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Special Issue "Municipal Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water supply and water treatment; municipal wastewater treatment; industrial waste treatment; biological waste treatment; water and wastewater treatment plant design; water pollution control; water quality engineering
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz

School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water supply and water treatment, municipal wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment, biological waste treatment, water and wastewater treatment plant design, water pollution control, water quality engineering
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Issam A. Al-Khatib

Institute of Environmental and Water Studies Faculty of Graduate Studies Birzeit University, west Bank, Palestine
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water recourses management and quality, environmental assessment, wastewater management, advocacy, coordination and networking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water has become a scarce resource in the world. The major objective of municipal wastewater treatment is to remove pollutants from wastewater before effluent is discharged back to the environment. Treated effluent can be utilized for various types of water reuse and for resource recovery. Proper wastewater treatment and disposal is also essential for protecting public health. The municipal wastewater treatment processes help to achieve water quality objectives and to reduce water pollution control. The development of advanced wastewater treatment technologies is essential to meeting the regulatory requirements for water quality.

This Special Issue aims to present contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of municipal wastewater and sludge. We encourage contributions that deal with recent advances in municipal wastewater and sludge treatment technologies, health effects of municipal wastewater, risk management, energy efficient wastewater treatment, water sustainability, water reuse and resource recovery.

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Prof. Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Prof. Dr. Issam A. Al-Khatib
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • advanced wastewater technology
  • onsite wastewater treatment
  • natural wastewater treatment system
  • biological treatment
  • physicochemical treatment
  • tertiary treatment
  • water quality
  • wastewater treatment and health
  • sludge treatment and disposal
  • energy efficient wastewater treatment
  • water reuse
  • resource recovery
  • municipal wastewater

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metal Accumulation in Water, Soil, and Plants of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Vientiane, Laos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010022
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Vientiane, Laos, which receives > 300 tons of waste daily, of which approximately 50% is organic matter, has caused serious environmental problems. This study was conducted to investigate the accumulated levels of heavy metals (HMs) (cadmium [...] Read more.
The municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Vientiane, Laos, which receives > 300 tons of waste daily, of which approximately 50% is organic matter, has caused serious environmental problems. This study was conducted to investigate the accumulated levels of heavy metals (HMs) (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in water (surface and groundwater), soil, and plants between dry and wet seasons according to the standards of the Agreement on the National Environmental Standards of Laos (ANESs), Dutch Pollutant Standards (DPSs), and the World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. Although no impact of pollution on the surface water was observed, the levels of Cr and Pb in the groundwater significantly exceeded the basics of ANESs and WHO in both seasons. The pollution caused by Cd and Cu reached the eco-toxicological risk level in the landfill soils and its vicinity. The vegetable Ipomoea aquatica, which is consumed by the nearby villagers, was seriously contaminated by Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn, as the accumulation of these toxic metals was elevated to much greater levels as compared to the WHO standards. For the grass Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), the quantities of HMs in all plant parts were extreme, perhaps due to the deeper growth of its rhizome than I. aquatica. This study is the first to warn of serious HM pollution occurring in the water, soil, and plants in the MSW landfill of Vientiane, Laos, which requires urgent phytoremediation. The indication of what sources from the MSW principally cause the pollution of HMs is needed to help reduce the toxicological risks on Lao residents and the environment in Vientiane as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rate on Nutrients Removal from Anaerobically Digested Swine Wastewater by Multi Soil Layering Treatment Bioreactor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122688
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
A multi soil layering (MSL) treatment bioreactor was developed aiming at nutrients removal from anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW). The start-up of the MSL bioreactor and its performance in nutrients removal at different hydraulic loading rate (HLR) were investigated. Results showed that the [...] Read more.
A multi soil layering (MSL) treatment bioreactor was developed aiming at nutrients removal from anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW). The start-up of the MSL bioreactor and its performance in nutrients removal at different hydraulic loading rate (HLR) were investigated. Results showed that the MSL bioreactor was successfully started up after operation for 28 days, and at this time, the removal efficiencies of ammonia-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the ADSW reached 63.6%, 58.5%, and 46.5%, respectively. The MSL bioreactor showed a stable performance during the whole working process with varying HLR from 80 to 200 L/(m2·day). Maximum removal efficiencies of ammonia-N, TN and TP were obtained at 160 L/(m2·day), and was appeared as 94.2%, 94.4%, and 92.5%, respectively. It was worth noting that iron scraps were the key factor that enhanced the independent capability of the MSL bioreactor in TP removal, because there was only 21.4–25.8% of the TP was removed when the MSL bioreactor run with no iron addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Removal of Antibiotic in Wastewater Using Liquid Nitrogen-Treated Carbon Material: Material Properties and Removal Mechanisms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122652
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment have become a global problem posing a serious threat to the environment and an inherent health risk to human beings. In this study, experiments were carried to investigate the use of carbon material modified by liquid nitrogen [...] Read more.
Antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment have become a global problem posing a serious threat to the environment and an inherent health risk to human beings. In this study, experiments were carried to investigate the use of carbon material modified by liquid nitrogen treatment (CM1) and carbon material unmodified by liquid nitrogen treatment (CM2) as adsorbents for the removal of the antibiotic ampicillin from aqueous solutions. The properties of the CMs (CM1 and CM2) and the effects of variations of the key operating parameters on the removal process were examined, and kinetic, isothermal and thermodynamic experimental data were studied. The results showed that CM1 had larger specific surface area and pore size than CM2. The ampicillin adsorption was more effective on CM1 than that on CM2, and the maximum adsorption capacity of ampicillin onto CM1 and CM2 was 206.002 and 178.423 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data revealed that the pesudo-second order model was more suitable for the fitting of the experimental kinetic data and the isothermal data indicated that the Langmuir model was successfully correlated with the data. The adsorption of ampicillin was a spontaneous reaction dominated by thermodynamics. In synthetic wastewater, CM1 and CM2 showed different removal rates for ampicillin: 92.31% and 86.56%, respectively. For an adsorption-based approach, carbon material obtained by the liquid nitrogen treatment method has a stronger adsorption capacity, faster adsorption, and was non-toxic, therefore, it could be a promising adsorbent, with promising prospects in environmental pollution remediation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Ultrasonic Disintegration as a Function of Waste Activated Sludge Characteristics and Technical Conditions of Conducting the Process—Comprehensive Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102311
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive analysis of the effects obtained in the process of ultrasonic disintegration (UD) of waste activated sludge (WAS), was conducted. Sludge samples were collected periodically from Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Gliwice (Poland) and disintegrated in the two ultrasonic devices of [...] Read more.
A comprehensive analysis of the effects obtained in the process of ultrasonic disintegration (UD) of waste activated sludge (WAS), was conducted. Sludge samples were collected periodically from Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Gliwice (Poland) and disintegrated in the two ultrasonic devices of different construction and technical parameters, i.e., WK-2010 (A) and ultrasonic washer (B). The experiments were performed under a constant energy supply per sludge volume EV = 160 kWh·m−3. The direct and technological effects, i.e., after UD and anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that characteristics and parameters of the WAS, which affects the magnitude of the direct effects create the following sequence: TS (total solids), VS (volatile solids), ΔT (temperature increase) > EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) > SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand) > CST (capillary suction time) > NTOT (total nitrogen), PTOT (total phosphorus) > pH. Whereas, in the case of technological effects, the above sequence was as follows: TS, VS > CST > NTOT, PTOT > pH. Ultrasonic disintegration of WAS prior to AD increased total biogas production (from 13.0% to 19.7%) and reduced the content of TS (from 4.1% to 8.2%) and VS (5.8% to 9.5%) in comparison to the control sample. This confirms the usefulness of ultrasonic disintegration as an effective method of sludge digestion intensification. The obtained results showed that changes in the characteristics of WAS have a significant impact on the magnitude of the effects of ultrasonic disintegration, especially TS, VS, ΔT, EPS, SCOD and CST. Concluding, it can be inferred that the most promising conditions for ultrasonic pretreatment conducted under constant energy supply per sludge volume, are: low power, long sonication time, large surface area of the emitter, and high increase of sludge temperature while conducting the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Using Submerged Fibers in an Attached Growth Sequential Batch Reactor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081734
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with different types of fibers was employed for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Three types of fibers, namely, juite fiber (JF), bio-fringe fiber (BF), and siliconised conjugated polyester fiber (SCPF), were used. Four SBR [...] Read more.
In this study, a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with different types of fibers was employed for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Three types of fibers, namely, juite fiber (JF), bio-fringe fiber (BF), and siliconised conjugated polyester fiber (SCPF), were used. Four SBR experiments were conducted, using the fibers in different reactors, while the fourth reactor used a combination of these fibers. The treatment efficiency of the different reactors with and without fibers on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), phosphorus (P), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), total suspended solids (TSS), and oil-grease were evaluated. The removal efficiency for the reactors with fibers was higher than that of the reactor without fibers for all pollutants. The treated effluent had 40 mg/L BOD5 and 45 mg/L COD with an average removal efficiency of 96% and 93%, respectively, which meet the discharge limits stated in the Environmental Quality Act in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bioaugmentation on Biogas Yields and Kinetics in Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081717
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioaugmentation with a mixture of microorganisms (Bacteria and Archaea) was applied to improve the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The study was performed in reactors operating at a temperature of 35 °C in semi-flow mode. Three runs with different doses of bioaugmenting mixture [...] Read more.
Bioaugmentation with a mixture of microorganisms (Bacteria and Archaea) was applied to improve the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The study was performed in reactors operating at a temperature of 35 °C in semi-flow mode. Three runs with different doses of bioaugmenting mixture were conducted. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge improved fermentation and allowed satisfactory biogas/methane yields and a biodegradation efficiency of more than 46%, despite the decrease in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 d to 16.7 d. Moreover, in terms of biogas production, the rate constant k increased from 0.071 h−1 to 0.087 h−1 as doses of the bioaugmenting mixture were increased, as compared to values of 0.066 h−1 and 0.069 h−1 obtained with sewage sludge alone. Next-generation sequencing revealed that Cytophaga sp. predominated among Bacteria in digesters and that the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus sp. was the most abundant genus among Archaea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Full-Scale Experimental Study of Groundwater Softening in a Circulating Pellet Fluidized Reactor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081592
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
The softening effect of a new type of circulating pellet fluidized bed (CPFB) reactor on groundwater was studied through a full-scale experiment. The operation of the CPFB reactor in the second water plant in Chang’an District in Xi’an China was monitored for one [...] Read more.
The softening effect of a new type of circulating pellet fluidized bed (CPFB) reactor on groundwater was studied through a full-scale experiment. The operation of the CPFB reactor in the second water plant in Chang’an District in Xi’an China was monitored for one year, and the results were compared with those for the Amsterdam reactor in The Netherlands. The removal efficiency of Ca2+ in the CPFB reactor reached 90%; the removal rate of total hardness was higher than 60%; effluent pH was 9.5–9.8; the turbidity of the effluent and the turbidity after boiling were lower than 1.0 NTU; the unit cost was less than €0.064 per m3; and the softened effluent was stable. The pellets in the CPFB reactor were circulated, providing higher crystallization efficiency. The diameter of the discharged pellets reached between 3–5 mm, and the fluidized area height of the CPFB reactor was 4 m. The performance parameters of the CFPB reactor were optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Simple Urea Immersion Enhanced Removal of Tetracycline from Water by Polystyrene Microspheres
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071524
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antibiotics pose potential ecological risks in the water environment, necessitating their effective removal by reliable technologies. Adsorption is a conventional process to remove such chemicals from water without byproducts. However, finding cheap adsorbents with satisfactory performance is still a challenge. In this study, [...] Read more.
Antibiotics pose potential ecological risks in the water environment, necessitating their effective removal by reliable technologies. Adsorption is a conventional process to remove such chemicals from water without byproducts. However, finding cheap adsorbents with satisfactory performance is still a challenge. In this study, polystyrene microspheres (PSM) were enhanced to adsorb tetracycline by surface modification. Simple urea immersion was used to prepare urea-immersed PSM (UPSM), of which surface groups were characterized by instruments to confirm the effect of immersion. Tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) and doxycycline (DC) were used as typical adsorbates. The adsorptive isotherms were interpreted by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin models. After urea immersion, the maximum adsorption capacity of UPSM at 293 K and pH 6.8 increased about 30% and 60%, achieving 460 mg/g for TC and 430 mg/g for DC. The kinetic data were fitted by first-order and second-order kinetics and Weber–Morris models. The first-order rate constant for TC adsorption on UPSM was 0.41 /h, and for DC was 0.33 /h. The cyclic urea immersion enabled multilayer adsorption, which increased the adsorption capacities of TC on UPSM by two to three times. The adsorption mechanism was possibly determined by the molecular interaction including π–π forces, cation-π bonding, and hydrogen bonding. The simple surface modification was helpful in enhancing the removal of antibiotics from wastewater with similar structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Guided Characterization of Ochrobactrum sp. POC9 Enhancing Sewage Sludge Utilization—Biotechnological Potential and Biosafety Considerations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071501
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sewage sludge is an abundant source of microorganisms that are metabolically active against numerous contaminants, and thus possibly useful in environmental biotechnologies. However, amongst the sewage sludge isolates, pathogenic bacteria can potentially be found, and such isolates should therefore be carefully tested before [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge is an abundant source of microorganisms that are metabolically active against numerous contaminants, and thus possibly useful in environmental biotechnologies. However, amongst the sewage sludge isolates, pathogenic bacteria can potentially be found, and such isolates should therefore be carefully tested before their application. A novel bacterial strain, Ochrobactrum sp. POC9, was isolated from a sewage sludge sample collected from a wastewater treatment plant. The strain exhibited lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic activities, which supports its application in biodegradation of complex organic compounds. We demonstrated that bioaugmentation with this strain substantially improved the overall biogas production and methane content during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The POC9 genome content analysis provided a deeper insight into the biotechnological potential of this bacterium and revealed that it is a metalotolerant and a biofilm-producing strain capable of utilizing various toxic compounds. The strain is resistant to rifampicin, chloramphenicol and β-lactams. The corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (including blaOCH and cmlA/floR) were identified in the POC9 genome. Nevertheless, as only few genes in the POC9 genome might be linked to pathogenicity, and none of those genes is a critical virulence factor found in severe pathogens, the strain appears safe for application in environmental biotechnologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of C/N Ratio on the Removal of Nitrogen and Microbial Characteristics in the Water Saturated Denitrifying Section of a Two-Stage Constructed Rapid Infiltration System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071469
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to improve the removal of nitrogen pollutants from artificial sewage by a modeled two-stage constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system. The C/N ratio of the second stage influent was elevated by addition of glucose. When the C/N ratio [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to improve the removal of nitrogen pollutants from artificial sewage by a modeled two-stage constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system. The C/N ratio of the second stage influent was elevated by addition of glucose. When the C/N ratio was increased to 5, the mean removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) reached up to 75.4%. Under this condition, the number of denitrifying bacteria in the permanently submerged denitrifying section (the second stage) was 22 times higher than that in the control experiment without added glucose. Elevation of the C/N ratio resulted in lower concentrations of nitrate and TN in the second stage effluent, without impairment of chemical oxygen demand removal. The concentration of nitrate and TN in effluent decreased as the abundance of denitrifying bacteria increased. Moreover, the bacterial biofilms that had formed in the sand of the second stage container were analyzed. The secretion of extracellular polymeric substances, a major constituent of biofilms, was enhanced as a result of the elevated C/N ratio, which lead to the improved protection of the bacteria and enhanced the removal of pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Trace Estrogens in Ultrapure and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent by Magnetic Graphene Oxide
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071454
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
In the current study, graphene oxide, Fe3+, and Fe2+ were used for the synthesis of magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by an in situ chemical coprecipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were [...] Read more.
In the current study, graphene oxide, Fe3+, and Fe2+ were used for the synthesis of magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by an in situ chemical coprecipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the well-prepared MGO. The prepared MGO was used as an adsorbent to remove five typical estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (17α-E2), estriol (E3), and synthetic estrogen (EE2)) at the ppb level from spiked ultrapure water and wastewater treatment plant effluent. The results indicated that the MGO can efficiently remove estrogens from both spiked ultrapure water and wastewater treatment plant effluent in 30 min at wide pH ranges from 3 to 11. The temperature could significantly affect removal performance. A removal efficiency of more than 90% was obtained at 35 °C in just 5 min, but at least 60 min was needed to get the same removal efficiency at 5 °C. In addition, an average of almost 80% of the estrogens can still be removed after 5 cycles of MGO regeneration but less than 40% can be reached after 10 cycles. These results indicate that MGO has potential for practical applications to remove lower levels of estrogens from real water matrixes and merits further evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Pollutant Removal from Synthetic Aqueous Solutions with a Combined Electrochemical Oxidation and Adsorption Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071443
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Eliminating organic and inorganic pollutants from water is a worldwide concern. In this study, we applied electrochemical oxidation (EO) and adsorption techniques to eliminate ammonia, phenols, and Mo(VI) from aqueous solutions. We analyzed the first stage (EO) with response surface methodology, where the [...] Read more.
Eliminating organic and inorganic pollutants from water is a worldwide concern. In this study, we applied electrochemical oxidation (EO) and adsorption techniques to eliminate ammonia, phenols, and Mo(VI) from aqueous solutions. We analyzed the first stage (EO) with response surface methodology, where the reaction time (1–3 h), initial contaminant concentration (10–50 mg/L), and pH (3–6) were the three independent factors. Sodium sulfate (as an electrolyte) and Ti/RuO2–IrO2 (as an electrode) were used in the EO system. Based on preliminary experiments, the current and voltage were set to 50 mA and 7 V, respectively. The optimum EO conditions included a reaction time, initial contaminant concentration, and pH of 2.4 h, 27.4 mg/L, and 4.9, respectively. The ammonia, phenols, and Mo elimination efficiencies were 79.4%, 48.0%, and 55.9%, respectively. After treating water under the optimum EO conditions, the solution was transferred to a granular composite adsorbent column containing bentonite, limestone, zeolite, cockleshell, activated carbon, and Portland cement (i.e., BAZLSC), which improved the elimination efficiencies of ammonia, phenols, and molybdenum(VI) to 99.9%. The energy consumption value (8.0 kWh kg−1 N) was detected at the optimum operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Sorption of Copper Cations by Clinoptilolite for Wastewater Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071364
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper from the field of environmental chemistry offers an innovative use of sorbents in the treatment of waste industrial water. Various industrial activities, especially the use of technological fluids in machining, surface treatment of materials, ore extraction, pesticide use in agriculture, etc., [...] Read more.
This paper from the field of environmental chemistry offers an innovative use of sorbents in the treatment of waste industrial water. Various industrial activities, especially the use of technological fluids in machining, surface treatment of materials, ore extraction, pesticide use in agriculture, etc., create wastewater containing dangerous metals that cause serious health problems. This paper presents the results of studies of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite as a sorbent of copper cations. These results provide the measurement of the sorption kinetics as well as the observed parameters of sorption of copper cations from the aquatic environment to the clinoptilolite from a promising Slovak site. The effectiveness of the natural sorbent is also compared with that of certain known synthetic sorbents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Ammonium Ions, Organic Load and Flow Rate on the UV/Chlorine AOP Applied to Effluent of a Wastewater Treatment Plant at Pilot Scale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061276
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This work investigates the influence of ammonium ions and the organic load (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) on the UV/chlorine AOP regarding the maintenance of free available chlorine (FAC) and elimination of 16 emerging contaminants (ECs) from wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTE) at pilot [...] Read more.
This work investigates the influence of ammonium ions and the organic load (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) on the UV/chlorine AOP regarding the maintenance of free available chlorine (FAC) and elimination of 16 emerging contaminants (ECs) from wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTE) at pilot scale (UV chamber at 0.4 kW). COD inhibited the FAC maintenance in the UV chamber influent at a ratio of 0.16 mg FAC per mg COD (kHOCl–COD = 182 M−1s−1). An increase in ammonium ion concentration led to a stoichiometric decrease of the FAC concentration in the UV chamber influent. Especially in cold seasons due to insufficient nitrification, the ammonium ion concentration in WWTE can become so high that it becomes impossible to achieve sufficiently high FAC concentrations in the UV chamber influent. For all ECs, the elimination effect by the UV/combined Cl2 AOP (UV/CC) was not significantly higher than that by sole UV treatment. Accordingly, the UV/chlorine AOP is very sensitive and loses its effectiveness drastically as soon as there is no FAC but only CC in the UV chamber influent. Therefore, within the electrical energy consumption range tested (0.13–1 kWh/m3), a stable EC elimination performance of the UV/chlorine AOP cannot be maintained throughout the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050935
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel [...] Read more.
Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H2O2 AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC) and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX). Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m3 (0.4 kW, 1 m3/h) and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H2O2 AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC) in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl2), the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl2 was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040670
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut [...] Read more.
A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3) to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO3 in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut denitrification process will be achieved in the subsequent research, it could save 60.27 mg CH3OH per litre of sewage in the CRI system compared with the full denitrification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Pilot-Scale Hydrolysis-Aerobic Treatment for Actual Municipal Wastewater: Performance and Microbial Community Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030477
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Low-energy cost wastewater treatment is required to change its current energy-intensive status. Although promising, the direct anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater treatment faces challenges such as low organic content and low temperature, which require further development. The hydrolysis-aerobic system investigated in this study [...] Read more.
Low-energy cost wastewater treatment is required to change its current energy-intensive status. Although promising, the direct anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater treatment faces challenges such as low organic content and low temperature, which require further development. The hydrolysis-aerobic system investigated in this study utilized the two well-proven processes of hydrolysis and aerobic oxidation. These have the advantages of efficient COD removal and biodegradability improvement with limited energy cost due to their avoidance of aeration. A pilot-scale hydrolysis-aerobic system was built for performance evaluation with actual municipal wastewater as feed. Results indicated that as high as 39–47% COD removal was achieved with a maximum COD load of 1.10 kg/m3·d. The dominant bacteria phyla included Proteobacteria (36.0%), Planctomycetes (15.4%), Chloroflexi (9.7%), Bacteroidetes (7.7%), Firmicutes (4.4%), Acidobacteria (2.5%), Actinobacteria (1.8%) and Synergistetes (1.3%), while the dominant genera included Thauera (3.42%) and Dechloromonas (3.04%). The absence of methanogens indicates that the microbial community was perfectly retained in the hydrolysis stage instead of in the methane-producing stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Processing Technology Selection for Municipal Sewage Treatment Based on a Multi-Objective Decision Model under Uncertainty
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030448
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study considers the two factors of environmental protection and economic benefits to address municipal sewage treatment. Based on considerations regarding the sewage treatment plant construction site, processing technology, capital investment, operation costs, water pollutant emissions, water quality and other indicators, we establish [...] Read more.
This study considers the two factors of environmental protection and economic benefits to address municipal sewage treatment. Based on considerations regarding the sewage treatment plant construction site, processing technology, capital investment, operation costs, water pollutant emissions, water quality and other indicators, we establish a general multi-objective decision model for optimizing municipal sewage treatment plant construction. Using the construction of a sewage treatment plant in a suburb of Chengdu as an example, this paper tests the general model of multi-objective decision-making for the sewage treatment plant construction by implementing a genetic algorithm. The results show the applicability and effectiveness of the multi-objective decision model for the sewage treatment plant. This paper provides decision and technical support for the optimization of municipal sewage treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Performance of a Self-Flocculating Microalga Chlorococcum sp. GD in Wastewater with Different Ammonia Concentrations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030434
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of a self-flocculating microalga Chlorococcum sp. GD on the flocculation, growth, and lipid accumulation in wastewater with different ammonia nitrogen concentrations was investigated. It was revealed that relative high ammonia nitrogen concentration (20–50 mg·L−1) was beneficial to the flocculation [...] Read more.
The performance of a self-flocculating microalga Chlorococcum sp. GD on the flocculation, growth, and lipid accumulation in wastewater with different ammonia nitrogen concentrations was investigated. It was revealed that relative high ammonia nitrogen concentration (20–50 mg·L−1) was beneficial to the flocculation of Chlorococcum sp. GD, and the highest flocculating efficiency was up to 84.4%. It was also found that the highest flocculating efficiency occurred in the middle of the culture (4–5 days) regardless of initial ammonia concentration in wastewater. It was speculated that high flocculating efficiency was likely related to the production of extracellular proteins. 20 mg·L−1 of ammonia was found to be a preferred concentration for both biomass production and lipid accumulation. 92.8% COD, 98.8% ammonia, and 69.4% phosphorus were removed when Chlorococcum sp. GD was cultivated in wastewater with 20 mg·L−1 ammonia. The novelty and significance of the investigation was the integration of flocculation, biomass production, wastewater treatment, and lipid accumulation, simultaneously, which made Chlorococcum sp. GD a potential candidate for wastewater treatment and biodiesel production if harvested in wastewater with suitable ammonia nitrogen concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms of Phosphorus Removal by Recycled Crushed Concrete
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020357
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to urbanisation, there are large amounts of waste concrete, particularly in rapidly industrialising countries. Currently, demolished concrete is mainly recycled as aggregate for reconstruction. This study has shown that larger sizes (2–5 mm) of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) removed more than 90% [...] Read more.
Due to urbanisation, there are large amounts of waste concrete, particularly in rapidly industrialising countries. Currently, demolished concrete is mainly recycled as aggregate for reconstruction. This study has shown that larger sizes (2–5 mm) of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) removed more than 90% of P from effluent when at pH 5. Analysis of the data, using equilibrium models, indicated a best fit with the Langmuir which predicated an adsorption capacity of 6.88 mg/g. Kinetic analysis indicated the equilibrium adsorption time was 12 h, with pseudo second-order as the best fit. The thermal dynamic tests showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and, together with the evidence from the sequential extraction and desorption experiments, indicated the initial mechanism was physical attraction to the surface followed by chemical reactions which prevented re-release. These results suggested that RCA could be used for both wastewater treatment and P recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Vibrio Species in Wastewater Final Effluents and Receiving Watershed in South Africa: Implications for Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061266
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa are obliged to make provision for wastewater effluent quality management, with the aim of securing the integrity of the surrounding watersheds and environments. The Department of Water Affairs has documented regulatory parameters that have, over the years, [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa are obliged to make provision for wastewater effluent quality management, with the aim of securing the integrity of the surrounding watersheds and environments. The Department of Water Affairs has documented regulatory parameters that have, over the years, served as a guideline for quality monitoring/management purposes. However, these guidelines have not been regularly updated and this may have contributed to some of the water quality anomalies. Studies have shown that promoting the monitoring of the current routinely monitored parameters (both microbial and physicochemical) may not be sufficient. Organisms causing illnesses or even outbreaks, such as Vibrio pathogens with their characteristic environmental resilience, are not included in the guidelines. In South Africa, studies that have been conducted on the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in domestic and wastewater effluent have made it apparent that these pathogens should also be monitored. The importance of effective wastewater management as one of the key aspects towards protecting surrounding environments and receiving watersheds, as well as protecting public health, is highlighted in this review. Emphasis on the significance of the Vibrio pathogen in wastewater is a particular focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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