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Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 48511

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Food Science and Technology Faculty, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: agro-environmental; food chemistry; sustainable primary production; food quality and safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
Interests: cancer signaling; RNA biology; chemotherapeutic drug resistance; chemotherapeutic role of nature derived small molecules; chemopreventive role of dietary constituents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable biological resources are the basis of a knowledge-based bioeconomy (food, feed, agriculture, forest based, fisheries, aquaculture, biochemistry, etc.). The increasing demand for biological resources, both in quantity and quality, can only be met through innovation and advancement of knowledge in the sustainable management, production and use of these biological resources (micro-organisms, plants and animals). This Special Issue brings together all relevant actors (appropriate research disciplines and industrial sectors, farmers, forest owners, consumers, etc.) to develop the basis for new, sustainable, safer, affordable, eco-efficient and competitive products. This will increase the competitiveness of agriculture and biotechnology, seed and food companies, and in particular high-tech SMEs, while improving social welfare and well-being and reducing the environmental impacts.

This key research into the safety of food and feed chains, diet-related diseases, food choices and the impact of food and nutrition on health will help to fight diet-related disorders (e.g., obesity, allergies, etc.) and infectious diseases (e.g., transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, avian flu, bluetongue, etc.), while making important contributions to public, animal and plant health, as well as consumer protection.

Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
Prof. Dr. Jianbo Xiao
Dr. Md Afjalus Siraj
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural waste and byproducts
  • bioprocesses optimization
  • added-value products
  • cosmetics
  • food and feed chains
  • diet-related disorders
  • infectious diseases
  • animal and plant health

Published Papers (17 papers)

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11 pages, 860 KiB  
Article
Application of Extracellular Polymeric Substances during Cultivation of Microalgae Biomass
by Paulina Rusanowska, Marcin Zieliński, Magda Dudek and Marcin Dębowski
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10796; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910796 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms contain polymers that are used for the bioflocculation of microalgae; however, these polymers are also organic compounds that might be used as carbon sources. The study analyzed two strategies for the introduction of EPS for Tetraselmis [...] Read more.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms contain polymers that are used for the bioflocculation of microalgae; however, these polymers are also organic compounds that might be used as carbon sources. The study analyzed two strategies for the introduction of EPS for Tetraselmis subcordiformis, Chlorella sp., and Arthrospira platensis biomass harvesting. In the first variant, EPS in the dose of 100 mg TOC/g were added to the photobioreactor every other day from the beginning of the cultivation, while in the second variant, EPS in the two doses of 100 mg TOC/g and 300 mg TOC/g were only added at the end of cultivation. In the first variant, the results proved that microalgae/cyanobacteria can use the EPS as external carbon sources. The cultures were characterized by a faster increase in biomass concentration, which contained less chlorophyll. However, the EPS content did not change. In the second variant, the addition of EPS did not affect the EPS content and the sedimentation of the Chlorella sp. biomass. The biomass of T. subcordiformis was characterized by a much better sedimentation coefficient. The greatest differences were observed in the A. platensis culture: the biomass concentration increased from 1.2 ± 0.2 g/L to 1.9 ± 0.2 g/L, EPS content increased by 16%, and sedimentation efficiency increased to 72%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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16 pages, 1680 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate-Doped Nano-Particles and Methyl Jasmonate on the Phenolics and Quality in Monastrell Grapes during the Ripening Period
by Rocío Gil-Muñoz, Diego Fernando Paladines-Quezada, María José Giménez-Bañón, Juan Daniel Moreno-Olivares, Juan Antonio Bleda-Sánchez, José Ignacio Fernández-Fernández, Belén Parra-Torrejón, Gloria Belén Ramírez-Rodríguez and José Manuel Delgado-López
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031906 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
The effect produced by the application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in vineyards is clear, but this is a product that, despite its efficiency, is expensive, volatile and difficult to dissolve. Regarding increasing the MeJA use efficiency, new forms of application are proposed in [...] Read more.
The effect produced by the application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in vineyards is clear, but this is a product that, despite its efficiency, is expensive, volatile and difficult to dissolve. Regarding increasing the MeJA use efficiency, new forms of application are proposed in this article, such as the use of calcium phosphate nanoparticles with two different morphologies: amorphous (ACP) and crystalline (Ap). In addition, few of the studies addressed so far have assessed MeJA’s effect during the ripening period of the grapes. As a result of this, in this article, we evaluated/studied for first time the effect of the different MeJA formats on the phenolic composition of the grape during the ripening period. The results showed small differences between the two morphologies of the nanoparticles, which promoted a significant a delay in the sugar accumulation and an increase in the different phenolic compounds compared to the control. Such improvements were not as significant as those induced by the conventional MeJA treatment. However, it is remarkable that when the nanoparticles were applied, we used a concentration 10 times lower than when it is used conventionally. Therefore, these findings revealed that both types of calcium phosphate nanoparticles are potential MeJA nanocarriers allowing for the increase in the quality of the grapes at the time of harvest in a more sustainable way, although future studies must be carried out in order to optimise the concentration with which these nanoparticles are doped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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26 pages, 8782 KiB  
Article
Effective Microorganisms and Olive Mill Wastewater Used as Biostimulants to Improve the Performance of Tanacetum balsamita L., a Medicinal Plant
by Cecilia Faraloni, Cristiana Giordano, Lorenzo Arcidiaco, Carla Benelli, Sara Di Lonardo, Monica Anichini, Federico Stefani and Raffaella Petruccelli
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020722 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The use of biostimulants and/or biofertilizers has acquired considerable importance and can contribute to the sustainable management agriculture, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and water. This study aims to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) and Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) [...] Read more.
The use of biostimulants and/or biofertilizers has acquired considerable importance and can contribute to the sustainable management agriculture, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and water. This study aims to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) and Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) on the growth, photosynthetic performance and polyphenols content of the medicinal plant Tanacetum balsamita. The EM and OMW were used at two dilution rates. The EM was added to 5% v/v and 10% v/v, while OMW was added to 2.5% v/v and 5% v/v in plants at the early growth stage. After 75 days of treatment, all the treated plants had a leaf number and leaf area almost 2-fold higher than in the Control plants. Moreover, the treatments, at all the concentrations applied had a positive effect on the photosynthetic activity, with an improvement both in terms of the quantum yield of photosynthesis and electrons transport efficiency. The best photosynthetic and growth performances in the treated plants coincided with the higher production of phenolic compounds; indeed, after 75 days, the content of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and isochlorogenic acid was even 2-fold of the Control plants. Also, rutin content was 1.28–1.50-fold respect to the Control extracts. The highest phenolic compound content was reflected by the highest antiradical activity, found in the extracts of the treated plants. The effectiveness of EM to increase the growth and quality of plants and in particular, the potential use of OMW on the cultivated crop was confirmed to this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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12 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Djulis Hull on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Injury
by Fuad Sauqi Isnain, Nai-Chen Liao, Hui-Yun Tsai, Jue-Liang Hsu, Pi-Jen Tsai, Agustin Krisna Wardani and Yu-Kuo Chen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010594 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a pseudocereal crop native to Taiwan, is often utilized as a source of grain in the diet because of its high nutritional value. The hull of djulis is discarded as waste during cooking or processing because of its [...] Read more.
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a pseudocereal crop native to Taiwan, is often utilized as a source of grain in the diet because of its high nutritional value. The hull of djulis is discarded as waste during cooking or processing because of its bitter taste. However, recent studies have shown that djulis hull possesses certain benefits, such as antioxidant, blood sugar-lowering, and gut microbiota-regulating properties. Herein, the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of djulis hull (EEDH) against stomach injury caused by indomethacin (IND) in C57BL/6J mice and its mechanism of action was assessed. Preadministration of EEDH significantly attenuated the gastric ulcer caused by IND in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Additionally, gastric mucosal injury and gastric wall edema within the submucosal layer observed in histopathological examination were improved by administration of EEDH. EEDH preadministration also reinstated the reduction of glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities induced by IND, indicating that EEDH can modulate the antioxidant status of gastric mucosa in mice. Moreover, IND-induced decline of gastric COX-1 expression was upregulated in mice of EEDH treatment groups. Administration of IND increased the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the gastric mucosa of mice, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), whereas EEDH treatment significantly decreased their expression (p < 0.05). Consequently, EEDH can improve gastric injury by regulating antioxidant status and inhibiting proinflammatory signaling pathways, and has the potential to be developed as a functional food for gastric protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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18 pages, 4515 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Strain with Whey Proteins by Lyophilization and Its Application in Production of Probiotic Apple Juices
by Weizhe Sun, Quang D. Nguyen, Gizella Sipiczki, Sofia Radja Ziane, Kristijan Hristovski, László Friedrich, Anna Visy, Géza Hitka, Attila Gere and Erika Bujna
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010318 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
The viability of probiotics is strictly influenced by the production, storage, and digestion, while microencapsulation is a technology that can protect them against harsh environments. In this study, the impact of different core-to-wall ratios and wall material formulations on physical properties and the [...] Read more.
The viability of probiotics is strictly influenced by the production, storage, and digestion, while microencapsulation is a technology that can protect them against harsh environments. In this study, the impact of different core-to-wall ratios and wall material formulations on physical properties and the cell number of the microcapsules were investigated. The samples with core-to-wall ratio 1:1 have a significantly higher cell number, encapsulation efficiency, and bulk density than samples with core-to-wall ratio 1:1.5. The yields of the encapsulation method were changes in the opposite direction. Meanwhile, core-to-wall ratios and formulation have a significant effect on the cell number of the microcapsules during the in vitro SGJ test, whereas time, core-to-wall ratios, and formulation have a similar influence in the in vitro SIJ test. Moreover, probiotic apple juices stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks kept the highest cell number at the end. Furthermore, probiotic apple juices fortified by microcapsules coated with WP:DWP 1:1 in core-to-wall ratio 1:1 and stored at 4 °C for 4–8 weeks exhibited a significantly lower pH value. In summary, both whey proteins and denatured whey proteins are as good as coating material for microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v strains. These microcapsules have high potential in the production of probiotic apple juice even by fermentation or fortification methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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15 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lead, Copper and Cadmium on Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors and Biosynthesis of Photosynthetic Pigments in Vicia faba L. (Broad Beans) at Different Stages of Growth
by Wassim Saadaoui, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales, Claudia Sifuentes-Gallardo, Héctor Durán-Muñoz, Khaoula Abrougui, Ali Mohammadi and Neji Tarchoun
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 8941; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12188941 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Trace elements in the environmental media contribute to toxicities of different types. Their presence in the arable pedosphere is a human-health risk factor. This study focused on Vicia faba represented by two Tunisian varieties of bean (Mamdouh) and faba bean ( [...] Read more.
Trace elements in the environmental media contribute to toxicities of different types. Their presence in the arable pedosphere is a human-health risk factor. This study focused on Vicia faba represented by two Tunisian varieties of bean (Mamdouh) and faba bean (Badii). The objective was to analyze the effects of lead, copper and cadmium on their growth, chlorophyll-content and carotenoids-content, as well as the bioaccumulation and translocation factor, at different stages of growth. For each metal, the concentrations the plants were subjected to were 6, 0.3 and 0.03 mg/L of the metal in the compound for lead nitrate, copper nitrate and cadmium acetate, respectively. The analysis was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ICP-MS), encompassing all the parts of the plant. The authors detected a perceptible decrease in the fresh weight of roots and shoots, as well as a drop in the chlorophyll and carotenoid, for all the three heavy metals. Cadmium turned out to be the most toxic of the three metals and copper (which is incidentally an essential micronutrient for plant growth) the least. As far as the bioaccumulation factor was concerned, bean and faba bean exhibited different behaviours, both with regard to the growth stages and the heavy metal absorbed. During the vegetative growth stage, both were accumulators of all the three heavy metals (a translocation factor less than unity). However, in the flowering stage, faba bean was a hyper-accumulator of copper (TF > 1); while the bean plants accumulated a lot of lead in the pods-stage (TF > 1). It is worthwhile to pose new research questions and try to answer them in this study, if legumes are accumulator or hyper accumulator plants in which stage and in where organ accumulate more HMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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15 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Baby Food Jars as a Dietary Source of Essential (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Mn) and Toxic Elements (Al, Cd, Pb, B, Ba, V, Sr, Li, Ni)
by Santiago González-Suárez, Soraya Paz-Montelongo, Daniel Niebla-Canelo, Samuel Alejandro-Vega, Dailos González-Weller, Carmen Rubio-Armendáriz, Arturo Hardisson and Ángel J. Gutiérrez-Fernández
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8044; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168044 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Baby food from jars is made of meat, vegetables or fruits, and might be a valuable source of essential elements such as Na or K. However, these infant products could also be a source of toxic elements such as Al or Cd, which [...] Read more.
Baby food from jars is made of meat, vegetables or fruits, and might be a valuable source of essential elements such as Na or K. However, these infant products could also be a source of toxic elements such as Al or Cd, which are dangerous to infants. In total, 45 samples of various kinds of baby food in jars (meat, vegetables, fruit and mixed) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP OES) with the aim of evaluating the daily intake of essential elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Mn) and dietary exposure to toxic elements (Al, Cd, Pb, B, Ba, V, Sr, Li, Ni). Mixed jars registered the highest concentrations of Na, Ca, Zn, Fe. Al (8.22 ± 8.97 mg/kg wet weight) stands out in vegetable jars. In total, 130 g/day of mixed jars fulfills daily Zn and Ca requirements. These consumption scenarios (130 g/day, 250 g/day) supposed high Mn intakes (40 times higher than the recommended value), which could pose a risk to infants’ health. Pb, Ni, Cd and Al intakes exceed the maximum values. It is recommended to avoid the daily consumption of these products since it can pose a risk to the health of infants. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Nitric acid (PubChem: CID 944). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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15 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
Co-Fermentation of Microalgae Biomass and Miscanthus × giganteus Silage—Assessment of the Substrate, Biogas Production and Digestate Characteristics
by Marcin Dębowski, Joanna Kazimierowicz, Marcin Zieliński and Izabela Bartkowska
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7291; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147291 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
The development of a sustainable bioenergy market is currently largely fueled by energy crops, whose ever-increasing production competes with the global food and feed supply. Consequently, non-food crops need to be considered as alternatives for energy biomass production. Such alternatives include microalgal biomass, [...] Read more.
The development of a sustainable bioenergy market is currently largely fueled by energy crops, whose ever-increasing production competes with the global food and feed supply. Consequently, non-food crops need to be considered as alternatives for energy biomass production. Such alternatives include microalgal biomass, as well as energy crops grown on non-agricultural land. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how co-digestion of microalgal biomass with giant miscanthus silage affects feedstock properties, the biogas production process, biogas yields, methane fractions and the digestate profile. Combining giant miscanthus silage with microbial biomass was found to produce better C/N ratios than using either substrate alone. The highest biogas and methane production rates—628.00 ± 20.05 cm3/gVS and 3045.56 ± 274.06 cm3 CH4/d—were obtained with 40% microalgae in the feedstock. In all variants, the bulk of the microbial community consisted of bacteria (EUB338) and archaea (ARC915). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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10 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Pineapple Residues from the Colombian Agroindustry to Produce Cellulose Nanofibers
by Marcelo A. Guancha-Chalapud, Liliana Serna-Cock and Diego F. Tirado
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6956; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146956 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Cellulose nanofiber is the world’s most advanced biomass material. Most importantly, it is biodegradable. In this work, nanofibers were obtained from pineapple leaves, a large solid waste in Colombia, using a combined extraction method (chemical procedures and ultrasound). The native fibers were bleached, [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofiber is the world’s most advanced biomass material. Most importantly, it is biodegradable. In this work, nanofibers were obtained from pineapple leaves, a large solid waste in Colombia, using a combined extraction method (chemical procedures and ultrasound). The native fibers were bleached, hydrolyzed, treated with ultrasound, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared analysis (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a comparison, a commercial microcrystalline cellulose sample was analyzed, which demonstrated the efficiency of cellulose extraction. The nanofibers had a diameter and a length of 18 nm and 237 nm, respectively, with a maximum degradation temperature of 306 °C. The analysis showed the efficiency of acid treatment combined with ultrasound to obtain nanofibers and confirmed that pineapple residues can be valorized by this method. These results indicate that lignocellulosic matrices from pineapple leaves have potential application for obtaining polymeric-type composite materials. Due to their morphology and characteristic physical properties, the cellulose nanofibers obtained in this work could be a promising material for use in a wealth of fields and applications such as filter material, high gas barrier packaging material, electronic devices, foods, medicine, construction, cosmetics, pharmacy, and health care, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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14 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, and HPLC–MS/MS Profiles of Different Extracts of Arabis carduchorum Boiss.: An Endemic Plant to Turkey
by Abdullahi Ibrahim Uba, Gokhan Zengin, Domenico Montesano, Ugur Cakilcioglu, Selami Selvi, Musa Denizhan Ulusan, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Simone Angeloni, Sharmeen Jugreet, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan and Mohamad Fawzi Mahoomodally
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6561; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136561 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
In this study, six extracts of Arabis carduchorum prepared from solvents of varying polarity (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-hexane) were investigated for their chemical profiles and total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC/TFC) using HPLC–MS/MS and spectrophotometric/colorimetric assays, respectively, along with the [...] Read more.
In this study, six extracts of Arabis carduchorum prepared from solvents of varying polarity (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-hexane) were investigated for their chemical profiles and total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC/TFC) using HPLC–MS/MS and spectrophotometric/colorimetric assays, respectively, along with the assessment of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects. In general, the polar extracts (methanol, water, and infusion) showed higher TPC/TFC than the other extracts (range: 13.73–26.62 mg GAE/g; 2.66–52.95 mg RE/g, respectively). The total antioxidant capacity of the polar extracts ranged from 0.90–1.85 mmol TE/g in phosphomolybdenum assay, while the free radical scavenging potential ranged from 4.36–32.13 mg TE/g and 12.58–67.73 mg TE/g in DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. While the water and infuse extract inhibited only butyrylcholinesterase (2.68 and 2.39 mg GALAE/g, respectively), the other extracts were found to inhibit both acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases (0.96–2.73 mg GALAE/g and 1.86–5.11 mg GALAE/g, respectively). On the contrary, all extracts exhibited anti-tyrosinase (40.24–59.22 mg KAE/g) and anti-amylase (0.09–0.63 mmol ACAE/g) activities. Overall, this study highlighted the effect of solvent polarity on the extraction of bioactive compounds and the biological properties of the extracts of A. carduchorum; hence, the results obtained could be used to guide optimum extraction in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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11 pages, 2131 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hot Water Extract of Tilapia on Exercise Capacity in Mice
by Hui-Yun Tsai, Jia-Fang Yang, Hua-Han Chen, Fu-Nian You, Yu-Jie Zhao, Yi-Hsien Lin, Jue-Liang Hsu, Chi-I Chang and Yu-Kuo Chen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2601; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052601 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) has become one of the main aquatic products of Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hot water extract of tilapia (HWET) in relieving fatigue and enhancing exercise performance in mice in [...] Read more.
Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) has become one of the main aquatic products of Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hot water extract of tilapia (HWET) in relieving fatigue and enhancing exercise performance in mice in a swimming endurance test. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) and treated with either a vehicle (control group) or different doses of HWET, which were designated as HWET-L (800 mg/kg/day), HWET-M (1600 mg/kg/day), and HWET-H (4000 mg/kg/day). The results of the swimming endurance test showed that HWET treatment significantly improved exercise-induced fatigue as the swimming time of the mice increased (p < 0.05). One hour after the test, blood samples were collected from each mouse and serum biochemical parameters were measured. The serum levels of lactate, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were lower in mice treated with HWET compared to the control group. Moreover, HWET treatment increased serum glucose levels and glycogen content in the liver. Enhanced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver and muscle was also found in the HWET-M and HWET-H groups. Western blot results showed that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the liver tissue was downregulated by HWET treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HWET supplementation could enhance exercise performance and alleviate fatigue via biochemical profile improvements. This suggests that HWET has the potential for future development into functional foods or nutritional supplements to relieve fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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16 pages, 4407 KiB  
Article
Sugarcane Stem Node Recognition in Field by Deep Learning Combining Data Expansion
by Wen Chen, Chengwei Ju, Yanzhou Li, Shanshan Hu and Xi Qiao
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188663 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4271
Abstract
The rapid and accurate identification of sugarcane stem nodes in the complex natural environment is essential for the development of intelligent sugarcane harvesters. However, traditional sugarcane stem node recognition has been mainly based on image processing and recognition technology, where the recognition accuracy [...] Read more.
The rapid and accurate identification of sugarcane stem nodes in the complex natural environment is essential for the development of intelligent sugarcane harvesters. However, traditional sugarcane stem node recognition has been mainly based on image processing and recognition technology, where the recognition accuracy is low in a complex natural environment. In this paper, an object detection algorithm based on deep learning was proposed for sugarcane stem node recognition in a complex natural environment, and the robustness and generalisation ability of the algorithm were improved by the dataset expansion method to simulate different illumination conditions. The impact of the data expansion and lighting condition in different time periods on the results of sugarcane stem nodes detection was discussed, and the superiority of YOLO v4, which performed best in the experiment, was verified by comparing it with four different deep learning algorithms, namely Faster R-CNN, SSD300, RetinaNet and YOLO v3. The comparison results showed that the AP (average precision) of the sugarcane stem nodes detected by YOLO v4 was 95.17%, which was higher than that of the other four algorithms (78.87%, 88.98%, 90.88% and 92.69%, respectively). Meanwhile, the detection speed of the YOLO v4 method was 69 f/s and exceeded the requirement of a real-time detection speed of 30 f/s. The research shows that it is a feasible method for real-time detection of sugarcane stem nodes in a complex natural environment. This research provides visual technical support for the development of intelligent sugarcane harvesters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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15 pages, 6910 KiB  
Article
On Combining DeepSnake and Global Saliency for Detection of Orchard Apples
by Wang Jing, Wang Leqi, Han Yanling, Zhang Yun and Zhou Ruyan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6269; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146269 - 7 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
For the fast detection and recognition of apple fruit targets, based on the real-time DeepSnake deep learning instance segmentation model, this paper provided an algorithm basis for the practical application and promotion of apple picking robots. Since the initial detection results have an [...] Read more.
For the fast detection and recognition of apple fruit targets, based on the real-time DeepSnake deep learning instance segmentation model, this paper provided an algorithm basis for the practical application and promotion of apple picking robots. Since the initial detection results have an important impact on the subsequent edge prediction, this paper proposed an automatic detection method for apple fruit targets in natural environments based on saliency detection and traditional color difference methods. Combined with the original image, the histogram backprojection algorithm was used to further optimize the salient image results. A dynamic adaptive overlapping target separation algorithm was proposed to locate the single target fruit and further to determine the initial contour for DeepSnake, in view of the possible overlapping fruit regions in the saliency map. Finally, the target fruit was labeled based on the segmentation results of the examples. In the experiment, 300 training datasets were used to train the DeepSnake model, and the self-built dataset containing 1036 pictures of apples in various situations under natural environment was tested. The detection accuracy of target fruits under non-overlapping shaded fruits, overlapping fruits, shaded branches and leaves, and poor illumination conditions were 99.12%, 94.78%, 90.71%, and 94.46% respectively. The comprehensive detection accuracy was 95.66%, and the average processing time was 0.42 s in 1036 test images, which showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively separate the overlapping fruits through a not-very-large training samples and realize the rapid and accurate detection of apple targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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Review

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34 pages, 4328 KiB  
Review
Modern Techniques for Flavonoid Extraction—To Optimize or Not to Optimize?
by Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Dunja Šamec and Anita Šalić
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11865; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211865 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5827
Abstract
Flavonoids, specialized metabolites found in plants, have a number of beneficial properties and are important for maintaining good health. Efficient extraction methods are required to extract the most bioactive compounds from plant material. Modern techniques are replacing conventional methods of flavonoids extraction in [...] Read more.
Flavonoids, specialized metabolites found in plants, have a number of beneficial properties and are important for maintaining good health. Efficient extraction methods are required to extract the most bioactive compounds from plant material. Modern techniques are replacing conventional methods of flavonoids extraction in order to reduce energy and solvent consumption, increase extraction efficiency, and satisfy growing market demand as well as environmental legislation. The extraction of bioactive molecules compounds is affected by a number of variables. To determine the conditions that ensure the highest extraction yield, it is advisable to analyze the interactions between the above in parallel. In this work, an overview of the advantages and performance of modern methods (microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurized liquids-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluids extraction) for the extraction of flavonoids is presented. This work also presents the application of extraction process optimization and extraction kinetics for flavonoid extraction, using different types of experimental designs for different flavonoid sources and different extraction methods. The general conclusion of all the studies listed is that an experimental design combined with RSM modeling reduces the number of experiments that should be performed to achieve maximum extraction yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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11 pages, 604 KiB  
Review
Current Advances in the Concept of Quorum Sensing-Based Prevention of Spoilage of Fish Products by Pseudomonads
by Natalia Tomaś and Kamila Myszka
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6719; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136719 - 2 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Microbial spoilage of fish is attributed to quorum sensing (QS)-based activities. QS is a communication process between the cells in which microorganisms secrete and sense the specific chemicals (autoinductors, AIs) that regulate proteolysis, lipolysis, and biofilm formation. These activities change the organoleptic characteristics [...] Read more.
Microbial spoilage of fish is attributed to quorum sensing (QS)-based activities. QS is a communication process between the cells in which microorganisms secrete and sense the specific chemicals (autoinductors, AIs) that regulate proteolysis, lipolysis, and biofilm formation. These activities change the organoleptic characteristics and reduce the safety of the products. Although the microbial community of fish is diverse and may consist of a range of bacterial strains, the deterioration of fish-based products is attributed to the growth and activity of Pseudomonas spp. This work summarizes recent advancements to assess the influence of QS mechanisms on seafood spoilage by Pseudomonas spp. The quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) in the context of fish preservation has also been discussed. Detailed recognition of this phenomenon is crucial in establishing effective strategies to prevent the premature deterioration of fish-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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35 pages, 3208 KiB  
Review
Cancer Chemopreventive Role of Dietary Terpenoids by Modulating Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Signaling System—A Comprehensive Update
by Md Afjalus Siraj, Md. Arman Islam, Md. Abdullah Al Fahad, Habiba Rahman Kheya, Jianbo Xiao and Jesus Simal-Gandara
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10806; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210806 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4172
Abstract
ROS, RNS, and carcinogenic metabolites generate excessive oxidative stress, which changes the basal cellular status and leads to epigenetic modification, genomic instability, and initiation of cancer. Epigenetic modification may inhibit tumor-suppressor genes and activate oncogenes, enabling cells to have cancer promoting properties. The [...] Read more.
ROS, RNS, and carcinogenic metabolites generate excessive oxidative stress, which changes the basal cellular status and leads to epigenetic modification, genomic instability, and initiation of cancer. Epigenetic modification may inhibit tumor-suppressor genes and activate oncogenes, enabling cells to have cancer promoting properties. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene, and is activated in response to cellular stress. It can regulate redox homoeostasis by expressing several cytoprotective enzymes, including NADPH quinine oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase-1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, etc. There is accumulating evidence supporting the idea that dietary nutraceuticals derived from commonly used fruits, vegetables, and spices have the ability to produce cancer chemopreventive activity by inducing Nrf2-mediated detoxifying enzymes. In this review, we discuss the importance of these nutraceuticals in cancer chemoprevention and summarize the role of dietary terpenoids in this respect. This approach was taken to accumulate the mechanistic function of these terpenoids to develop a comprehensive understanding of their direct and indirect roles in modulating the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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34 pages, 516 KiB  
Review
Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: A Sustainable Green Solution for Clean Environment
by S. M. Omar Faruque Babu, M. Belal Hossain, M. Safiur Rahman, Moshiur Rahman, A. S. Shafiuddin Ahmed, Md. Monjurul Hasan, Ahmed Rakib, Talha Bin Emran, Jianbo Xiao and Jesus Simal-Gandara
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10348; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110348 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 7631
Abstract
Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by various sources has become a major worry all over the world. Pollutants can enter the human body through the food chain from aquatic and soil habitats. These pollutants can cause various chronic diseases in humans and mortality if [...] Read more.
Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by various sources has become a major worry all over the world. Pollutants can enter the human body through the food chain from aquatic and soil habitats. These pollutants can cause various chronic diseases in humans and mortality if they collect in the body over an extended period. Although the phytoremediation technique cannot completely remove harmful materials, it is an environmentally benign, cost-effective, and natural process that has no negative effects on the environment. The main types of phytoremediation, their mechanisms, and strategies to raise the remediation rate and the use of genetically altered plants, phytoremediation plant prospects, economics, and usable plants are reviewed in this review. Several factors influence the phytoremediation process, including types of contaminants, pollutant characteristics, and plant species selection, climate considerations, flooding and aging, the effect of salt, soil parameters, and redox potential. Phytoremediation’s environmental and economic efficiency, use, and relevance are depicted in our work. Multiple recent breakthroughs in phytoremediation technologies are also mentioned in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knowledge-Based Biotechnology for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries)
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