Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 22223

Special Issue Editors


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School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia
Interests: water and wastewater treatment and management; solid waste management; landfill leachate treatment; industrial waste treatment and disposal; biological; chemical and tertiary wastewater treatment; pollution control; water quality engineering
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Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit P.O. Box 14, West Bank, Palestine
Interests: water recourses management and quality; environmental assessment; wastewater management; advocacy; coordination and networking
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Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Cairo 13759, Egypt
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; pollution control; radioactive wastes; mathematical modeling; nanomaterials; cement-based materials; hazardous waste immobilization
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Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1, Tokiwadai, Ube City 755-8611, Yamaguchi, Japan
Interests: biological wastewater treatment (aerobic, anaerobic); biological treatment/recycling of organic solid waste; oxygen supply methods in aerobic wastewater treatment; CO2 removal and storage
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Clean water is one of the most important natural resources on Earth. Wastewater, which is spent water, is also a valuable natural resource in the world. However, wastewater may contain numerous contaminants and, thus, cannot be released back into the environment until these contaminants are removed. Untreated wastewater and inadequately treated wastewater may have a detrimental effect on the environment and harmful effect on human health. Water quality engineering addresses the sources, transport, and treatment of chemical and microbiological contaminants that affect water. Our objective is the treatment of wastewater such that the treated wastewater meets national effluent standards for the protection of both the environment and public health.

This Special Issue seeks contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater and sludge. Of specific interest are contributions that deal with recent advances in municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge-treatment technologies; the health effects of municipal wastewater; risk management; energy-efficient wastewater treatment; water sustainability; and water reuse and resource recovery.

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Prof. Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Prof. Dr. Issam A. Al-Khatib
Prof. Dr. Rehab O. Abdel Rahman
Prof. Dr. Tsuyoshi Imai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced wastewater technology
  • onsite wastewater treatment
  • natural wastewater treatment system
  • biological treatment
  • physicochemical treatment
  • tertiary treatment
  • water quality
  • sludge treatment and disposal
  • energy-efficient wastewater treatment
  • water reuse
  • resource recovery
  • municipal wastewater
  • industrial wastewater
  • nutrient removal

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Growing an Enhanced Culture of Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms to Optimize the Recovery of Phosphate from Wastewater
by Njabulo Thela, David Ikumi, Theo Harding and Moses Basitere
Water 2023, 15(11), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112014 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Having certain bacteria called phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) is important for getting rid of phosphorus (P) in wastewater from homes. This happens in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), where PAOs are active in activated sludge. To design and make EBPR processes [...] Read more.
Having certain bacteria called phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) is important for getting rid of phosphorus (P) in wastewater from homes. This happens in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), where PAOs are active in activated sludge. To design and make EBPR processes work better, we need to have an in-depth understanding of how PAOs work. The best way to learn about them is by studying them in a laboratory. This study undertook to culture these microorganisms in the laboratory. A University of Cape Town membrane bioreactor (UCTMBR) activated sludge (AS) system was used to grow the microorganisms and see how well it worked. This paper looked at what type of substrate PAOs like best, either acetate or propionate, and how providing them with more of their preferred substrate affects how they grow. During the process, it was observed that P was not released or taken up significantly when acetate was added to the influent. The levels were consistently low at around 5.74 ± 4.47 mgP/L infl (release) and 19.9 ± 7.17 mgP/L infl (uptake). The signs become much better when propionate was used instead of acetate. When the amount of propionate in the influent was increased from 50% to 76% (as a percentage of influent total chemical oxygen demand), the amount of P released went up to 155 ± 17.7 mgP/L infl, and the amount of P taken up went up to 213.7 ± 11.4 mgP/L infl. The proof given indicated that propionate is preferred by PAOs. This study found that when more propionate was added to the wastewater, the concentration of PAO biomass went up. This was shown by certain signs that PAOs display when they are present. Results presented in this journal article emanate from an MSc Thesis (Thela, 2022) published in open-source UCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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15 pages, 4625 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Electricity-Producing Bacteria Flora to Mitigate Hydrogen Sulfide Generation in Sewers through an Electron-Pathway Enabled Conductive Concrete
by Huy Thanh Vo, Tsuyoshi Imai, Masato Fukushima, Tasuma Suzuki, Hiraku Sakuma, Takashi Hitomi and Yung-Tse Hung
Water 2023, 15(9), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091749 - 1 May 2023
Viewed by 1712
Abstract
This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of using biological oxidation for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) control. A long-term experiment was conducted using a rod-shaped electrode made of highly conductive concrete, which provided an electron pathway for H2S mitigation. Bacterial [...] Read more.
This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of using biological oxidation for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) control. A long-term experiment was conducted using a rod-shaped electrode made of highly conductive concrete, which provided an electron pathway for H2S mitigation. Bacterial flora analysis was conducted using PCR-DGGE and metagenomic analysis by next-generation sequencing to identify electricity-producing bacteria. Results showed that H2S was effectively mitigated, and electricity-producing bacteria, including Geobacter sp. and Pelobacter sp., were found around the inner surface of the anode. The study found that highly conductive concrete can create an electron pathway for biological oxidation of H2S. Oxygen from the air layer near the surface of the water can act as an electron acceptor, even under anaerobic conditions, enabling effective H2S control in sewer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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15 pages, 2172 KiB  
Article
Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Clinoptilolite
by Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohd Ridhwan Adam, Xue Liang, Huihwang Goh, Abdelkader Anouzla, Mika Sillanpää, Ayesha Mohyuddin and Kit Wayne Chew
Water 2023, 15(9), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091667 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
This work investigates the applicability of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, as a low-cost adsorbent for removing chromium from aqueous solutions using fixed bed studies. To improve its removal performance for the inorganic pollutant, the adsorbent is pretreated with NaCl to prepare it in [...] Read more.
This work investigates the applicability of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, as a low-cost adsorbent for removing chromium from aqueous solutions using fixed bed studies. To improve its removal performance for the inorganic pollutant, the adsorbent is pretreated with NaCl to prepare it in the homoionic form of Na+ before undertaking ion exchange with Cr3+ in aqueous solution. This work also evaluates if treated effluents could meet the required effluent discharge standard set by legislation for the target pollutant. To sustain its cost-effectiveness for wastewater treatment, the spent adsorbent is regenerated with NaOH. It was found that the clinoptilolite treated with NaCl has a two-times higher Cr adsorption capacity (4.5 mg/g) than the as-received clinoptilolite (2.2 mg/g). Pretreatment of the clinoptilolite with NaCl enabled it to treat more bed volume (BV) (64 BV) at a breakthrough point of 0.5 mg/L of Cr concentration and achieve a longer breakthrough time (1500 min) for the first run, as compared to as-received clinoptilolite (32 BV; 250 min). This suggests that pretreatment of clinoptilolite with NaCl rendered it in the homoionic form of Na+. Although pretreated clinoptilolite could treat the Cr wastewater at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L, its treated effluents were still unable to meet the required Cr limit of less than 0.05 mg/L set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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25 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Selection of Wastewater Treatment Technology: AHP Method in Multi-Criteria Decision Making
by Jasmina Ćetković, Miloš Knežević, Radoje Vujadinović, Esad Tombarević and Marija Grujić
Water 2023, 15(9), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091645 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4579
Abstract
Wastewater treatment is a process that reduces pollution to those quantities and concentrations at which purified wastewater is no longer a threat to human and animal health and safety and does not cause unwanted changes in the environment. Municipal wastewater is classified as [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment is a process that reduces pollution to those quantities and concentrations at which purified wastewater is no longer a threat to human and animal health and safety and does not cause unwanted changes in the environment. Municipal wastewater is classified as biodegradable water. Special importance should be given to wastewater with a high content of organic matter (COD), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). MBBR technology, developed on the basis of the conventional activated sludge process and the bio filter process, does not take up much space and does not have problems with activated sludge, as in the case of conventional biological reactors, and has shown good results for the removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. The aim of this paper is to optimize the wastewater treatment process in the municipality of Dojran, North Macedonia. Three alternative solutions for improving the capacity for wastewater treatment in the municipality of Dojran were analyzed. The shortlist of variants was made on the basis of several criteria, including: analysis of the system in the tourist season and beyond, assessment of the condition and efficiency of the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in combination with a new treatment plant, treatment efficiency when using different wastewater treatment technologies, the size of the site needed to accommodate the capacity, as well as the financial parameters for the proposed system. The selection of the most favorable solution for the improvement of the wastewater treatment system was made using the AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method. In order to select the optimal solution, a detailed analysis was conducted, considering several decision-making criteria, namely the initial investment, operating costs and management complexity. Based on the obtained results, Variant 3 was recommended, that is, the construction of a completely new station with MBBR technology, with a capacity for 6000 equivalent inhabitants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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Review

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35 pages, 5497 KiB  
Review
Permeable Concrete Barriers to Control Water Pollution: A Review
by Rehab O. Abdel Rahman, Ahmed M. El-Kamash and Yung-Tse Hung
Water 2023, 15(21), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213867 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Permeable concrete is a class of materials that has long been tested and implemented to control water pollution. Its application in low-impact development practices has proved its efficiency in mitigating some of the impacts of urbanization on the environment, including urban heat islands, [...] Read more.
Permeable concrete is a class of materials that has long been tested and implemented to control water pollution. Its application in low-impact development practices has proved its efficiency in mitigating some of the impacts of urbanization on the environment, including urban heat islands, attenuation of flashfloods, and reduction of transportation-related noise. Additionally, several research efforts have been directed at the dissemination of these materials for controlling pollution via their use as permeable reactive barriers, as well as their use in the treatment of waste water and water purification. This work is focused on the potential use of these materials as permeable reactive barriers to remediate ground water and treat acid mine drainage. In this respect, advances in material selection and their proportions in the mix design of conventional and innovative permeable concrete are presented. An overview of the available characterization techniques to evaluate the rheology of the paste, hydraulic, mechanical, durability, and pollutant removal performances of the hardened material are presented and their features are summarized. An overview of permeable reactive barrier technology is provided, recent research on the application of permeable concrete technology is analyzed, and gaps and recommendations for future research directions in this field are identified. The optimization of the mix design of permeable reactive concrete barriers is recommended to be directed in a way that balances the performance measures and the durability of the barrier over its service life. As these materials are proposed to control water pollution, there is a need to ensure that this practice has minimal environmental impacts on the affected environment. This can be achieved by considering the analysis of the alkaline plume attenuation in the downstream environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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47 pages, 2214 KiB  
Review
Emerging Contaminants and Their Removal from Aqueous Media Using Conventional/Non-Conventional Adsorbents: A Glance at the Relationship between Materials, Processes, and Technologies
by Cristina E. Almeida-Naranjo, Víctor H. Guerrero and Cristina Alejandra Villamar-Ayala
Water 2023, 15(8), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081626 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5246
Abstract
Emerging contaminants (ECs) are causing negative effects on the environment and even on people, so their removal has become a priority worldwide. Adsorption and the associated technologies where this process occurs (filtration/biofiltration) have gained great interest, due to its low cost, easy operation, [...] Read more.
Emerging contaminants (ECs) are causing negative effects on the environment and even on people, so their removal has become a priority worldwide. Adsorption and the associated technologies where this process occurs (filtration/biofiltration) have gained great interest, due to its low cost, easy operation, and effectiveness mainly in the removal (up to 100%) of lipophilic ECs (log Kow > 4). Activated carbon continues to be the most efficient material in the removal of ECs (>850 mg/g). However, other conventional materials (activated carbon, clays, zeolites) and non-conventional materials (agro-industrial/forestry/industrial residues, nanomaterials, among others) have shown efficiencies greater than 90%. Adsorption depends on the physicochemical properties of the materials and ECs. Thus, physical/chemical/thermal modifications and nanomaterial synthesis are the most used procedures to improve adsorption capacity. A material with good adsorptive properties could be used efficiently in filtration/biofiltration technologies. Agro-industrial residues are promising alternatives to be used in these technologies, due to their high availability, low toxicity, and adsorption capacities (up to 350 mg/g). In filtration/biofiltration technologies, the material, in addition to acting as adsorbent, plays a fundamental role in operation and hydraulics. Therefore, selecting the appropriate material improves the efficiency/useful life of the filter/biofilter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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18 pages, 3472 KiB  
Review
Physicochemical Technique in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Leachate Remediation: A Review
by Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Siti Fatihah Ramli and Yung-Tse Hung
Water 2023, 15(6), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061249 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
Leachate generation is among the main challenging issues that landfill operators must handle. Leachate is created when decomposed materials and rainwater pass through the waste. Leachate carries many harmful pollutants, with high concentrations of BOD, COD, colour, heavy metals, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3 [...] Read more.
Leachate generation is among the main challenging issues that landfill operators must handle. Leachate is created when decomposed materials and rainwater pass through the waste. Leachate carries many harmful pollutants, with high concentrations of BOD, COD, colour, heavy metals, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), and other organic and inorganic pollutants. Among them, COD, colour, and NH3-N are difficult to be completely eliminated, especially with a single treatment. They should be handled by appropriate treatment facilities before being safely released into the environment. Leachate remediation varies based on its properties, the costs of operation and capital expenditures, as well as the rules and regulations. Up until now, much scientific and engineering attention was given to the development of comprehensive solutions to leachate-related issues. The solutions normally demand a multi-stage treatment, commonly in the form of biological, chemical, and physical sequences. This review paper discussed the use of contemporary techniques to remediate landfill leachate with an emphasis on concentrated COD, colour, and NH3-N levels with low biodegradability that is normally present in old landfill or dumping grounds in developing countries. A semi-aerobic type of landfill design was also discussed, as this concept is potentially sustainable compared to others. Some of the challenges and future prospects were also recommended, especially for the case of Malaysia. This may represent landfills or dumpsites in other developing countries with the same characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment III)
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