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Cost–Benefit Evaluation in Decision-Making and Psychiatry: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 2649

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Psychology and the Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
Interests: endocannabinoids; early development; psychopathology; mental health; psychoneuroendocrinology; epigenetics; stress exposure; randomized controlled clinical trials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology and the Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
Interests: endocannabinoids; biological psychiatry; epigenetics; developmental psychobiology; behavioral neuroscience; psychoneuroendocrinology; animal models of obesity, binge eating, depression, infant–mother attachment, emotion-regulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso; 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968, USA
Interests: cost–benefit evaluation; corticostriatal circuits; dopamine; lateral habenula; decision-making; neural connectivity; striosomes; stress; deep brain stimulation; modeling and computation; algorithm development; circuit physiology; depression; addiction; PTSD; Huntington’s disease; electrophysiology; imaging; optogenetics; chemogenetics; basal ganglia; striatum; cortex; habenula

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Decision-making is vital in all mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, and the molecular and cellular bases have gained intensive research attention in recent years. These efforts include animal and human studies on cost and reward values, subjective value and reward-prediction error. Additionally, the spatial and temporal aspects of molecular functioning have been investigated under stressful conditions, cost–reward conflicts and uncertainty, suggesting the involvement of several brain regions, pathways and circuits including OFC, VLPFC, DA subcortical and cortical neural connectivity, LHb, SNC and cells called striosomes, which are part of the striatum compartment. Excitatory–inhibitory balance at the cellular and molecular levels is also an emerging concept with promise for a better understanding of healthy and pathological decision-making. Recent reports show the relevance of these discoveries to a better understanding of psychiatric pathology as well as to the development of advanced treatments. This issue aims to publish animal and human studies and reviews of the current state of the art on the cellular and molecular components of decision-making, which could advance the understanding of psychiatric disorders beyond the current knowledge regarding healthy decision-making processes. We welcome MRI and fMRI studies as well as studies of specific molecules, cells, regions and circuits involved in aspects of decision-making and cost–reward evaluation. Of special interest are identified circuits at the microlevel of brain neural connectivity as well as at the macrolevel.

We note that in general, non-randomized clinical research and survey studies are not suitable for IJMS.

Dr. Sari Goldstein Ferber
Prof. Aron Weller
Dr. Alexander Friedman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cost–reward evaluation circuits
  • decision-making
  • molecular mechanisms
  • psychopathology
  • psychiatry
  • cellular mechanisms

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

14 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Increased Risky Choice and Reduced CHRNB2 Expression in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Nicotine Vapor
by Priscilla Giner, Liliana Maynez-Anchondo, Anna E. Liley, Kevin P. Uribe, Gabriel A. Frietze, Nicholas W. Simon and Ian A. Mendez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031231 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
While the cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine use have been well documented, it has also been shown to impair decision making. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to nicotine vapor increases risky decision making. The study also aims to [...] Read more.
While the cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine use have been well documented, it has also been shown to impair decision making. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to nicotine vapor increases risky decision making. The study also aims to investigate possible long-term effects of nicotine vapor exposure on the expression of genes coding for cholinergic and dopaminergic receptors in brain. Thirty-two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 24 mg/mL nicotine vapor or vehicle control, immediately followed by testing in the probability discounting task for 10 consecutive days. Fifty-four days after the 10-day vapor exposure, animals were sacrificed and expression of genes coding for the α4 and β2 cholinergic receptor subunits, and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, were analyzed using RT-PCR. Exposure to nicotine vapor caused an immediate and transient increase in risky choice. Analyses of gene expression identified significant reductions in CHRNB2 and DRD1 in the nucleus accumbens core and CHRNB2 and DRD2 in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats previously exposed to nicotine vapor, relative to vehicle controls. Results provide data on the negative cognitive effects of nicotine vapor exposure and identify cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms that may affected with repeated use. Full article
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