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Review

The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts

1
Institute of Crop Science and Zhejiang Key Lab of Crop Germplasm, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510316, China
3
Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 1000 BE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
LIPM, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, CNRS, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 31 October 2020 / Published: 27 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 2.0)
Parasitic plants have a unique heterotrophic lifestyle based on the extraction of water and nutrients from host plants. Some parasitic plant species, particularly those of the family Orobanchaceae, attack crops and cause substantial yield losses. The breeding of resistant crop varieties is an inexpensive way to control parasitic weeds, but often does not provide a long-lasting solution because the parasites rapidly evolve to overcome resistance. Understanding mechanisms underlying naturally occurring parasitic plant resistance is of great interest and could help to develop methods to control parasitic plants. In this review, we describe the virulence mechanisms of parasitic plants and resistance mechanisms in their hosts, focusing on obligate root parasites of the genera Orobanche and Striga. We noticed that the resistance (R) genes in the host genome often encode proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains (NLR proteins), hence we proposed a mechanism by which host plants use NLR proteins to activate downstream resistance gene expression. We speculated how parasitic plants and their hosts co-evolved and discussed what drives the evolution of virulence effectors in parasitic plants by considering concepts from similar studies of plant–microbe interaction. Most previous studies have focused on the host rather than the parasite, so we also provided an updated summary of genomic resources for parasitic plants and parasitic genes for further research to test our hypotheses. Finally, we discussed new approaches such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and RNAi silencing that can provide deeper insight into the intriguing life cycle of parasitic plants and could potentially contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling parasitic weeds, thereby enhancing crop productivity and food security globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasitic plant; host; virulence; race; resistance mechanism; pathogen effector; evolution; NLR; Orobanche; Striga; interaction model parasitic plant; host; virulence; race; resistance mechanism; pathogen effector; evolution; NLR; Orobanche; Striga; interaction model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, L.; Wang, J.; Yang, C.; Islam, F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Muños, S.; Zhou, W. The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013

AMA Style

Hu L, Wang J, Yang C, Islam F, Bouwmeester HJ, Muños S, Zhou W. The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Luyang, Jiansu Wang, Chong Yang, Faisal Islam, Harro J. Bouwmeester, Stéphane Muños, and Weijun Zhou. 2020. "The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013

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