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Natural Antimicrobial Peptides: Hope for New Antibiotic Lead Molecules

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 2757

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Interests: antimicrobial agents; antimicrobial peptides; biomolecular chemistry; peptidomimetics; peptide synthesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The alarming spread of antibiotic resistance has become a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. In this context, the development of new antimicrobial agents targeting hitherto unexploited bacterial targets and machineries has become a global priority. With their activities against a large number of clinically important pathogenic bacteria including several multidrug resistant strains and their wide range of different modes of action, antimicrobials peptides are amongst the most promising lead molecules. As their modes of action generally differ from those exploited by antibiotics currently in use, antimicrobial peptides are increasingly considered promising alternatives to antibiotics in the pharmaceutical, veterinary, and medical sectors.

Based on their enormous potential, a growing number of researchers are developing novel approaches to discover and produce antimicrobial peptides and strategies to optimize their pharmacological properties, improve their pharmacokinetic profile, and modify their spectrum of activity.

Thus, this Special Issue entitled ‘Natural Antimicrobial Peptides: Hope for New Antibiotic Lead Molecules’ will discuss the recent advances in the discovery, study, and development of antimicrobial peptides. Topics related to both original and reviewed articles are welcome.

This Special Issue is supervised by Prof. Dr. Éric Biron and assisted by our Topical Advisory Panel Member Dr. Ramim Tanver Rahman.

Prof. Dr. Éric Biron
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial peptides
  • antibacterial agents
  • alternatives to antibiotics
  • antibiotic resistance
  • bacteriocins
  • lipopeptides

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4108 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Microbial Peptide Citrocin Controls Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Breaking Down Extracellular Polysaccharide
by Liyao Wang, Jiaqi Zheng, Wenchao Hou, Chaowen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xuanbo Fan, Hongliang Zhang and Yuzhu Han
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 4122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25074122 - 8 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Citrocin is an anti-microbial peptide that holds great potential in animal feed. This study evaluates the anti-microbial and anti-biofilm properties of Citrocin and explores the mechanism of action of Citrocin on the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that Citrocin had [...] Read more.
Citrocin is an anti-microbial peptide that holds great potential in animal feed. This study evaluates the anti-microbial and anti-biofilm properties of Citrocin and explores the mechanism of action of Citrocin on the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that Citrocin had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.3 mg/mL. All five concentrations (1/4MIC, 1/2MIC, MIC, 2MIC, and 4MIC) of Citrocin inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Citrocin at the MIC, 2MIC and 4MIC removed 42.7%, 76.0% and 83.2% of mature biofilms, respectively, and suppressed the swarming motility, biofilm metabolic activity and extracellular polysaccharide production of P. aeruginosa. Metabolomics analysis indicated that 0.3 mg/mL of Citrocin up- regulated 26 and down-regulated 83 metabolites, mainly comprising amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids and sugars. Glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways, including starch and sucrose metabolism as well as arginine and proline metabolism, were highly enriched by Citrocin. In summary, our research reveals the anti-biofilm mechanism of Citrocin at the metabolic level, which provides theoretical support for the development of novel anti-biofilm strategies for combatting P. aeruginosa. Full article
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0 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Synthetic Enterocins A, B, P, SEK4, and L50, Alone and in Combinations, against Clostridium perfringens
by Sara García-Vela, Louis-David Guay, Md Ramim Tanver Rahman, Eric Biron, Carmen Torres and Ismail Fliss
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031597 - 27 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant Clostridium perfringens infections are a major threat to the poultry industry. Effective alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed to prevent these infections and limit the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to produce by chemical synthesis a set [...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant Clostridium perfringens infections are a major threat to the poultry industry. Effective alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed to prevent these infections and limit the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to produce by chemical synthesis a set of enterocins of different subgroups of class II bacteriocins and to compare their spectrum of inhibitory activity, either alone or in combination, against a panel of twenty C. perfringens isolates. Enterocins A, P, SEK4 (class IIa bacteriocins), B (unsubgrouped class II bacteriocin), and L50 (class IId leaderless bacteriocin) were produced by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microtitration methods against twenty C. perfringens isolates and against other pathogens. The FICINDEX of different combinations of the selected enterocins was calculated in order to identify combinations with synergistic effects. The results showed that synthetic analogs of L50A and L50B were the most active against C. perfringens. These peptides also showed the broadest spectrum of activity when tested against other non-clostridial indicator strains, including Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus cecorum, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as Gram-negative bacteria (Campylobacter coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), among others. The selected synthetic enterocins were combined on the basis of their different mechanisms of action, and all combinations tested showed synergy or partial synergy against C. perfringens. In conclusion, because of their high activity against C. perfringens and other pathogens, the use of synthetic enterocins alone or as a consortium can be a good alternative to the use of antibiotics in the poultry sector. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 1081 KiB  
Review
The Progress of the Biotechnological Production of Class IIa Bacteriocins in Various Cell Factories and Its Future Challenges
by Yu Wang, Nan Shang, Yueying Huang, Boya Gao and Pinglan Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 5791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25115791 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Class IIa bacteriocins produced in lactic acid bacteria are short cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity. In the search for new biopreservation agents, class IIa bacteriocins are considered to be the best potential candidates, not only due to their large abundance but also because [...] Read more.
Class IIa bacteriocins produced in lactic acid bacteria are short cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity. In the search for new biopreservation agents, class IIa bacteriocins are considered to be the best potential candidates, not only due to their large abundance but also because of their high biological activity and excellent thermal stability. However, regulated by the biosynthetic regulatory system, the natural class IIa bacteriocin yield is low, and the extraction process is complicated. The biotechnological production of class IIa bacteriocins in various cell factories has been attempted to improve this situation. In this review, we focus on the application of biotechnological routes for class IIa bacteriocin production. The drawbacks and improvements in the production of class IIa bacteriocins in various cell factories are discussed. Furthermore, we present the main challenge of class IIa bacteriocins, focusing on increasing their production by constructing suitable cell factories. Recombinant bacteriocins have made considerable progress from inclusion body formation, dissolved form and low antibacterial activity to yield recovery. The development of prospective cell factories for the biotechnological production of bacteriocins is still required, which may facilitate the application of bacteriocins in the food industry. Full article
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