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Special Issue "Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Parviz Heidari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Interests: signal transduction; plant hormone; bioinformatics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our previous special issue "Cell Signaling in Model Plants"

Plants as sessile organisms are not able to move and must respond to adverse environmental conditions/stress such as high salinity, heat, cold, drought, oxidative stress, and pathogen attack. Signal transduction is a complex network of interactions that signal elements (physical and chemical) are transmitted through the plant cell to respond to environmental stimuli. Receptors, protein kinases, transcription factors, intracellular calcium, ROS, and hormones are the main components of signal transduction pathway that regulate or stimulate other cell signal components.

This Special Issue explores the role of signaling components in model plants, such as Antirrhinum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula, rice, tobacco, and Zea mays, which have led to adaptation and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including but not limited to functional analysis of key genes, hormone contents, signal transduction networks, gene expression profiling, and post-translation modifications.

Dr. Jen-Tsung Chen
Dr. Parviz Heidari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hormones profiling
  • cell receptors
  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • transcription factors
  • micro RNA
  • regulatory elements
  • protein kinases
  • protein–protein interaction
  • cellular responses
  • functional genomics
  • gene expression
  • enzyme activity
  • computational biology

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158007 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Plant cell signaling is an intensive research topic in which reductionist can be achieved when we investigate the systems of model plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)

Research

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Article
MiR1885 Regulates Disease Tolerance Genes in Brassica rapa during Early Infection with Plasmodiophora brassicae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179433 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is a severe disease of cruciferous crops that decreases crop quality and productivity. Several clubroot resistance-related quantitative trait loci and candidate genes have been identified. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism, the interrelationships among genes, and how genes are [...] Read more.
Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is a severe disease of cruciferous crops that decreases crop quality and productivity. Several clubroot resistance-related quantitative trait loci and candidate genes have been identified. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism, the interrelationships among genes, and how genes are regulated remain unexplored. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attracting attention as regulators of gene expression, including during biotic stress responses. The main objective of this study was to understand how miRNAs regulate clubroot resistance-related genes in P. brassicae-infected Brassica rapa. Two Brassica miRNAs, Bra-miR1885a and Bra-miR1885b, were revealed to target TIR-NBS genes. In non-infected plants, both miRNAs were expressed at low levels to maintain the balance between plant development and basal immunity. However, their expression levels increased in P. brassicae-infected plants. Both miRNAs down-regulated the expression of the TIR-NBS genes Bra019412 and Bra019410, which are located at a clubroot resistance-related quantitative trait locus. The Bra-miR1885-mediated down-regulation of both genes was detected for up to 15 days post-inoculation in the clubroot-resistant line CR Shinki and in the clubroot-susceptible line 94SK. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed Bra019412 expression was negatively regulated by miR1885. Both Bra019412 and Bra019410 were more highly expressed in CR Shinki than in 94SK; the same expression pattern was detected in multiple clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible inbred lines. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis confirmed the cleavage of Bra019412 by Bra-miR1885b. Thus, miR1885s potentially regulate TIR-NBS gene expression during P. brassicae infections of B. rapa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Putrescine Depletion Affects Arabidopsis Root Meristem Size by Modulating Auxin and Cytokinin Signaling and ROS Accumulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084094 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Polyamines (PAs) dramatically affect root architecture and development, mainly by unknown mechanisms; however, accumulating evidence points to hormone signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as candidate mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, PA levels were modified by progressively reducing ADC1/2 activity and Put levels, [...] Read more.
Polyamines (PAs) dramatically affect root architecture and development, mainly by unknown mechanisms; however, accumulating evidence points to hormone signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as candidate mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, PA levels were modified by progressively reducing ADC1/2 activity and Put levels, and then changes in root meristematic zone (MZ) size, ROS, and auxin and cytokinin (CK) signaling were investigated. Decreasing putrescine resulted in an interesting inverted-U-trend in primary root growth and a similar trend in MZ size, and differential changes in putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and combined spermine (Spm) plus thermospermine (Tspm) levels. At low Put concentrations, ROS accumulation increased coincidently with decreasing MZ size, and treatment with ROS scavenger KI partially rescued this phenotype. Analysis of double AtrbohD/F loss-of-function mutants indicated that NADPH oxidases were not involved in H2O2 accumulation and that elevated ROS levels were due to changes in PA back-conversion, terminal catabolism, PA ROS scavenging, or another pathway. Decreasing Put resulted in a non-linear trend in auxin signaling, whereas CK signaling decreased, re-balancing auxin and CK signaling. Different levels of Put modulated the expression of PIN1 and PIN2 auxin transporters, indicating changes to auxin distribution. These data strongly suggest that PAs modulate MZ size through both hormone signaling and ROS accumulation in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Characterization of the FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 Homolog SlFKF1 in Tomato as a Model for Plants with Fleshy Fruit
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041735 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) is a blue-light receptor whose function is related to flowering promotion under long-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, information about the physiological role of FKF1 in day-neutral plants and even the physiological role other than photoperiodic [...] Read more.
FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) is a blue-light receptor whose function is related to flowering promotion under long-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, information about the physiological role of FKF1 in day-neutral plants and even the physiological role other than photoperiodic flowering is lacking. Thus, the FKF1 homolog SlFKF1 was investigated in tomato, a day-neutral plant and a useful model for plants with fleshy fruit. It was confirmed that SlFKF1 belongs to the FKF1 group by phylogenetic tree analysis. The high sequence identity with A. thaliana FKF1, the conserved amino acids essential for function, and the similarity in the diurnal change in expression suggested that SlFKF1 may have similar functions to A. thaliana FKF1. CONSTANS (CO) is a transcription factor regulated by FKF1 and is responsible for the transcription of genes downstream of CO. cis-Regulatory elements targeted by CO were found in the promoter region of SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) and RIN, which are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit ripening, respectively. The blue-light effects on SlFKF1 expression, flowering, and fruit lycopene concentration have been observed in this study and previous studies. It was confirmed in RNA interference lines that the low expression of SlFKF1 is associated with late flowering with increased leaflets and low lycopene concentrations. This study sheds light on the various physiological roles of FKF1 in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor 27 Is Required for Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031466 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
In plants, mTERF proteins are primarily found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Studies have identified several mTERF proteins that affect plant development, respond to abiotic stresses, and regulate organellar gene expression, but the functions and underlying mechanisms of plant mTERF proteins remain largely unknown. [...] Read more.
In plants, mTERF proteins are primarily found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Studies have identified several mTERF proteins that affect plant development, respond to abiotic stresses, and regulate organellar gene expression, but the functions and underlying mechanisms of plant mTERF proteins remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function of Arabidopsis mTERF27 using molecular genetic, cytological, and biochemical approaches. Arabidopsis mTERF27 had four mTERF motifs and was evolutionarily conserved from moss to higher plants. The phenotype of the mTERF27-knockout mutant mterf27 did not differ obviously from that of the wild-type under normal growth conditions but was hypersensitive to salt stress. mTERF27 was localized to the mitochondria, and the transcript levels of some mitochondrion-encoded genes were reduced in the mterf27 mutant. Importantly, loss of mTERF27 function led to developmental defects in the mitochondria under salt stress. Furthermore, mTERF27 formed homomers and directly interacted with multiple organellar RNA editing factor 8 (MORF8). Thus, our results indicated that mTERF27 is likely crucial for mitochondrial development under salt stress, and that this protein may be a member of the protein interaction network regulating mitochondrial gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
From Spaceflight to Mars g-Levels: Adaptive Response of A. Thaliana Seedlings in a Reduced Gravity Environment Is Enhanced by Red-Light Photostimulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020899 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
The response of plants to the spaceflight environment and microgravity is still not well understood, although research has increased in this area. Even less is known about plants’ response to partial or reduced gravity levels. In the absence of the directional cues provided [...] Read more.
The response of plants to the spaceflight environment and microgravity is still not well understood, although research has increased in this area. Even less is known about plants’ response to partial or reduced gravity levels. In the absence of the directional cues provided by the gravity vector, the plant is especially perceptive to other cues such as light. Here, we investigate the response of Arabidopsis thaliana 6-day-old seedlings to microgravity and the Mars partial gravity level during spaceflight, as well as the effects of red-light photostimulation by determining meristematic cell growth and proliferation. These experiments involve microscopic techniques together with transcriptomic studies. We demonstrate that microgravity and partial gravity trigger differential responses. The microgravity environment activates hormonal routes responsible for proliferation/growth and upregulates plastid/mitochondrial-encoded transcripts, even in the dark. In contrast, the Mars gravity level inhibits these routes and activates responses to stress factors to restore cell growth parameters only when red photostimulation is provided. This response is accompanied by upregulation of numerous transcription factors such as the environmental acclimation-related WRKY-domain family. In the long term, these discoveries can be applied in the design of bioregenerative life support systems and space farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Molecular Analysis of 14-3-3 Genes in Citrus sinensis and Their Responses to Different Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020568 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
14-3-3 proteins (14-3-3s) are among the most important phosphorylated molecules playing crucial roles in regulating plant development and defense responses to environmental constraints. No report thus far has documented the gene family of 14-3-3s in Citrus sinensis and their roles in response to [...] Read more.
14-3-3 proteins (14-3-3s) are among the most important phosphorylated molecules playing crucial roles in regulating plant development and defense responses to environmental constraints. No report thus far has documented the gene family of 14-3-3s in Citrus sinensis and their roles in response to stresses. In this study, nine 14-3-3 genes, designated as CitGF14s (CitGF14a through CitGF14i) were identified from the latest C. sinensis genome. Phylogenetic analysis classified them into ε-like and non-ε groups, which were supported by gene structure analysis. The nine CitGF14s were located on five chromosomes, and none had duplication. Publicly available RNA-Seq raw data and microarray databases were mined for 14-3-3 expression profiles in different organs of citrus and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. RT-qPCR was used for further examining spatial expression patterns of CitGF14s in citrus and their temporal expressions in one-year-old C. sinensis “Xuegan” plants after being exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. The nine CitGF14s were expressed in eight different organs with some isoforms displayed tissue-specific expression patterns. Six of the CitGF14s positively responded to citrus canker infection (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri). The CitGF14s showed expressional divergence after phytohormone application and abiotic stress treatments, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous regulators in C. sinensis. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, CitGF14a, b, c, d, g, and h were found to interact with CitGF14i proteins to form a heterodimer, while CitGF14i interacted with itself to form a homodimer. Further analysis of CitGF14s co-expression and potential interactors established a 14-3-3s protein interaction network. The established network identified 14-3-3 genes and several candidate clients which may play an important role in developmental regulation and stress responses in this important fruit crop. This is the first study of 14-3-3s in citrus, and the established network may help further investigation of the roles of 14-3-3s in response to abiotic and biotic constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Annexin 1 Is a Component of eATP-Induced Cytosolic Calcium Elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020494 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Extracellular ATP (eATP) has long been established in animals as an important signalling molecule but this is less understood in plants. The identification of Arabidopsis thaliana DORN1 (Does Not Respond to Nucleotides) as the first plant eATP receptor has shown that it is [...] Read more.
Extracellular ATP (eATP) has long been established in animals as an important signalling molecule but this is less understood in plants. The identification of Arabidopsis thaliana DORN1 (Does Not Respond to Nucleotides) as the first plant eATP receptor has shown that it is fundamental to the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) as a possible second messenger. eATP causes other downstream responses such as increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, plus changes in gene expression. The plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels involved in eATP-induced [Ca2+]cyt increase remain unknown at the genetic level. Arabidopsis thaliana Annexin 1 has been found to mediate ROS-activated Ca2+ influx in root epidermis, consistent with its operating as a transport pathway. In this study, the loss of function Annexin 1 mutant was found to have impaired [Ca2+]cyt elevation in roots in response to eATP or eADP. Additionally, this annexin was implicated in modulating eATP-induced intracellular ROS accumulation in roots as well as expression of eATP-responsive genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
OsPP2C09 Is a Bifunctional Regulator in Both ABA-Dependent and Independent Abiotic Stress Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010393 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
Clade A Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs) negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and have diverse functions in plant development and in response to various stresses. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the rice ABA receptor OsPYL/RCAR3 reduces the growth retardation [...] Read more.
Clade A Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs) negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and have diverse functions in plant development and in response to various stresses. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the rice ABA receptor OsPYL/RCAR3 reduces the growth retardation observed in plants exposed to osmotic stress. By contrast, overexpression of the OsPYL/RCAR3-interacting protein OsPP2C09 rendered plant growth more sensitive to osmotic stress. We tested whether OsPP2CAs activate an ABA-independent signaling cascade by transfecting rice protoplasts with luciferase reporters containing the drought-responsive element (DRE) or ABA-responsive element (ABRE). We observed that OsPP2CAs activated gene expression via the cis-acting drought-responsive element. In agreement with this observation, transcriptome analysis of plants overexpressing OsPP2C09 indicated that OsPP2C09 induces the expression of genes whose promoters contain DREs. Further analysis showed that OsPP2C09 interacts with DRE-binding (DREB) transcription factors and activates reporters containing DRE. We conclude that, through activating DRE-containing promoters, OsPP2C09 positively regulates the drought response regulon and activates an ABA-independent signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Modification of Serine 1040 of SIBRI1 Increases Fruit Yield by Enhancing Tolerance to Heat Stress in Tomato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207681 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
High temperature is a major environmental factor that adversely affects plant growth and production. SlBRI1 is a critical receptor in brassinosteroid signalling, and its phosphorylation sites have differential functions in plant growth and development. However, the roles of the phosphorylation sites of SIBRI1 [...] Read more.
High temperature is a major environmental factor that adversely affects plant growth and production. SlBRI1 is a critical receptor in brassinosteroid signalling, and its phosphorylation sites have differential functions in plant growth and development. However, the roles of the phosphorylation sites of SIBRI1 in stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of the phosphorylation site serine 1040 (Ser-1040) of SlBRI1 in tomato. Phenotype analysis indicated that transgenic tomato harbouring SlBRI1 dephosphorylated at Ser-1040 showed increased tolerance to heat stress, exhibiting better plant growth and plant yield under high temperature than transgenic lines expressing SlBRI1 or SlBRI1 phosphorylated at Ser-1040. Biochemical and physiological analyses further showed that antioxidant activity, cell membrane integrity, osmo-protectant accumulation, photosynthesis and transcript levels of heat stress defence genes were all elevated in tomato plants harbouring SlBRI1 dephosphorylated at Ser-1040, and the autophosphorylation level of SlBRI1 was inhibited when SlBRI1 dephosphorylated at Ser-1040. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the phosphorylation site Ser-1040 of SlBRI1 affects heat tolerance, leading to improved plant growth and yield under high-temperature conditions. Our results also indicate the promise of phosphorylation site modification as an approach for protecting crop yields from high-temperature stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Cell Type-Specific Imaging of Calcium Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedling Roots Using GCaMP3
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176385 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) is a well-characterized second messenger in eukaryotic cells. An elevation in [Ca2+]cyt levels is one of the earliest responses in plant cells after exposure to a range of environmental stimuli. Advances in understanding [...] Read more.
Cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) is a well-characterized second messenger in eukaryotic cells. An elevation in [Ca2+]cyt levels is one of the earliest responses in plant cells after exposure to a range of environmental stimuli. Advances in understanding the role of [Ca2+]cyt in plant development has been facilitated by the use of genetically-encoded reporters such as GCaMP. Most of these studies have relied on promoters such as Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (35S) and Ubiquitin10 (UBQ10) to drive expression of GCaMP in all cell/tissue types. Plant organs such as roots consist of various cell types that likely exhibit unique [Ca2+]cyt responses to exogenous and endogenous signals. However, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we introduce a set of Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing GCaMP3 in five root cell types including the columella, endodermis, cortex, epidermis, and trichoblasts. We found similarities and differences in the [Ca2+]cyt signature among these root cell types when exposed to adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), glutamate, aluminum, and salt, which are known to trigger [Ca2+]cyt increases in root cells. These cell type-targeted GCaMP3 lines provide a new resource that should enable more in depth studies that address how a particular environmental stimulus is linked to specific root developmental pathways via [Ca2+]cyt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Article
Dephosphorylation of LjMPK6 by Phosphatase LjPP2C is Involved in Regulating Nodule Organogenesis in Lotus japonicus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155565 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) LjMPK6 is a phosphorylation target of SIP2, a MAPK kinase that interacts with SymRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) for regulation of legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Both LjMPK6 and SIP2 are required for nodulation in Lotus japonicus. However, the dephosphorylation of [...] Read more.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) LjMPK6 is a phosphorylation target of SIP2, a MAPK kinase that interacts with SymRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) for regulation of legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Both LjMPK6 and SIP2 are required for nodulation in Lotus japonicus. However, the dephosphorylation of LjMPK6 and its regulatory components in nodule development remains unexplored. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a type 2C protein phosphatase, LjPP2C, that specifically interacts with and dephosphorylates LjMPK6 in vitro. Physiological and biochemical assays further suggested that LjPP2C phosphatase is required for dephosphorylation of LjMPK6 in vivo and for fine-tuning nodule development after rhizobial inoculation. A non-phosphorylatable mutant variant LjMPK6 (T224A Y226F) could mimic LjPP2C functioning in MAPK dephosphorylation required for nodule development in hairy root transformed plants. Collectively, our study demonstrates that interaction with LjPP2C phosphatase is required for dephosphorylation of LjMPK6 to fine tune nodule development in L. japonicus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review

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Review
Link between Lipid Second Messengers and Osmotic Stress in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052658 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Plants are subject to different types of stress, which consequently affect their growth and development. They have developed mechanisms for recognizing and processing an extracellular signal. Second messengers are transient molecules that modulate the physiological responses in plant cells under stress conditions. In [...] Read more.
Plants are subject to different types of stress, which consequently affect their growth and development. They have developed mechanisms for recognizing and processing an extracellular signal. Second messengers are transient molecules that modulate the physiological responses in plant cells under stress conditions. In this sense, it has been shown in various plant models that membrane lipids are substrates for the generation of second lipid messengers such as phosphoinositide, phosphatidic acid, sphingolipids, and lysophospholipids. In recent years, research on lipid second messengers has been moving toward using genetic and molecular approaches to reveal the molecular setting in which these molecules act in response to osmotic stress. In this sense, these studies have established that second messengers can transiently recruit target proteins to the membrane and, therefore, affect protein conformation, activity, and gene expression. This review summarizes recent advances in responses related to the link between lipid second messengers and osmotic stress in plant cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
Magnesium Signaling in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031159 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Free magnesium (Mg2+) is a signal of the adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP) status in the cells. It results from the equilibrium of adenylate kinase (AK), which uses Mg-chelated and Mg-free adenylates as substrates in both directions of its reaction. The AK-mediated primary control [...] Read more.
Free magnesium (Mg2+) is a signal of the adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP) status in the cells. It results from the equilibrium of adenylate kinase (AK), which uses Mg-chelated and Mg-free adenylates as substrates in both directions of its reaction. The AK-mediated primary control of intracellular [Mg2+] is finely interwoven with the operation of membrane-bound adenylate- and Mg2+-translocators, which in a given compartment control the supply of free adenylates and Mg2+ for the AK-mediated equilibration. As a result, [Mg2+] itself varies both between and within the compartments, depending on their energetic status and environmental clues. Other key nucleotide-utilizing/producing enzymes (e.g., nucleoside diphosphate kinase) may also be involved in fine-tuning of the intracellular [Mg2+]. Changes in [Mg2+] regulate activities of myriads of Mg-utilizing/requiring enzymes, affecting metabolism under both normal and stress conditions, and impacting photosynthetic performance, respiration, phloem loading and other processes. In compartments controlled by AK equilibrium (cytosol, chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus), the intracellular [Mg2+] can be calculated from total adenylate contents, based on the dependence of the apparent equilibrium constant of AK on [Mg2+]. Magnesium signaling, reflecting cellular adenylate status, is likely widespread in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, due simply to the omnipresent nature of AK and to its involvement in adenylate equilibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
The Regulation of Nodule Number in Legumes Is a Balance of Three Signal Transduction Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031117 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Nitrogen is a major determinant of plant growth and productivity and the ability of legumes to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria allows legumes to exploit nitrogen-poor niches in the biosphere. But hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria comes with a metabolic cost, and [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is a major determinant of plant growth and productivity and the ability of legumes to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria allows legumes to exploit nitrogen-poor niches in the biosphere. But hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria comes with a metabolic cost, and the process requires regulation. The symbiosis is regulated through three signal transduction pathways: in response to available nitrogen, at the initiation of contact between the organisms, and during the development of the nodules that will host the rhizobia. Here we provide an overview of our knowledge of how the three signaling pathways operate in space and time, and what we know about the cross-talk between symbiotic signaling for nodule initiation and organogenesis, nitrate dependent signaling, and autoregulation of nodulation. Identification of common components and points of intersection suggest directions for research on the fine-tuning of the plant’s response to rhizobia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
The Complex Story of Plant Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020874 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Plant cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are tetrameric cation channels which may be activated by the cyclic nucleotides (cNMPs) adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 20 CNGC subunits associated with aspects of development, stress response [...] Read more.
Plant cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are tetrameric cation channels which may be activated by the cyclic nucleotides (cNMPs) adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 20 CNGC subunits associated with aspects of development, stress response and immunity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CNGC subunits form heterotetrameric complexes which behave differently from the homotetramers produced by their constituent subunits. These findings have widespread implications for future signalling research and may help explain how specificity can be achieved by CNGCs that are known to act in disparate pathways. Regulation of complex formation may involve cyclic nucleotide-gated channel-like proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
Signal Integration by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) Module and Other Mediator Subunits in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010354 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Environmental stresses have driven plants to develop various mechanisms to acclimate in adverse conditions. Extensive studies have demonstrated that a significant reprogramming occurs in the plant transcriptome in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The highly conserved and large multi-subunit transcriptional co-activator of [...] Read more.
Environmental stresses have driven plants to develop various mechanisms to acclimate in adverse conditions. Extensive studies have demonstrated that a significant reprogramming occurs in the plant transcriptome in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The highly conserved and large multi-subunit transcriptional co-activator of eukaryotes, known as the Mediator, has been reported to play a substantial role in the regulation of important genes that help plants respond to environmental perturbances. CDK8 module is a relatively new component of the Mediator complex that has been shown to contribute to plants’ defense, development, and stress responses. Previous studies reported that CDK8 module predominantly acts as a transcriptional repressor in eukaryotic cells by reversibly associating with core Mediator. However, growing evidence has demonstrated that depending on the type of biotic and abiotic stress, the CDK8 module may perform a contrasting regulatory role. This review will summarize the current knowledge of CDK8 module as well as other previously documented Mediator subunits in plant cell signaling under stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
ROS and Ions in Cell Signaling during Sexual Plant Reproduction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249476 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Pollen grain is a unique haploid organism characterized by two key physiological processes: activation of metabolism upon exiting dormancy and polar tube growth. In gymnosperms and flowering plants, these processes occur in different time frames and exhibit important features; identification of similarities and [...] Read more.
Pollen grain is a unique haploid organism characterized by two key physiological processes: activation of metabolism upon exiting dormancy and polar tube growth. In gymnosperms and flowering plants, these processes occur in different time frames and exhibit important features; identification of similarities and differences is still in the active phase. In angiosperms, the growth of male gametophyte is directed and controlled by its microenvironment, while in gymnosperms it is relatively autonomous. Recent reviews have detailed aspects of interaction between angiosperm female tissues and pollen such as interactions between peptides and their receptors; however, accumulated evidence suggests low-molecular communication, in particular, through ion exchange and ROS production, equally important for polar growth as well as for pollen germination. Recently, it became clear that ROS and ionic currents form a single regulatory module, since ROS production and the activity of ion transport systems are closely interrelated and form a feedback loop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Parasitic plants have a unique heterotrophic lifestyle based on the extraction of water and nutrients from host plants. Some parasitic plant species, particularly those of the family Orobanchaceae, attack crops and cause substantial yield losses. The breeding of resistant crop varieties is an [...] Read more.
Parasitic plants have a unique heterotrophic lifestyle based on the extraction of water and nutrients from host plants. Some parasitic plant species, particularly those of the family Orobanchaceae, attack crops and cause substantial yield losses. The breeding of resistant crop varieties is an inexpensive way to control parasitic weeds, but often does not provide a long-lasting solution because the parasites rapidly evolve to overcome resistance. Understanding mechanisms underlying naturally occurring parasitic plant resistance is of great interest and could help to develop methods to control parasitic plants. In this review, we describe the virulence mechanisms of parasitic plants and resistance mechanisms in their hosts, focusing on obligate root parasites of the genera Orobanche and Striga. We noticed that the resistance (R) genes in the host genome often encode proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains (NLR proteins), hence we proposed a mechanism by which host plants use NLR proteins to activate downstream resistance gene expression. We speculated how parasitic plants and their hosts co-evolved and discussed what drives the evolution of virulence effectors in parasitic plants by considering concepts from similar studies of plant–microbe interaction. Most previous studies have focused on the host rather than the parasite, so we also provided an updated summary of genomic resources for parasitic plants and parasitic genes for further research to test our hypotheses. Finally, we discussed new approaches such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and RNAi silencing that can provide deeper insight into the intriguing life cycle of parasitic plants and could potentially contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling parasitic weeds, thereby enhancing crop productivity and food security globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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Review
Retrograde Signaling: Understanding the Communication between Organelles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176173 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Understanding how cell organelles and compartments communicate with each other has always been an important field of knowledge widely explored by many researchers. However, despite years of investigations, one point—and perhaps the only point that many agree on—is that our knowledge about cellular-signaling [...] Read more.
Understanding how cell organelles and compartments communicate with each other has always been an important field of knowledge widely explored by many researchers. However, despite years of investigations, one point—and perhaps the only point that many agree on—is that our knowledge about cellular-signaling pathways still requires expanding. Chloroplasts and mitochondria (because of their primary functions in energy conversion) are important cellular sensors of environmental fluctuations and feedback they provide back to the nucleus is important for acclimatory responses. Under stressful conditions, it is important to manage cellular resources more efficiently in order to maintain a proper balance between development, growth and stress responses. For example, it can be achieved through regulation of nuclear and organellar gene expression. If plants are unable to adapt to stressful conditions, they will be unable to efficiently produce energy for growth and development—and ultimately die. In this review, we show the importance of retrograde signaling in stress responses, including the induction of cell death and in organelle biogenesis. The complexity of these pathways demonstrates how challenging it is to expand the existing knowledge. However, understanding this sophisticated communication may be important to develop new strategies of how to improve adaptability of plants in rapidly changing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
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