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Special Issue "Selected Papers from 3-ISPMF, 3rd International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (Kunming, 2018)"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jianbo Xiao
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo - Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: phytochemicals; polyphenols; diabetes; function food; natural products; glycosylation; biological activity; flavonoids; stilbenoids; pharmacokinetics; nutrition and metabolism; polyphenol-protein interaction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anca Miron
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dept. Pharmacognosy-Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Grigore T. Popa",Universitatii Street, No 16, 700115, Iasi, Romania
Interests: phytochemicals; natural products; plant biodiversity; medicinal plants; food plants; bioactivity; polyphenols; glucosinolates; biocides
Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhuang
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Yunnan Institute of Food Safety, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, China
Interests: polysaccharides; peptide; natural products; function foods; biochemistry; nutrition; antioxidant agents and mechanisms; structure-activity relationships

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is related to 3rd International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (3-ISPMF), which will be held at the Kunming University of Science and Technology, 25–30 August, 2018. 3-ISPMF is sponsored by the Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE), International Society for Chinese Medicine (ISCM), and the Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSA).

This Special Issue seeks updated and new knowledge on the phytochemicals in medicine and food. Evidence from epidemiological investigations shows that natural phytochemicals have received increased attention due to their considerable benefits in preventing and managing modern diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. This Special Issue will shape the future research direction for this important phytomedicine source. Our purpose is to feature high quality advanced research and knowledge, contributed by various research groups around the world, working on phytochemicals. We invite researchers to contribute reviews and reports of their recent work on the chemistry, biology and biotechnology of phytochemicals.

The Special Issue will focus on the phytochemicals in medicine and food, and will include the following aspects:

  • Natural products for the prevention and therapy of modern diseases.
  • Mechanism of phytochemicals for therapy and chemoprevention of modern diseases.
  • Importance of natural phytochemicals in medicine and food
  • QSAR and modeling for natural drugs design.
  • Natural antioxidants and human health.
  • New strategy of using natural products for managing diseases
  • Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of phytochemicals

Prof. Dr. Jianbo Xiao
Prof. Dr. Miron Anca
Prof. Dr. Yongliang Zhuang

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Phytochemicals
  • Medicinal plants
  • Natural products
  • Food chemistry
  • Phytomedicine
  • Metabolism
  • Prevention
  • Chemoprevention
  • Function food
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Biotransformation
  • Structure-activity relationships

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Study on the Preparation and Chemical Structure Characterization of Melanin from Boletus griseus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123736 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
In this study, melanin (BgM) was obtained from Boletus griseus. The chemical composition and structure of BgM were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution [...] Read more.
In this study, melanin (BgM) was obtained from Boletus griseus. The chemical composition and structure of BgM were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry. The percentage contents of C, H, N, S and O elements were 56.38%, 5.86%, 6.17%, 2.44%, and 28.04%, and the S/N and C/N ratios were 0.17 and 10.66, respectively. The UV-vis spectrum of BgM showed a maximum absorption peak at 214 nm. Characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 3426, 1600 and 1105 cm−1, and BgM contained phenolic hydroxyl, amidogen, carbonyl, methylene, and methyl groups. Moreover, BgM is an eumelanin, and its main skeleton has both a benzene ring and an indole, and the branched chain mainly consists of alkanes, alcohols, and fatty acids. BgM was hydrolyzed by H2O2 and four compounds were tentatively analyzed from the UPLC-MS/MS profile. The chemical structure of BgM was characterized as 5,6-dihydroxyindole eumelanin, and the condensed molecular formula is [C28(OR1)4(OR2)3H11O6N4]n. Full article
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Article
Identification and In Silico Prediction of Anticoagulant Peptides from the Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Mytilus edulis Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072100 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Mytilus edulis is a typical marine bivalve mollusk. Many kinds of bioactive components with nutritional and pharmaceutical activities in Mytilus edulis were reported. In this study, eight different parts of Mytilus edulis tissues, i.e., the foot, byssus, pedal retractor muscle, mantle, gill, adductor [...] Read more.
Mytilus edulis is a typical marine bivalve mollusk. Many kinds of bioactive components with nutritional and pharmaceutical activities in Mytilus edulis were reported. In this study, eight different parts of Mytilus edulis tissues, i.e., the foot, byssus, pedal retractor muscle, mantle, gill, adductor muscle, viscera, and other parts, were separated and the proteins from these tissues were prepared. A total of 277 unique peptides from the hydrolysates of different proteins were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides in different tissues was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The bioactivity of the peptides was predicted through the Peptide Ranker database and molecular docking. Moreover, the peptides from the adductor muscle were chosen to do the active validation of anticoagulant activity. The active mechanism of three peptides from the adductor muscle, VQQELEDAEERADSAEGSLQK, RMEADIAAMQSDLDDALNGQR, and AAFLLGVNSNDLLK, were analyzed by Discovery Studio 2017, which also explained the anticoagulant activity of the hydrolysates of proteins from adductor muscle. This study optimized a screening and identification method of bioactive peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of different tissues in Mytilus edulis. Full article
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Article
The Dietary Antioxidant Piceatannol Inhibits Adipogenesis of Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Limits Glucose Transport and Lipogenic Activities in Adipocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072081 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are among the most investigated herbal remedies, as is especially the case for resveratrol. Many reports have shown its anti-aging properties and the ability to reduce obesity and diabetes induced by high-fat diet in mice. However, such beneficial effects hardly translate [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are among the most investigated herbal remedies, as is especially the case for resveratrol. Many reports have shown its anti-aging properties and the ability to reduce obesity and diabetes induced by high-fat diet in mice. However, such beneficial effects hardly translate from animal models to humans. The scientific community has therefore tested whether other plant phenolic compounds may surpass the effects of resveratrol. In this regard, it has been reported that piceatannol reproduces in rodents the anti-obesity actions of its parent polyphenol. However, the capacity of piceatannol to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in humans has not been characterized so far. Here, we investigated whether piceatannol was antiadipogenic and antilipogenic in human preadipocytes. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), isolated from adipose tissues of lean and obese individuals, were differentiated into mature adipocytes with or without piceatannol, and their functions were explored. Fifty μM of piceatannol deeply limited synthesis/accumulation of lipids in both murine and hMSC-derived adipocytes. Interestingly, this phenomenon occurred irrespective of being added at the earlier or later stages of adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, piceatannol lowered glucose transport into adipocytes and decreased the expression of key elements of the lipogenic pathway (PPARγ, FAS, and GLUT4). Thus, the confirmation of the antiadipogenic properties of piceatanol in vitro warrants the realization of clinical studies for the application of this compound in the treatment of the metabolic complications associated with obesity. Full article
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Article
Identification of an ACE-Inhibitory Peptide from Walnut Protein and Its Evaluation of the Inhibitory Mechanism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041156 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
In the present study, a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE inhibitory) peptide, EPNGLLLPQY, derived from walnut seed storage protein, fragment residues 80–89, was identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) from walnut protein hydrolysate. [...] Read more.
In the present study, a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE inhibitory) peptide, EPNGLLLPQY, derived from walnut seed storage protein, fragment residues 80–89, was identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) from walnut protein hydrolysate. The IC50 value of the peptide was 233.178 μM, which was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography method by measuring the amount of hippuric acid (HA) generated from the ACE decomposition substrate (hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine (HHL) to assess the ACE activity. Enzyme inhibitory kinetics of the peptide against ACE were also conducted, by which the inhibitory mechanism of ACE-inhibitory peptide was confirmed. Moreover, molecular docking was simulated by Discovery Studio 2017 R2 software to provide the potential mechanisms underlying the ACE-inhibitory activity of EPNGLLLPQY. Full article
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Article
Effect of Ball Mill Treatment on the Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Protein Extracts Generated from Scallops (Chlamys farreri)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020531 - 09 Feb 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
The effects of ball mill treatment (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) on the physicochemical and digestible properties of scallops (Chlamys farreri) protein (CFP) were investigated. The CFP particle size decreased with increasing ball-milling time. The content of free [...] Read more.
The effects of ball mill treatment (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) on the physicochemical and digestible properties of scallops (Chlamys farreri) protein (CFP) were investigated. The CFP particle size decreased with increasing ball-milling time. The content of free sulfhydryl (SH) of CFP increased from 13.08 ± 0.25 μmol/g protein to 18.85 ± 0.24 μmol/g protein when the ball-milling time increased from 0 min to 10 min. A sharp increase of the surface hydrophobicity index (H0) from 48.53 ± 0.27 to 239.59 ± 0.37 was found when the ball-milling time increased from 0 min to 4 min. Furthermore, the foaming capacity increased from 46.08 ± 6.12% to 65.11 ± 1.05% with increasing ball-milling time from 0 min to 6 min, after which it reached a plateau. SDS-PAGE results showed that ball mill treatment did not change the primary structure of CFP. Digestible properties of BMCFP simulated gastrointestinal digestion as a function of ball mill treatment were analyzed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and nitrogen recovery index. After 60 min of simulated human gastro digestion, nitrogen recovery index of CFP had a significant rise from 42.01 ± 0.31% to 58.78 ± 3.37% as the ball-milling time increased from 0 min to 6 min. Peptides from hydrolysates of Chlamys farreri protein (CFP) were identified by ultraperformance liquidchromatographysystem coupled to a Synapt Mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). After 2 h and 4 h of simulated human duodenal digestion, the number of peptides with 7–10 amino acids length increased apparently with the ball-milling time increased. This study presents an approach to investigating the effect of the ball-milling process on the physicochemical and digestible properties of CFP, which may provide valuable information on the application of CFP as an ingredient in food products. Full article
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Article
Tea Polysaccharide Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice by Inhibiting the Proliferation and Invasion of Tumor Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020506 - 08 Feb 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this [...] Read more.
The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed. The azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) was used to induce the colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Results showed that the tumor incidence was reduced in TPS-treated AOM/DSS mice compared to AOM/DSS mice. TUNEL staining and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining showed that the TPS treatment increased significantly the cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation among AOM/DSS mice. Furthermore, TPS reduced the expression levels of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. In addition, in vitro studies showed that TPS, suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells. Overall, our findings demonstrated that TPS could be a potential agent in the treatment and/or prevention of colon tumor, which promoted the apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells via arresting cell cycle progression. Full article
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Article
Identification and Antithrombotic Activity of Peptides from Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Protein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010138 - 04 Jan 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) reportedly contains many bioactive components of nutritional value. Water-, salt- and acid-soluble M. edulis protein fractions were obtained and the proteins were trypsinized. The resultant peptides were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight [...] Read more.
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) reportedly contains many bioactive components of nutritional value. Water-, salt- and acid-soluble M. edulis protein fractions were obtained and the proteins were trypsinized. The resultant peptides were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). 387 unique peptides were identified that matched 81 precursor proteins. Molecular mass distributions of the proteins and peptides were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The differences between the three protein samples were studied by Venn diagram of peptide and protein compositions. Toxicity, allergic and antithrombotic activity of peptides was predicted using database website and molecular docking respectively. The antithrombotic activity of enzymatic hydrolysate from water-, salt- and acid-soluble M. edulis protein were 40.17%, 85.74%, 82.00% at 5 mg/mL, respectively. Active mechanism of antithrombotic peptide (ELEDSLDSER) was also research about amino acid binding sites and interaction, simultaneously. Full article
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Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Potato and Their Potential Role in Tuber Sprouting Process
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010101 - 29 Dec 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and [...] Read more.
Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed the changes in the morphology and expression of lncRNAs in potato tubers during sprouting. Meristematic cells of potato tuber apical buds divided continuously and exhibited vegetative cone bulging and vascularisation. In all, 3175 lncRNAs were identified from the apical buds of potato tubers, among which 383 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 340 were down-regulated during sprouting. The GO enrichment analysis revealed that sprouting mainly influenced the expression of lncRNAs related to the cellular components of potato apical buds (e.g., cytoplasm and organelles) and cellular metabolic processes. The KEGG enrichment analysis also showed significant enrichment of specific metabolic pathways. In addition, 386 differentially expressed lncRNAs during sprouting were identified as putative targets of 235 potato miRNAs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results agreed with the sequencing data. Our study provides the first systematic study of numerous lncRNAs involved in the potato tuber sprouting process and lays the foundation for further studies to elucidate their precise functions. Full article
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Article
Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid) Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122714 - 16 Dec 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA) via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP) NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compressive and tensile test. The results showed that the hierarchical cellular structure and physicochemical properties of KPP NFCs were dependent on the incorporation of PDA content. Moreover, the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among KGM, PLA and PDA also gave KPP NFCs high thermostability and mechanically-robust properties. Thus, this study developed a simple approach to fabricate multifunctional NFCs with significant potential for biomedical or food application. Full article
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Article
The Candida albicans Inhibitory Activity of the Extract from Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Seed Relates to Mitochondria Dysfunction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091858 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
The inhibitory activity of the papaya seed extract (PSE) on Candida albicans (C. albicans) was determined by turbidimetry method. The inhibitory mechanisms were also evaluated from the prospective of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease, and the [...] Read more.
The inhibitory activity of the papaya seed extract (PSE) on Candida albicans (C. albicans) was determined by turbidimetry method. The inhibitory mechanisms were also evaluated from the prospective of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease, and the activities of four complex enzymes in mitochondria respiratory chain. Results obtained from this study indicated that the PSE exhibited an effective inhibitory activity on C. albicans and induced significant accumulation of ROS and collapse of MMP. The Complex I and Complex III exhibited continues significant decrease in mitochondrial enzyme activity assays, but the Complex II and Complex IV activities were not positively correlated. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the PSE represents a rich and high-purity source of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), which indicated the BITC may be responsible for the mitochondrial dysfunction. Full article
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Article
GC-MS Fingerprinting Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveals Key Bioactive Components in Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071342 - 03 Jul 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
This present study aims to identify the key bioactive components in acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with various bioactivities. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to describe the relationship between the radical scavenging activity and the volatile components. [...] Read more.
This present study aims to identify the key bioactive components in acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with various bioactivities. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to describe the relationship between the radical scavenging activity and the volatile components. The PLSR model was improved by outlier elimination and variable selection and was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and external validation in this study. Based on the PLSR model, eleven chemical components were identified as the key bioactive components by variable importance in projection. The final PLS regression model with these components has good predictive ability. The Q2 was 0.8284, and the root mean square error for prediction was 2.9641. The results indicated that the eleven components could be a pattern to predict the radical scavenging activity of ATR. In addition, we did not find any specific relationship between the radical scavenging ability and the habitat of the ATRs. This study proposed an efficient strategy to predict bioactive components using the combination of quantitative chromatography fingerprints and PLS regression, and has potential perspective for screening bioactive components in complex analytical systems, such as TCM. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Proposal of Molecular Mechanisms of Weak Organic Acids Intake-Induced Improvement of Insulin Resistance in Diabetes Mellitus via Elevation of Interstitial Fluid pH
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103244 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Blood contains powerful pH-buffering molecules such as hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin, while interstitial fluids have little pH-buffering molecules. Thus, even under metabolic disorder conditions except severe cases, arterial blood pH is kept constant within the normal range (7.35~7.45), but the interstitial fluid pH [...] Read more.
Blood contains powerful pH-buffering molecules such as hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin, while interstitial fluids have little pH-buffering molecules. Thus, even under metabolic disorder conditions except severe cases, arterial blood pH is kept constant within the normal range (7.35~7.45), but the interstitial fluid pH under metabolic disorder conditions becomes lower than the normal level. Insulin resistance is one of the most important key factors in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, nevertheless the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance occurrence is still unclear. Our studies indicate that lowered interstitial fluid pH occurs in diabetes mellitus, causing insulin resistance via reduction of the binding affinity of insulin to its receptor. Therefore, the key point for improvement of insulin resistance occurring in diabetes mellitus is development of methods or techniques elevating the lowered interstitial fluid pH. Intake of weak organic acids is found to improve the insulin resistance by elevating the lowered interstitial fluid pH in diabetes mellitus. One of the molecular mechanisms of the pH elevation is that: (1) the carboxyl group (R-COO) but not H+ composing weak organic acids in foods is absorbed into the body, and (2) the absorbed the carboxyl group (R-COO) behaves as a pH buffer material, elevating the interstitial fluid pH. On the other hand, high salt intake has been suggested to cause diabetes mellitus; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. A possible mechanism of high salt intake-caused diabetes mellitus is proposed from a viewpoint of regulation of the interstitial fluid pH: high salt intake lowers the interstitial fluid pH via high production of H+ associated with ATP synthesis required for the Na+,K+-ATPase to extrude the high leveled intracellular Na+ caused by high salt intake. This review article introduces the molecular mechanism causing the lowered interstitial fluid pH and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus, the improvement of insulin resistance via intake of weak organic acid-containing foods, and a proposal mechanism of high salt intake-caused diabetes mellitus. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122555 - 28 Nov 2017
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 6727
Abstract
Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used [...] Read more.
Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia. Full article
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Review
A Review on Konjac Glucomannan Gels: Microstructure and Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112250 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4391
Abstract
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted extensive attention because of its biodegradable, non-toxic, harmless, and biocompatible features. Its gelation performance is one of its most significant characteristics and enables wide applications of KGM gels in food, chemical, pharmaceutical, materials, and other fields. Herein, different [...] Read more.
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted extensive attention because of its biodegradable, non-toxic, harmless, and biocompatible features. Its gelation performance is one of its most significant characteristics and enables wide applications of KGM gels in food, chemical, pharmaceutical, materials, and other fields. Herein, different preparation methods of KGM gels and their microstructures were reviewed. In addition, KGM applications have been theoretically modeled for future uses. Full article
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