cell proliferation in the retina with ageing despite the occurrence of a wave of secondary proliferation during sexual maturation. During this wave of secondary proliferation, the distribution of proliferating and mitotic cells changes from the inner to the outer nuclear layer in the central retina. Importantly, in aged zebrafish, there is a virtual disappearance of mitotic activity. Our results showing a decline in the proliferative activity of the zebrafish retina with ageing are of crucial importance since it is generally assumed that the fish retina has continuous proliferative activity throughout life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3983 KiB  
Article
Short Daily Exposure to Environmental Enrichment, Fluoxetine, or Their Combination Reverses Deterioration of the Coat and Anhedonia Behaviors with Differential Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Chronically Stressed Mice
by Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, David Meneses-San Juan, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Erika Montserrat Estrada-Camarena and Mónica Flores-Ramos
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010976 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a high impact on the worldwide population. To overcome depression, antidepressant drugs are the first line of treatment. However, pre-clinical studies have pointed out that antidepressants are not entirely efficacious and that the quality of the living [...] Read more.
Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a high impact on the worldwide population. To overcome depression, antidepressant drugs are the first line of treatment. However, pre-clinical studies have pointed out that antidepressants are not entirely efficacious and that the quality of the living environment after stress cessation may play a relevant role in increasing their efficacy. As it is unknown whether a short daily exposure to environmental enrichment during chronic stress and antidepressant treatment will be more effective than just the pharmacological treatment, this study analyzed the effects of fluoxetine, environmental enrichment, and their combination on depressive-associated behavior. Additionally, we investigated hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to chronic mild stress. Our results indicate that fluoxetine reversed anhedonia. Besides, fluoxetine reversed the decrement of some events of the hippocampal neurogenic process caused by chronic mild stress. Conversely, short daily exposure to environmental enrichment changed the deterioration of the coat and anhedonia. Although, this environmental intervention did not produce significant changes in the neurogenic process affected by chronic mild stress, fluoxetine plus environmental enrichment showed similar effects to those caused by environmental enrichment to reverse depressive-like behaviors. Like fluoxetine, the combination reversed the declining number of Ki67, doublecortin, calretinin cells and mature newborn neurons. Finally, this study suggests that short daily exposure to environmental enrichment improves the effects of fluoxetine to reverse the deterioration of the coat and anhedonia in chronically stressed mice. In addition, the combination of fluoxetine with environmental enrichment produces more significant effects than those caused by fluoxetine alone on some events of the neurogenic process. Thus, environmental enrichment improves the benefits of pharmacological treatment by mechanisms that need to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Effects of Brain Size on Adult Neurogenesis in Shrews
by Katarzyna Bartkowska, Krzysztof Turlejski, Beata Tepper, Leszek Rychlik, Peter Vogel and Ruzanna Djavadian
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147664 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Shrews are small animals found in many different habitats. Like other mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. We asked whether the number of new generated cells in [...] Read more.
Shrews are small animals found in many different habitats. Like other mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. We asked whether the number of new generated cells in shrews depends on their brain size. We examined Crocidura russula and Neomys fodiens, weighing 10–22 g, and Crocidura olivieri and Suncus murinus that weigh three times more. We found that the density of proliferated cells in the SVZ was approximately at the same level in all species. These cells migrated from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). In this pathway, a low level of neurogenesis occurred in C. olivieri compared to three other species of shrews. In the DG, the rate of adult neurogenesis was regulated differently. Specifically, the lowest density of newly generated neurons was observed in C. russula, which had a substantial number of new neurons in the OB compared with C. olivieri. We suggest that the number of newly generated neurons in an adult shrew’s brain is independent of the brain size, and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis appeared to be different in two neurogenic structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Remapping of Adult-Born Neuron Activity during Fear Memory Consolidation in Mice
by Pablo Vergara, Deependra Kumar, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Iyo Koyanagi, Toshie Naoi, Sima Singh and Masanori Sakaguchi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062874 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 3503
Abstract
The mammalian hippocampal dentate gyrus is a unique memory circuit in which a subset of neurons is continuously generated throughout the lifespan. Previous studies have shown that the dentate gyrus neuronal population can hold fear memory traces (i.e., engrams) and that adult-born neurons [...] Read more.
The mammalian hippocampal dentate gyrus is a unique memory circuit in which a subset of neurons is continuously generated throughout the lifespan. Previous studies have shown that the dentate gyrus neuronal population can hold fear memory traces (i.e., engrams) and that adult-born neurons (ABNs) support this process. However, it is unclear whether ABNs themselves hold fear memory traces. Therefore, we analyzed ABN activity at a population level across a fear conditioning paradigm. We found that fear learning did not recruit a distinct ABN population. In sharp contrast, a completely different ABN population was recruited during fear memory retrieval. We further provide evidence that ABN population activity remaps over time during the consolidation period. These results suggest that ABNs support the establishment of a fear memory trace in a different manner to directly holding the memory. Moreover, this activity remapping process in ABNs may support the segregation of memories formed at different times. These results provide new insight into the role of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian memory system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

48 pages, 895 KiB  
Review
Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Hippocampal Neurogenesis: A Review of Physiological Mechanisms and Interventions
by Melanie J. Sekeres, Meenakshie Bradley-Garcia, Alonso Martinez-Canabal and Gordon Winocur
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312697 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4901
Abstract
A wide range of cognitive deficits, including memory loss associated with hippocampal dysfunction, have been widely reported in cancer survivors who received chemotherapy. Changes in both white matter and gray matter volume have been observed following chemotherapy treatment, with reduced volume in the [...] Read more.
A wide range of cognitive deficits, including memory loss associated with hippocampal dysfunction, have been widely reported in cancer survivors who received chemotherapy. Changes in both white matter and gray matter volume have been observed following chemotherapy treatment, with reduced volume in the medial temporal lobe thought to be due in part to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Pre-clinical rodent models confirm that common chemotherapeutic agents used to treat various forms of non-CNS cancers reduce rates of hippocampal neurogenesis and impair performance on hippocampally-mediated learning and memory tasks. We review the pre-clinical rodent literature to identify how various chemotherapeutic drugs affect hippocampal neurogenesis and induce cognitive impairment. We also review factors such as physical exercise and environmental stimulation that may protect against chemotherapy-induced neurogenic suppression and hippocampal neurotoxicity. Finally, we review pharmacological interventions that target the hippocampus and are designed to prevent or reduce the cognitive and neurotoxic side effects of chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3923 KiB  
Review
The Entorhinal Cortex and Adult Neurogenesis in Major Depression
by Il Bin Kim and Seon-Cheol Park
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111725 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5230
Abstract
Depression is characterized by impairments in adult neurogenesis. Reduced hippocampal function, which is suggestive of neurogenesis impairments, is associated with depression-related phenotypes. As adult neurogenesis operates in an activity-dependent manner, disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in depression may be a consequence of neural circuitry [...] Read more.
Depression is characterized by impairments in adult neurogenesis. Reduced hippocampal function, which is suggestive of neurogenesis impairments, is associated with depression-related phenotypes. As adult neurogenesis operates in an activity-dependent manner, disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in depression may be a consequence of neural circuitry impairments. In particular, the entorhinal cortex is known to have a regulatory effect on the neural circuitry related to hippocampal function and adult neurogenesis. However, a comprehensive understanding of how disruption of the neural circuitry can lead to neurogenesis impairments in depression remains unclear with respect to the regulatory role of the entorhinal cortex. This review highlights recent findings suggesting neural circuitry-regulated neurogenesis, with a focus on the potential role of the entorhinal cortex in hippocampal neurogenesis in depression-related cognitive and emotional phenotypes. Taken together, these findings may provide a better understanding of the entorhinal cortex-regulated hippocampal neurogenesis model of depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

40 pages, 16242 KiB  
Review
Adult Neurogenesis: A Story Ranging from Controversial New Neurogenic Areas and Human Adult Neurogenesis to Molecular Regulation
by Perla Leal-Galicia, María Elena Chávez-Hernández, Florencia Mata, Jesús Mata-Luévanos, Luis Miguel Rodríguez-Serrano, Alejandro Tapia-de-Jesús and Mario Humberto Buenrostro-Jáuregui
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111489 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6185
Abstract
The generation of new neurons in the adult brain is a currently accepted phenomenon. Over the past few decades, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been described as the two main neurogenic niches. Neurogenic niches generate new neurons through an [...] Read more.
The generation of new neurons in the adult brain is a currently accepted phenomenon. Over the past few decades, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been described as the two main neurogenic niches. Neurogenic niches generate new neurons through an asymmetric division process involving several developmental steps. This process occurs throughout life in several species, including humans. These new neurons possess unique properties that contribute to the local circuitry. Despite several efforts, no other neurogenic zones have been observed in many years; the lack of observation is probably due to technical issues. However, in recent years, more brain niches have been described, once again breaking the current paradigms. Currently, a debate in the scientific community about new neurogenic areas of the brain, namely, human adult neurogenesis, is ongoing. Thus, several open questions regarding new neurogenic niches, as well as this phenomenon in adult humans, their functional relevance, and their mechanisms, remain to be answered. In this review, we discuss the literature and provide a compressive overview of the known neurogenic zones, traditional zones, and newly described zones. Additionally, we will review the regulatory roles of some molecular mechanisms, such as miRNAs, neurotrophic factors, and neurotrophins. We also join the debate on human adult neurogenesis, and we will identify similarities and differences in the literature and summarize the knowledge regarding these interesting topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 2219 KiB  
Review
Early Consumption of Cannabinoids: From Adult Neurogenesis to Behavior
by Citlalli Netzahualcoyotzi, Luis Miguel Rodríguez-Serrano, María Elena Chávez-Hernández and Mario Humberto Buenrostro-Jáuregui
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147450 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3509
Abstract
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a crucial modulatory system in which interest has been increasing, particularly regarding the regulation of behavior and neuroplasticity. The adolescent–young adulthood phase of development comprises a critical period in the maturation of the nervous system and the ECS. [...] Read more.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a crucial modulatory system in which interest has been increasing, particularly regarding the regulation of behavior and neuroplasticity. The adolescent–young adulthood phase of development comprises a critical period in the maturation of the nervous system and the ECS. Neurogenesis occurs in discrete regions of the adult brain, and this process is linked to the modulation of some behaviors. Since marijuana (cannabis) is the most consumed illegal drug globally and the highest consumption rate is observed during adolescence, it is of particular importance to understand the effects of ECS modulation in these early stages of adulthood. Thus, in this article, we sought to summarize recent evidence demonstrating the role of the ECS and exogenous cannabinoid consumption in the adolescent–young adulthood period; elucidate the effects of exogenous cannabinoid consumption on adult neurogenesis; and describe some essential and adaptive behaviors, such as stress, anxiety, learning, and memory. The data summarized in this work highlight the relevance of maintaining balance in the endocannabinoid modulatory system in the early and adult stages of life. Any ECS disturbance may induce significant modifications in the genesis of new neurons and may consequently modify behavioral outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

49 pages, 1779 KiB  
Review
Stress-Related Dysfunction of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis—An Attempt for Understanding Resilience?
by Julia Leschik, Beat Lutz and Antonietta Gentile
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147339 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6619
Abstract
Newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic cues. It is well accepted that elevated glucocorticoid levels lead to downregulation of adult neurogenesis, which this review discusses as one reason why psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, develop [...] Read more.
Newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic cues. It is well accepted that elevated glucocorticoid levels lead to downregulation of adult neurogenesis, which this review discusses as one reason why psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, develop after long-term stress exposure. In reverse, adult neurogenesis has been suggested to protect against stress-induced major depression, and hence, could serve as a resilience mechanism. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge about the functional relation of adult neurogenesis and stress in health and disease. A special focus will lie on the mechanisms underlying the cascades of events from prolonged high glucocorticoid concentrations to reduced numbers of newborn neurons. In addition to neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor dysregulation, these mechanisms include immunomodulatory pathways, as well as microbiota changes influencing the gut-brain axis. Finally, we discuss recent findings delineating the role of adult neurogenesis in stress resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2541 KiB  
Review
Mitochondrial and Autophagic Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis in the Healthy and Diseased Brain
by Hansruedi Büeler
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073342 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3883
Abstract
Adult neurogenesis is a highly regulated process during which new neurons are generated from neural stem cells in two discrete regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. [...] Read more.
Adult neurogenesis is a highly regulated process during which new neurons are generated from neural stem cells in two discrete regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Defects of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline and dysfunction during natural aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychological stress-induced mood disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that regulate adult neurogenesis is crucial to improving preventative measures and therapies for these conditions. Accumulating evidence shows that mitochondria directly regulate various steps and phases of adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes recent findings on how mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and reactive oxygen species control several aspects of adult neural stem cell function and their differentiation to newborn neurons. It also discusses the importance of autophagy for adult neurogenesis, and how mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction may contribute to cognitive defects and stress-induced mood disorders by compromising adult neurogenesis. Finally, I suggest possible ways to target mitochondrial function as a strategy for stem cell-based interventions and treatments for cognitive and mood disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop