Topical Collection "Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Treatment and Disposal"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
Interests: water supply and water treatment; municipal wastewater treatment; industrial waste treatment; biological waste treatment; water and wastewater treatment plant design; water pollution control; water quality engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wastewater treatment results in two major outputs, effluent and sludge. Effluent is discharged into receiving waters, while sludge (biosolids) can be beneficially reused, incinerated, or landfilled. The major objective of municipal wastewater treatment is to remove pollutants from wastewater. Treated effluent can be utilized for various types of water reuse and for resource recovery. Proper wastewater treatment and disposal are also essential for protecting public health. The municipal wastewater treatment processes help to achieve water quality objectives and to reduce water pollution control. Development of advanced wastewater treatment technologies is essential to meet the regulatory requirements for water quality. On the other hand, the processing of sludge for use and disposal is an important operation for municipal wastewater treatment facilities. When sludge is properly treated and processed, it can be a valuable resource for agriculture and other beneficial uses.

This Topical Collection will publish contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of municipal wastewater and sludge treatment and disposal. We seek contributions that deal with recent advances in municipal wastewater and sludge treatment technologies, health effects of municipal wastewater, risk management, energy efficient wastewater and sludge treatment, water sustainability, water reuse and resource recovery, biogas production and recovery, and biosolids science, fundamentals, and advances.

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Advanced wastewater technology
  • Onsite wastewater treatment
  • Natural wastewater treatment system
  • Biological treatment
  • Physicochemical treatment
  • Tertiary treatment
  • Water quality
  • Wastewater treatment and health
  • Sludge (biosolids) treatment and disposal
  • Energy efficient wastewater treatment
  • Water reuse
  • Nutrient and resource recovery
  • Municipal wastewater
  • Biogas production and recovery
  • Land application and management
  • Biosolids science, fundamentals, and advances

Published Papers (13 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
Performance and Biomass Characteristics of SBRs Treating High-Salinity Wastewater at Presence of Anionic Surfactants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082689 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as two anionic surfactants, have diffused into environments such as surface water and ground water due to extensive and improper use. The effects on the removal performance and microbial community of sequencing batch reactors [...] Read more.
Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as two anionic surfactants, have diffused into environments such as surface water and ground water due to extensive and improper use. The effects on the removal performance and microbial community of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) need to be investigated in the treatment of saline wastewater containing 20 g/L NaCl. The presence of SDS and SDBS could decrease the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus, and the effect of SDS was more significant. The effect of surfactants on the removal mainly occurred during the aeration phase. Adding SDS and SDBS can reduce the content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In addition, SDS and SDBS also can reduce the inhibition of high salinity on sludge activity. A total of 16 s of rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the addition of surfactants reduced the diversity of microbial communities; besides, the relative abundance value of the dominant population Proteobacteria increased from 91.66% to 97.12% and 93.48% when SDS and SDBS were added into the system, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short- and Long-Term Structural Characterization of Cured-in-Place Pipe Liner with Reinforced Glass Fiber Material
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062073 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), as a kind of trenchless sewer rehabilitation technology, is a method to repair sewer pipe using unsaturated polyester resin. This study develops a CIPP liner using hot water or steam curing as well as glass fiber, in contrast to traditional [...] Read more.
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), as a kind of trenchless sewer rehabilitation technology, is a method to repair sewer pipe using unsaturated polyester resin. This study develops a CIPP liner using hot water or steam curing as well as glass fiber, in contrast to traditional methods, which use nonwoven fabric. Composite material samples were fabricated by combining liner materials using various methods, and the structural characteristics of the liners were compared and analyzed through short- and long-term flexural strength tests. A long-term test was conducted for 10,000 h, and the results revealed 13.3 times higher flexural strength and 8 times higher flexural modulus than the American Society for Testing Materials minimum criteria for CIPP short-term properties. The maximum creep retention factor was 0.64, thereby reducing the design thickness of the CIPP by up to 54%. The structural characteristics also improved when glass fibers were mixed with traditional CIPP liner, making it possible to reduce the thickness by 30%. Glass fibers result in high structural strength when combined with unsaturated polyester resin. Structural strength increased, even when glass fibers were mixed with traditional CIPP liner. The main contribution of this research is the development of a high strength CIPP liner and improvement of the structural properties of CIPP lining without using the specially formulated resin or lining materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Vermicompost and Microbial Community Diversity Affected by the Contrasting Temperature during Vermicomposting of Dewatered Sludge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051748 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature on the quality of vermicompost and microbial profiles of dewatered sludge during vermicomposting. To do this, fresh sludge was separately vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia fetida under different temperature regimes, specifically, 15 °C, 20 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature on the quality of vermicompost and microbial profiles of dewatered sludge during vermicomposting. To do this, fresh sludge was separately vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia fetida under different temperature regimes, specifically, 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C. The results showed that the growth rate of earthworms increased with temperature. Moreover, the lowest organic matter content along with the highest electrical conductivity, ammonia, and nitrate content in sludge were recorded for 25 °C indicating that increasing temperature significantly accelerated decomposition, mineralization, and nitrification. In addition, higher temperature significantly enhanced microbial activity in the first 30 days of vermicomposting, also exhibiting the fastest stabilization at 25 °C. High throughput sequencing results further revealed that the alpha diversity of the bacterial community was enhanced with increasing temperature resulting in distinct bacterial genera in each vermicompost. This study suggests that quality of vermicompost and dominant bacterial community are strongly influenced by the contrasting temperature during vermicomposting of sludge, with the optimal performance at 25 °C. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance and the Relationship between the Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Microbial Compositions under Long-Term Exposure to Tetracycline and Sulfamethoxazole
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234681 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The removal of antibiotics and widespread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have received continuous attention due to the possible threats to environment. However, little information is available on the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the relationship between ARGs and microbial communities under long-term [...] Read more.
The removal of antibiotics and widespread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have received continuous attention due to the possible threats to environment. However, little information is available on the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the relationship between ARGs and microbial communities under long-term exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. In our study, two laboratory-scale anoxic-aerobic wastewater treatment systems were established and operated for 420 days to investigate the evolution of antibiotic resistance under exposure of 5 mg·L−1 tetracycline (TC) or 5 mg·L−1 TC and 1 mg·L−1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The average removal rates of TC and SMX were about 59% and 72%, respectively. The abundance of the main ARGs responsible for resistance to TC and SMX increased obviously after antibiotics addition, especially when TC and SMX in combination (increased 3.20-fold). The tetC and sul1 genes were the predominant genes in the development of TC and SMX resistance, in which gene sul1 had the highest abundance among all the detected ARGs. Network analysis revealed that under antibiotic pressure, the core bacterial groups carrying multiple ARGs formed and concentrated in about 20 genera such as Dechloromonas, Candidatus Accumulibacter, Aeromonas, Rubrivivax, in which intI1 played important roles in transferring various ARGs except sul3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Tetracycline by Hydrous Ferric Oxide: Adsorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Mechanism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224580 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The removal of tetracycline (TC) from solution is an important environmental issue. Here we prepared an adsorbent hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) by adjusting a FeCl3·6H2O solution to neutral pH. HFO was characterized by a surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction [...] Read more.
The removal of tetracycline (TC) from solution is an important environmental issue. Here we prepared an adsorbent hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) by adjusting a FeCl3·6H2O solution to neutral pH. HFO was characterized by a surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was used to remove TC from solution. The influence of pH, solid-to-liquid ratio, ionic type, and strength on TC removal was investigated. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms were also determined. HFO after adsorption of TC was analyzed by FTIR and XPS to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of TC increased from 88.3% to 95% with increasing pH (3.0–7.0) and then decreased. K+ ions had little effect on TC adsorption by HFO. However, Ca2+ and Mg2+ reduced the adsorption of TC on HFO. When the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased, the inhibitory effect was more obvious. Pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir model fitted the adsorption process well. The maximum adsorption capacity of TC on HFO reached 99.49 mg·g−1. The adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and increasingly disordered. Combination analysis with FTIR and XPS showed that the mechanism between TC and HFO involved electrostatic interactions, hydrogen interactions, and complexation. Therefore, the environmental behavior of TC could be affected by HFO. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Biological Effects on Activated Sludge Performance and Activity Recovery of Damaged Sludge by Exposure to CeO2 Nanoparticles in Sequencing Batch Reactors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204029 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recently, the growing release of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) into sewage systems has attracted great concern. Several studies have extensively explored CeO2 NPs’ potential adverse impacts on wastewater treatment plants; however, the impaired activated sludge recovery potentials have seldom been [...] Read more.
Recently, the growing release of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) into sewage systems has attracted great concern. Several studies have extensively explored CeO2 NPs’ potential adverse impacts on wastewater treatment plants; however, the impaired activated sludge recovery potentials have seldom been addressed to date. To explore the physicochemical and biological effects on the activated sludge performance and activity recovery of damaged sludge by exposure to CeO2 NPs in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), four reactors and multiple indicators including water quality, key enzymes, microbial metabolites, the microbial community structure and toxicity were used. Results showed that 10-week exposure to higher CeO2 NP concentration (1, 10 mg/L) resulted in a sharp decrease in nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies, which were consistent with the tendencies of key enzymes. Meanwhile, CeO2 NPs at concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L decreased the secretion of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances to 0.13%, 3.14%, and 28.60%, respectively, compared to the control. In addition, two-week recovery period assays revealed that the functional bacteria Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Planctomycetes recovered slightly at the phyla level, as analyzed through high-throughput sequencing, which was consistent with the small amount of improvement of the effluent performance of the system. This reflected the small possibility of the activity recovery of damaged sludge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of a Gas Hydrate Dissociation-Energy-Based Quick-Freezing Treatment for Sludge Cell Lysis and Dewatering
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193611 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
A gas Hydrate dissociation-energy-based Quick-Freezing treatment (HbQF) was applied for sewage sludge cell rupture and dewatering. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) molecules in sewage create CO2 gas hydrates, and subsequently the sludge rapidly freezes by releasing the [...] Read more.
A gas Hydrate dissociation-energy-based Quick-Freezing treatment (HbQF) was applied for sewage sludge cell rupture and dewatering. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) molecules in sewage create CO2 gas hydrates, and subsequently the sludge rapidly freezes by releasing the applied pressure. Cell rupture was observed through a viability evaluation and leachate analysis. The decreased ratios of live cell to dead cells, increased osmotic pressure, and increased conductivity showed cell lysis and release of electrolytes via HbQF. The change in physicochemical properties of the samples resulting from HbQF was investigated via zeta potential measurement, rheological analysis, and particle size measurement. The HbQF treatment could not reduce the sludge water content when combined with membrane-based filtration post-treatment because of the pore blocking of fractured and lysed cells; however, it could achieve sludge microbial cell rupture, disinfection, and floc disintegration, causing enhanced reduction of water content and enhanced dewatering capability via a sedimentation post process. Furthermore, the organic-rich materials released by the cell rupture, investigated via the analysis of protein, polysaccharide, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen, may be returned to a biological treatment system or (an) aerobic digester to increase treatment efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Carrier Filling Ratio on the Advanced Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent by Denitrifying MBBR
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183244 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The filling ratio (FR) of a carrier has an influence on the pollutant removal of the aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). However, the effect of the polyethylene (PE) carrier FR on the performance and microbial characteristics of the denitrifying MBBR for the [...] Read more.
The filling ratio (FR) of a carrier has an influence on the pollutant removal of the aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). However, the effect of the polyethylene (PE) carrier FR on the performance and microbial characteristics of the denitrifying MBBR for the treatment of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has not been extensively studied. A bench-scale denitrifying MBBR was set up and operated with PE carrier FRs of 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% for the degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen from WWTP effluent at 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). The nitrate removal rates with FRs of 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% were 94.3 ± 3.9%, 87.7 ± 7.3%, 89.7 ± 11.6%, and 94.6 ± 4.0%, and the corresponding denitrification rates (rNO3--N) were 8.0 ± 5.6, 11.3 ± 4.6, 11.6 ± 4.6, and 10.0 ± 4.9 mg NO3-N/L/d, respectively. Nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis illustrated that the highest functional diversity (Shannon’s diversity index, H′) of biofilm microbial community was obtained at 30% FR. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of nitrate reductase (narG) and nosZ genes at 30% FR was significantly higher than that at 20% FR, and no significant changes were observed at 40% and 50% FRs. Thus, 30% FR was recommended as the optimal carrier FR for the denitrifying MBBR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of an Extreme Winter Storm Event on the Coagulation/Flocculation Processes in a Prototype Surface Water Treatment Plant: Causes and Mitigating Measures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152808 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Climate change has often caused failure in water treatment operations. In this study, we report a real case study at a major surface water treatment plant in Alabama, USA. Following a severe winter storm, the effluent water turbidity surged to >15.00 Nephelometric Turbidity [...] Read more.
Climate change has often caused failure in water treatment operations. In this study, we report a real case study at a major surface water treatment plant in Alabama, USA. Following a severe winter storm, the effluent water turbidity surged to >15.00 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), far exceeding the 0.30 NTU standard. As a result, the plant operation had to be shut down for three days, causing millions of dollars of losses and affecting tens of thousands of people. Systematic jar tests were carried out with sediment samples from 22 upstream locations. The coagulation and settleability of sediment particles were tested under simulated storm weather conditions, i.e., low temperature (7 °C) and in the presence of various types and concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) that was extracted from the local sediments. Experimental results proved that elevated NOM (6.14 mg·L−1 as Total Organic Carbon, TOC) in raw water was the root cause for the failure of the plant while the low temperature played a minor but significant role. Pre-oxidation with permanganate and/or elevated coagulant dosage were found effective to remove TOC in raw water and to prevent similar treatment failure. Moreover, we recommend that chemical dosages should be adjusted based on the TOC level in raw water, and a reference dosage of 0.29 kg-NaMnO4/kg-TOC and 19 kg- polyaluminum chloride (PACl) /kg-TOC would be appropriate to cope with future storm water impacts. To facilitate timely adjustment of the chemical dosages, the real time key water quality parameters should be monitored, such as turbidity, TOC, Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, pH, and color. The findings can guide other treatment operators to deal with shock changes in the raw water quality resulting from severe weather or other operating conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Polyaluminum Chloride-Chitosan Flocculant for Treating Pig Biogas Slurry Using the Box–Behnken Response Surface Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060996 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Flocculation can remove large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater, and the resulting nitrogen- and phosphorus-rich floc can be used to produce organic fertilizer. For biogas slurries containing high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, ordinary flocculants can no longer meet the flocculation [...] Read more.
Flocculation can remove large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater, and the resulting nitrogen- and phosphorus-rich floc can be used to produce organic fertilizer. For biogas slurries containing high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, ordinary flocculants can no longer meet the flocculation requirements. In this study, to fully utilize the advantages of the two flocculants and achieve efficient removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus from a biogas slurry, chitosan (CTS) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used as a composite flocculation agent to flocculate pig biogas slurries. The response surface method was used to study the effect of PAC added (PACadded) to the composite flocculant (CF), composite flocculant added (CFadded) to the biogas slurry and the pH on flocculation performance, and optimize these three parameters. In the tests, when the PACadded was 6.79 g·100 mL−1CF, the CFadded was 20.05 mL·L−1 biogas slurry and the pH was 7.50, the flocculation performance was the best, with an absorbance of 0.132 at a wavelength of 420 nm. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration was reduced from 214.10 mg·L−1 to 1.38 mg·L−1 for a removal rate of 99.4%. The total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration was reduced from 1568.25 mg·L−1 to 150.27 mg·L−1 for a removal rate of 90.4%. The results showed that the CF could form larger flocs, and had greater adsorption capacity and more stable flocculation performance than ordinary flocculants. Furthermore, the CF could exhibit better chelation, electrical neutralization and bridge adsorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Shock Effect of Inorganic Suspended Solids in Surface Runoff on Wastewater Treatment Plant Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030453 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Previous studies on the water quality of surface runoff often focused on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, phosphorus, and total suspended solid (TSS), but little is known in terms of the inorganic suspended solids (ISS). This research investigated the effects of ISS [...] Read more.
Previous studies on the water quality of surface runoff often focused on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, phosphorus, and total suspended solid (TSS), but little is known in terms of the inorganic suspended solids (ISS). This research investigated the effects of ISS carried by surface runoff on the treatment efficiency of the pretreatment facilities and the ratio of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid to mixed liquor suspended solid (MLVSS/MLSS) of the activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) process in Chongqing city, China. The results showed that the surface runoff had a long-lasting impact on the grit removal capacity of the grit chamber, affecting the normal operation after the rainfall. In contrast, the primary sedimentation tank showed strong impact resistance with higher removal rates of COD, TSS, and ISS. Nonetheless, the primary settling tank aggravates the removal of organic carbon in sewage during rainfall, having a negative impact on subsequent biological treatment. The ISS in the surface runoff could increase the sludge concentration and decrease the MLVSS/MLSS ratio. After repeated surface runoff impact, the MLVSS/MLSS ratio in the activated sludge would drop below even 0.3, interrupting the normal operation of WWTP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Mechanisms for Peroxymonosulfate Activation through the Removal of Methylene Blue: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020198 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Industrial activity is one of the most important sources of water pollution. Yearly, tons of non-biodegradable organic pollutants are discharged, at the least, to wastewater treatment plants. However, biological conventional treatments are unable to degrade them. This research assesses the efficiency of photocatalytic [...] Read more.
Industrial activity is one of the most important sources of water pollution. Yearly, tons of non-biodegradable organic pollutants are discharged, at the least, to wastewater treatment plants. However, biological conventional treatments are unable to degrade them. This research assesses the efficiency of photocatalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by two different iron species (FeSO4 and Fe3+-citrate) and TiO2. These substances accelerate methylene blue removal by the generation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals. The required pH and molar ratios PMS:Fe are crucial variables in treatment optimization. The kinetic removal is reduced by the appearance of scavenger reactions in acidic and basic conditions, as well as by the excess of PMS or iron. The best performance is achieved using an Fe3+-citrate as an iron catalyst, reaching the total removal of methylene blue after 15 min of reaction, with a molar ratio of 3.25:1 (1.62 mM of PMS and 0.5 mM Fe3+-citrate). Fe3+-citrate reached higher methylene blue removal than Fe2+ as a consequence of the photolysis of Fe3+-citrate. This photolysis generates H2O2 and a superoxide radical, which together with hydroxyl and sulfate radicals from PMS activation attack methylene blue, degrading it twice as fast as Fe2+ (0.092 min−1 with Fe2+ and 0.188 min−1 with Fe3+-citrate). On the other hand, a synergistic effect between PMS and titanium dioxide (TiO2) was observed (SPMS/TiO2/UV-A = 1.79). This synergistic effect is a consequence of PMS activation by reaction with the free electron on the surface of TiO2. No differences were observed by changing the molar ratio (1.04:1; 0.26:1 and 0.064:1 PMS:TiO2), reaching total removal of methylene blue after 80 min of reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment by Microcosms of Vertical Subsurface Wetlands in Partially Saturated Conditions Planted with Ornamental Plants and Filled with Mineral and Plastic Substrates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020167 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The current knowledge about the role terrestrial ornamental plants play in constructed wetlands (CWs) has scarcely been evaluated. Likewise, little attention has been given towards the use of new support or fill media for subsurface flow CWs, which may result in the reduction [...] Read more.
The current knowledge about the role terrestrial ornamental plants play in constructed wetlands (CWs) has scarcely been evaluated. Likewise, little attention has been given towards the use of new support or fill media for subsurface flow CWs, which may result in the reduction of costs when implemented on a large scale. This study evaluated, during nine months, the effect of three terrestrial ornamental plants and two substrates on the elimination of pollutants in wastewaters by using fill-and-drain vertical subsurface flow CWs (FD-CWs). Sixteen microcosms were used, nine filled with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and nine with porous river stone (PRS). For each type of substrate, duplicates of microcosms were used, utilizing Anthurium sp., Zantedeschia aethiopica, and Spathiphyllum wallisii as vegetation and two other CWs without vegetation as controls. The environmental conditions, number of flowers, and height of the plants were registered. The results revealed that both substrates in the FD-CWs were efficient in removing pollutants. The average removal of pollutants in systems with vegetation revealed a positive effect on the reduction of the biochemical oxygen demand (55–70%), nitrates (28–44%), phosphates (25–45%), and fecal coliforms (52–65%). Meanwhile, in units without vegetation, the reduction of pollutants was nearly 40–50% less than in those with vegetation. The use of PET as a filling substrate in CWs did not affect the growth and/or the flowering of the species; therefore, its use combined with the species studied in CWs may be replicated in villages with similar wastewater problems. This may represent a reduction in implementation costs when utilizing PET recycled wastes and PRS as substrates in these systems in comparison with the typical substrates used in CWs. More studies are needed to better understand the interactions among these novel support media and the commercial terrestrial ornamental plants. Full article
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