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Special Issue "Burnout Syndrome and Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Emilia Inmaculada De la Fuente-Solana
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Brain, Mind and Behaviour Research Center (CIMCYC), University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja S.N., 18011 Granada, Spain
Interests: Research methodology applied to the social and health sciences; Epidemiology and data analysis; Occupational health and burnout syndrome
Prof. Dr. Guillermo A. Cañadas-De la Fuente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Avenida de la Ilustración, 18016 Granada, Spain
Interests: General and internal medicine; Health habits and lifestyles; Burnout syndrome in health professionals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Luis Albendín-García
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Science, University of Granada, Avenida de la Ilustración, 18016 Granada, Spain
Interests: Primary health care; Quality care and patient safety; Burnout syndrome in emergency and critical care services
Prof. Dr. José Luis Gómez-Urquiza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nursing Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: Health habits and lifestyles; Teaching innovation and gamification; Burnout syndrome in oncology and palliative care services
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

IJERPH is currently receiving manuscripts for a Special Issue on occupational health and risk factors in workers vulnerable to stress. This Special Issue will include articles on disorders related to the work environment and possible related variables, specifically on burnout syndrome.

Occupational health is a major problem in modern work environments. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), workplace health risks cause occupational diseases and can aggravate other health problems. As a result, the incidence of occupational disorders and problems has increased in workers in recent years. Analyzing different variables related to more common occupational diseases is important to deal with them efficiently.

One of the most important disorders is burnout syndrome. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Classification of Diseases 11th revision (ICD-11), “Burnout is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions: feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion; increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one's job; and reduced professional efficacy.”

The WHO also states that burnout refers specifically to phenomena in the occupational context and should not be applied to describe experiences in other areas of life.

We welcome studies using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods with primary or secondary data. All articles are subject to peer review to ensure quality publications. For more information, please contact Emilia Inmaculada De la Fuente-Solana ([email protected]).

Prof. Emilia Inmaculada De la Fuente-Solana
Prof. Guillermo A. Cañadas-De la Fuente
Prof. Luis Albendín-García
Prof. Dr. José Luis Gómez-Urquiza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Burnout
  • Health and safety practices
  • Occupational health
  • Public health
  • Risk factors
  • Working conditions
  • Workplace policies
  • Prevention

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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Article
Feasibility, Acceptability, and Outcomes of a Yoga-Based Meditation Intervention for Hospice Professionals to Combat Burnout
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052515 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 878
Abstract
(1) Background. This research examined the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes of delivering a 6-week yoga-based meditation intervention to clinical teams of hospice professionals (HPs) at a large non-profit hospice organization. The intervention was designed to increase mind-body integration and combat burnout. This article [...] Read more.
(1) Background. This research examined the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes of delivering a 6-week yoga-based meditation intervention to clinical teams of hospice professionals (HPs) at a large non-profit hospice organization. The intervention was designed to increase mind-body integration and combat burnout. This article was written for different audiences, including research scientists who study interoception, burnout, meditation, or yoga, designers of meditation interventions, and hospice organizations looking for ways to mitigate HP burnout. (2) Methods. The intervention was launched within clinical teams, beginning with a half-hour online introduction to the program and exposure to the week 1 meditation at each team’s monthly all-staff meeting. Throughout the program, HPs could access the meditations on their own via their workplace computers, tablets, and smartphones. Online pre- and post-intervention surveys were submitted by 151 HPs, 76 of whom were exposed to the intervention and completed both surveys. The surveys assessed burnout using the Professional Fulfillment Index and mind-body integration using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness scales. (3) Results. Two-thirds of HPs who were present at a staff meeting where the program was introduced went on to do a meditation on their own at least once. Half of HPs expressed a desire to continue with access to the meditations after the 6-week program ended. Due to COVID-19 work from home restrictions, three-fourth of HPs did a meditation at home, 29% in a car between patient visits (not while driving), and 23% at the office. Higher interoceptive awareness was significantly related to lower burnout, particularly lower work exhaustion. Meditation frequency was significantly related to higher interoceptive awareness but not to burnout. Interpersonal disengagement was rare and temporary. (4) Conclusions. Findings showed that the yoga-based meditation intervention was feasible and acceptable and associated with higher interoceptive awareness. The results point to a role for interoceptive awareness in reducing the risk for burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Daily Work-Family Conflict and Burnout to Explain the Leaving Intentions and Vitality Levels of Healthcare Workers: Interactive Effects Using an Experience-Sampling Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041932 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
There is an intensification of work in global health systems, a phenomenon that could increase work-family conflict, exhaustion, and intentions to leave among healthcare workers. The main objective of this study is to analyze if daily work-family conflict and burnout could explain the [...] Read more.
There is an intensification of work in global health systems, a phenomenon that could increase work-family conflict, exhaustion, and intentions to leave among healthcare workers. The main objective of this study is to analyze if daily work-family conflict and burnout could explain the daily leaving intentions and vitality of healthcare workers. This is a diary study, which employs an experience-sampling methodology (ESM). A total of 56 physicians, nurses, and nursing aides from intensive care and nephrology units filled out various quantitative scales during 5 working days (56 × 5 = 280 observations). Multilevel hierarchical analysis showed that daily work-family conflict and burnout were significantly associated with higher daily intentions of leaving the profession, and with lower levels of daily vitality. In addition, those workers who experienced more work-family conflict and depersonalization on a daily basis were those who showed more intentions to leave and less daily vitality, showing an interactive effect. The results highlight the importance of examining the psychosocial risks experienced by healthcare workers by employing experience-sampling methodologies, which could help us to deepen our understanding of the proximal antecedents of their intentions to leave and their psychological well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
The Perception of Occupation by Hospital Nurses in Poland and Germany in Terms of the Risk of Excessive Stress and Burnout as Well as Possible Coping and Preventive Solutions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041797 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Nurses constitute a professional group exposed to a high risk of stress and occupational burnout. Fewer nurses are recruited every year and the ever higher age of those professionally active is alarming. This article presents the results of international comparative studies from 2018 [...] Read more.
Nurses constitute a professional group exposed to a high risk of stress and occupational burnout. Fewer nurses are recruited every year and the ever higher age of those professionally active is alarming. This article presents the results of international comparative studies from 2018 and 2019 involving Polish and German nurses (747 people) dedicated to the perception of aspects of nurses’ work in terms of the risk of excessive stress and burnout and possible preventive measures. Using a proprietary questionnaire, the authors evaluated differences in the perception of the nursing profession in Poland and Germany, as well as in terms of seniority or decision-making. Next, the relationship between the perception of work specificity and opinions about professional risks and possible preventive measures was evaluated. The analysis used the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis of the questions. Using exploratory factor analysis, the number of dimensions describing the nursing profession was reduced from 16 to four related to (1) workload, (2) job satisfaction, (3) atmosphere in the organisation and (4) sense of control over one’s own work. The results showed statistically significant differences in the perception of professional specificity and risks according to the analysed characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Burnout, Positivity and Passion in Young Mexican Athletes: The Mediating Effect of Social Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041757 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 896
Abstract
The burnout syndrome is a negative experience for athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. Interventions with a positive view towards sports could be a protective factor to boost the [...] Read more.
The burnout syndrome is a negative experience for athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. Interventions with a positive view towards sports could be a protective factor to boost the athlete’s wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to analyse the mediator effect from social support, the relationship between the burnout, positivity and passion in young Mexican athletes. The sample was composed by 452 Mexican athletes, males and females (women 45%), from 12 to 18 years of age (M = 16.29, SD = 1.66). Participants answered the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, The Scale of the Social Support Perceived by Athletes, the Passion Scale and the Positivity Scale. The results of structural equation modeling showed a good adjustment model (χ2 = 889.213; df = 274; χ2/df = 3.245; p ˂ 0.01; CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.91; IFI = 0.94; NFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07). The harmonious passion presented direct and indirect effects on the burnout, being the perceived social support the mediator variable of the indirect effect. The positivity resulted positive predictor from the social support (β = 0.714, p ˂ 0.001) and social support predicted the burnout (β = −0.270, p ˂ 0.005). The obsessive passion had a direct effect over burnout (β = 0.627, p ˂ 0.001). Developing negative commitments to sports could be an indicator of a greater risk of experiencing individual conflicts that lead to sports burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Burnout Syndrome in Paediatric Nurses: A Multi-Centre Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031324 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Background: Burnout syndrome is an increasingly prevalent problem, characterised by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (D), and low personal accomplishment (PA), feelings that appear with prolonged exposure to stress-inducing situations. The syndrome alters physical well-being and endangers the quality of services provided. Among nurses [...] Read more.
Background: Burnout syndrome is an increasingly prevalent problem, characterised by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (D), and low personal accomplishment (PA), feelings that appear with prolonged exposure to stress-inducing situations. The syndrome alters physical well-being and endangers the quality of services provided. Among nurses working in the paediatric area, the association between burnout and the corresponding risk profile has received little research attention, despite the highly stressful nature of this work. Materials and Methods: The study population was composed of 95 nurses working in four hospitals in the province of Granada. Data were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the NEO Personality Inventory, and the Educational-Clinical Questionnaire: Anxiety and Depression. Results: According to the results obtained, 22.0% of the nurses working in the paediatric area present high levels of EE, 18.5% present high levels of D, and 39.6% had feelings of low PA. These burnout levels do not depend on sociodemographic or labour variables, but the three domains of the syndrome are related to the psychological factors analysed. Conclusions: Among the nurses who participated in this study, 38.6% presented high levels of burnout, especially regarding feelings of low personal accomplishment. Personality factors play an important role in the development of this syndrome. This study shows the impact of burnout in paediatric nurses as well as the risk factors, providing information for the development of strategies to prevent it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Burnout, Psychological Capital and Health during COVID-19 Social Isolation: A Longitudinal Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031064 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Background: Drawing on the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic and its sanitary measures on coping strategies for preserving health, it is also necessary to add exposure to certain work stressors, such as burnout. The aim of the study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Background: Drawing on the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic and its sanitary measures on coping strategies for preserving health, it is also necessary to add exposure to certain work stressors, such as burnout. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of the confinement situation caused by COVID-19 on the levels of self-perceived health and psychological capital in a sample of workers, as well as to analyze whether exposure to burnout before social isolation would help to explain the levels of health and psychological capital. Methods: Data were collected in a longitudinal design. Time 1 surveys (December 2019) were sent to a sample of 354 Spanish workers while in Time 2 (April 2020) the employees completed 235 questionnaires. Results: Our findings indicate a significant worsening of employees’ health perception (t = −4.13; p < 0.01) and psychological capital (4.10, p < 0.01) levels during mandatory confinement in Spain. Our results also revealed that emotional exhaustion is the only burnout dimension capable of explaining the variance of health while self-efficacy does regarding psychological capital. Conclusion: We conclude a significant reduction in self-perceived health and psychological capital during COVID-19 mandatory confinement, and that burnout acts as a predictor variable in both health and psychological capital variance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Moderating Effects of Organizational Climate on the Relationship between Emotional Labor and Burnout among Korean Firefighters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030914 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
This study examined the association of emotional labor and organizational climate with burnout and elucidated the moderating effect of organizational climate on the relationship between emotional labor and burnout among 18,936 Korean firefighters (male: 17,790, 93.9%, female: 1146, 6.1%). To examine the effects [...] Read more.
This study examined the association of emotional labor and organizational climate with burnout and elucidated the moderating effect of organizational climate on the relationship between emotional labor and burnout among 18,936 Korean firefighters (male: 17,790, 93.9%, female: 1146, 6.1%). To examine the effects of organizational climate on the relationships between five sub-scales of emotional labor and burnout, four groups were created using various combinations of emotional labor (“normal” vs. “risk”) and organizational climate (“good” vs. “bad”): (1) “normal” and “good” (Group I), (2) “normal” and “bad” (Group II), (3) “risk” and “good” (Group III), and (4) “risk” and “bad” (Group IV). A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis indicated that firefighters’ burnout was significantly higher in the group with “bad” than “good” organizational climate and was significantly higher among people with “risk” than “normal” emotional labor. Combined effects of organizational climate with emotional labor on burnout were observed in all five sub-scales. Groups II, III, and IV were more likely to experience burnout than Group I (trend p < 0.001). Additionally, the moderating effects of organizational climate on the relationship between the five sub-scales of emotional labor and burnout were observed, except for factor 5. These results emphasize the importance of stress management to alleviate burnout caused by emotional labor at the organizational level and coping strategies to reinforce the personal potentiality suitable to organizational norms at the individual level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Compassion Satisfaction as Risk/Protective Factors from Burnout and Compassion Fatigue in Healthcare and Education Professionals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020611 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
The study analyzes sensory processing sensitivity and the compassion satisfaction as risk/protective factors against burnout and compassion fatigue, during the first period of the COVID-19 health emergency. A sample of 1566 Spanish adult healthcare (n = 694) and education (n = 872) professionals [...] Read more.
The study analyzes sensory processing sensitivity and the compassion satisfaction as risk/protective factors against burnout and compassion fatigue, during the first period of the COVID-19 health emergency. A sample of 1566 Spanish adult healthcare (n = 694) and education (n = 872) professionals was evaluated. An ad hoc questionnaire for sociodemographic data, and the highly sensitive person scale (HSPS), Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) and professional quality of life scale (ProQOL-vIV) were administered. Burnout and compassion fatigue were observed in the healthcare and education professionals, where personal realization and depersonalization were higher in healthcare and compassion fatigue in education. The protective role of compassion satisfaction was confirmed, as was sensory processing sensitivity as a risk factor, except for its low sensory threshold dimension, which positively influenced personal realization. The findings of this study demonstrate the presence of burnout and compassion fatigue in healthcare and education professionals, displaying compassion fatigue as an emerging psychosocial risk in education, which was made more severe under the conditions of study, which is at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of incorporating adequate management strategies for high sensitivity, empathy and compassion satisfaction in prevention programs is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Leveraging the Work Environment to Minimize the Negative Impact of Nurse Burnout on Patient Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020610 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
Background: Burnout remains a persistent issue affecting nurses across the US health system. Limited evidence exists about the direct impact of nurse burnout on patient outcomes. This study explores the relationship between nurse burnout and mortality, failure to rescue, and length of stay, [...] Read more.
Background: Burnout remains a persistent issue affecting nurses across the US health system. Limited evidence exists about the direct impact of nurse burnout on patient outcomes. This study explores the relationship between nurse burnout and mortality, failure to rescue, and length of stay, while also considering the effect of a good work environment. Methods: Cross sectional data from nurses and hospitals were used in conjunction with patient claims data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the relationship between nurse burnout, patient outcomes, the work environment, and Magnet status. Results: Higher odds of patient mortality, failure to rescue, and prolonged length of stay were found in hospitals that had, on average, higher nurse burnout scores. Good work environments were found to attenuate the relationship between nurse burnout and mortality, failure to rescue, and length of stay. Magnet status, another indicator of a good work environment, was found to attenuate the relationship between nurse burnout and mortality and failure to rescue. Conclusions: Improving the work environment remains a solution for hospitals looking to concurrently improve nurse burnout and patient outcomes. Administrators may look to the Magnet recognition program as a blueprint to better support nurses in providing safe, high quality care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Medical Studies during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Impact of Digital Learning on Medical Students’ Burnout and Mental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010349 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3418
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this ecological study was to investigate what the impact of digital learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic was on the burnout and overall mental health (MH) of medical students. Background: During the unprecedented era of the COVID-19 pandemic, the [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this ecological study was to investigate what the impact of digital learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic was on the burnout and overall mental health (MH) of medical students. Background: During the unprecedented era of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of countries worldwide adopted very strong measures. Universities closed their doors, and education continued through digital learning lectures. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all 189 eligible candidates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health was assessed via the MH domain of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory—Student Survey (MBI-SS). Results: The overall response rate was 81.5%. The overall burnout prevalence did not differ significantly between the two periods (pre-COVID-19 18.1% vs. COVID-19 18.2%). However, the burnout prevalence dropped significantly in year 4 (pre-COVID-19 40.7% vs. COVID-19 16.7%, p = 0.011), whereas it increased significantly in year 6 (pre-COVID-19 27.6% vs. COVID-19 50%, p = 0.01). When looking at each MBI-SS dimension separately, we found that emotional exhaustion decreased significantly in year 4 but increased in year 6, and cynicism increased in all years. The overall MH deteriorated significantly between the two periods (pre-COVID-19 58.8 ± 21.6 vs. COVID-19 48.3 ± 23, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Digital learning in medical studies carries significant risks. Not only does the MH deteriorate, but cynicism levels also increase. Emotional exhaustion was found to increase particularly in final year students, who struggle with the lack of clinical experience just before they start working as qualified junior doctors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Understanding the Relationship between Situational Strength and Burnout: A Multi-Sample Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010162 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Many studies have examined the effect of situational strength (clarity, consistency, constraints, and consequences) on organisational behaviour, but little has been investigated about its health effects. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between situational strength and burnout. Specifically, we examined whether situational [...] Read more.
Many studies have examined the effect of situational strength (clarity, consistency, constraints, and consequences) on organisational behaviour, but little has been investigated about its health effects. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between situational strength and burnout. Specifically, we examined whether situational strength characteristics may be associated with burnout, whether these characteristics are risk (or protective) factors for burnout, and whether a strong situation is related to higher levels of burnout. Examining three samples from different occupations, it was found that clarity and consistency are negatively associated with burnout, being protective factors, while constraints are positively associated with burnout, being risk factors. These results are consistent across the samples. In addition to the direct effects, interaction effects between clarity and consistency in the office employee’s sample (two-way interaction), between constraints and consequences in the samples of office employees and teachers (two-way interaction), and among clarity, consistency, and constraints in the salespeople’s sample (three-way interaction) were also significant, explaining from 20% to 33% of the variance of burnout. We concluded that situational strength is associated not only with behaviour but also with health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Entrepreneurs’ Capacity for Mentalizing: Its Influence on Burnout Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010003 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Burnout is a mental disorder that leads to difficulties for the entrepreneur in controlling his or her personal and professional life. The most common consequences of entrepreneurial burnout include the subject experiencing low motivation, low organizational commitment, loss of energy, demoralization in connection [...] Read more.
Burnout is a mental disorder that leads to difficulties for the entrepreneur in controlling his or her personal and professional life. The most common consequences of entrepreneurial burnout include the subject experiencing low motivation, low organizational commitment, loss of energy, demoralization in connection with their work, poor quality of work, feeling of failure, and the perception that his or her company is performing poorly. We used a sample of 157 Spanish entrepreneurs selected at random from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System database. We employed the Spanish version of the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire to measure mentalizing and the Spanish version of the Maslach-Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) to measure burnout. This research showed that entrepreneurial burnout could be avoided in part if the entrepreneur achieved a good capacity for mentalizing. Hypomentalizing contributed to explaining entrepreneurs’ levels of professional efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion. In contrast, the explanatory power of hypermentalizing was not significant for any of the dimensions of burnout. This study provides new evidence of burnout in entrepreneurs; a professional group with an important economic, politic, and social role has been little studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Healthcare Professionals’ Mental Health: Results from a Pilot Study Testing Its Predictive Validity in a Specialized Hospital Setting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249420 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training and to examine positive and negative symptom-focused mental health variables. The mental health variables were used to test the predictive validity of the training among healthcare [...] Read more.
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training and to examine positive and negative symptom-focused mental health variables. The mental health variables were used to test the predictive validity of the training among healthcare professionals. Thirty healthcare professionals participated in this non-randomized pre-post intervention pilot study. The questionnaire on mental health was filled in twice. Baseline and post-intervention differences were tested with paired samples t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The participants’ evaluation of the training was assessed with a five-item questionnaire. The recruitment and retention were successful, and participants’ evaluation of the training itself was positive but the influence on daily life was rated only moderately positive. In comparison with baseline at post-intervention participants showed significant improvements in general mindfulness, the burnout dimension personal accomplishment, quality of sleep, positive emotions, and self-efficacy. A significant decrease was found in the burnout dimension emotional exhaustion, stress level, negative emotions at work, and worrying. No significant changes were found for the burnout dimension mental distance, and work engagement. The measures showed ample within-person differences and low, medium, or high effect sizes. The current trial approach of the MBSR training seems feasible and acceptable. Our results suggest that mindfulness, burnout, stress level, quality of sleep, positive emotions at work, negative emotions at work, self-efficacy, and worrying are meaningful mental health variables for inclusion in a larger-scale Randomized Controlled Trial on the effects of MBSR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Exploring Perceived Stress among Students in Turkey during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238961 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3271
Abstract
Students have been highly vulnerable to mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic, and researchers have shown that perceived stress and mental health problems have increased during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence of perceived stress and [...] Read more.
Students have been highly vulnerable to mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic, and researchers have shown that perceived stress and mental health problems have increased during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence of perceived stress and mental health among students during the pandemic and to explore predictors of stress levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 358 undergraduates from 14 universities in Turkey, including 200 female students (56%). The measurements used in the study were the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Perception of COVID Impact on Student Well-Being (CI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Physical Activity Scale (PA), and a sociodemographic survey. Students reported high perceived stress, mild generalized anxiety, and low satisfaction with life. More than half of the students met the diagnostic criteria of GAD (52%) and depression (63%). Female and physically inactive students had higher PSS-10 levels. A hierarchical linear regression model showed that after controlling for gender and negative CI, anxiety and physical inactivity significantly predicted high perceived stress. The study shows that students’ mental health during the pandemic is at high risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Exploring the Psychological Effects of Optimism on Life Satisfaction in Students: The Mediating Role of Goal Orientations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217887 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Subjective wellbeing is a current issue today. Various variables affect subjective wellbeing during adolescence: a crucial stage in the life of the individual. This study focuses on analysing the relationship between academic goal orientation, optimism and life satisfaction in adolescent students, as well [...] Read more.
Subjective wellbeing is a current issue today. Various variables affect subjective wellbeing during adolescence: a crucial stage in the life of the individual. This study focuses on analysing the relationship between academic goal orientation, optimism and life satisfaction in adolescent students, as well as the possible mediating role of the goal orientation (task and ego) in the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in adolescents. Methods: The sample comprises 1602 students (male N = 871; 54.36% and female N = 731; 45.63%) from nine secondary schools. The instruments used were the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) questionnaire. Results: The results of the study reveal significant correlations between optimism-related variables, goal orientation and life satisfaction. In addition, goal orientation was found to have a positive mediating role on optimism and life satisfaction. Conclusion: The study shows the importance of promoting adaptive behaviours in goal orientation in adolescents, leading to optimal levels on variables such as optimism and life satisfaction, which in turn improve the individual’s psychological development and academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
How the Lagged and Accumulated Effects of Stress, Coping, and Tasks Affect Mood and Fatigue during Nurses’ Shifts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197277 - 05 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Nurses experience significant stress and emotional exhaustion, leading to burnout and fatigue. This study assessed how the nurses’ mood and fatigue evolves during their shifts, and the temporal factors that influence these phenomena. Performing a two-level design with repeated measures with moments nested [...] Read more.
Nurses experience significant stress and emotional exhaustion, leading to burnout and fatigue. This study assessed how the nurses’ mood and fatigue evolves during their shifts, and the temporal factors that influence these phenomena. Performing a two-level design with repeated measures with moments nested into a person level, a random sample of 96 nurses was recruited. The ecological momentary assessment of demand, control, effort, reward, coping, and nursing tasks were measured in order to predict mood and fatigue, studying their current, lagged, and accumulated effects. The results show that: (1) Mood appeared to be explained by effort, by the negative lagged effect of reward, and by the accumulated effort, each following a quadratic trend, and it was influenced by previously executing a direct care task. By contrast, fatigue was explained by the current and lagged effect of effort, by the lagged effect of reward, and by the accumulated effort, again following quadratic trends. (2) Mood was also explained by problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, indicative of negative mood, and by support-seeking and refusal coping strategies. (3) Fatigue was also associated with direct care and the prior effect of documentation and communication tasks. We can conclude that mood and fatigue do not depend on a single factor, such as workload, but rather on the evolution and distribution of the nursing tasks, as well as on the stress during a shift and how it is handled. The evening and night shifts seem to provoke more fatigue than the other work shifts when approaching the last third of the shift. These data show the need to plan the tasks within a shift to avoid unfinished or delayed care during the shift, and to minimize accumulated negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Latent Profiles of Burnout, Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptomatology among Teachers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186760 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Burnout is a reality in the teaching profession. Specifically, teaching staff usually have higher burnout rates. The present study aims to analyze the different burnout profiles and to verify if there were differences between burnout profiles in depressive symptomatology and in the self-esteem [...] Read more.
Burnout is a reality in the teaching profession. Specifically, teaching staff usually have higher burnout rates. The present study aims to analyze the different burnout profiles and to verify if there were differences between burnout profiles in depressive symptomatology and in the self-esteem of the teachers at school. The total number of participants was 210 teachers from 30 to 65 years. The first scale was the Maslach burnout inventory, the second scale was the Self-Rating depression scale and the third scale was the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The latent class analysis identified three burnout profiles: the first group with a high level of emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment and depersonalization (high burnout); the second group with low emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization and high personal accomplishment (low burnout) and the third group with low depersonalization, low emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment (moderate burnout). The results revealed that there were differences in depressive symptomatology (group 1 obtained higher scores than group 2 and group 3) and self-esteem (group 2 obtained higher scores than group 1). The psychological balance and health of teachers depend on preventing the factors that have been associated with this syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Burnout, Goal Orientation and Academic Performance in Adolescent Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186507 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
During their school years, students can have different experiences and go through various emotional and motivational states that can affect their learning experience and play a key role in their personal and academic development. The goal of this paper is to analyse the [...] Read more.
During their school years, students can have different experiences and go through various emotional and motivational states that can affect their learning experience and play a key role in their personal and academic development. The goal of this paper is to analyse the relationship between goal orientation, burnout and academic performance. Material and methods: The study comprised a sample of 2652 students aged between 12 and 19 years (m = 14.55; DT = 1.70), both male (n = 1.368; 51.58%) and female (n = 1.284; 48.41%), from 14 secondary schools. The instruments used were the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), the Maslach Burnout Inventory—Student Survey (MBI-SS) and academic performance, which was measured using the students’ average school marks. Results: Results indicate a significant relationship between task orientation (and, to a lesser extent, ego orientation), efficacy and academic performance in line with adaptive behaviours. In addition, it was demonstrated that task orientation, efficacy and cynicism (burnout) can be used to predict academic performance in adolescents. Conclusion: It is argued that goal orientation plays a key role in promoting adaptive behaviours in an academic context and in the personal and academic development of adolescent students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Article
Study of the Predictive Validity of the Burnout Granada Questionnaire in Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176112 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Professionals with burnout have negative physical and psychological effects, with adverse consequences in their workplace. Burnout mainly affects assisting professions; amongst them, police work is one of the professions at risk of suffering from this syndrome. The aim of this research is to [...] Read more.
Professionals with burnout have negative physical and psychological effects, with adverse consequences in their workplace. Burnout mainly affects assisting professions; amongst them, police work is one of the professions at risk of suffering from this syndrome. The aim of this research is to study the adequacy of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Granada Burnout Questionnaire instruments to measure burnout in police officers through the study of the reliability and validity (concurrent and predictive) of these instruments. A cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample was composed of 1884 police officers, mostly men (85.4%), with an average age of 35.04 (SD = 8.30). The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Granada Burnout Questionnaire were used to measure burnout. The results obtained in this study support the adequacy of both instruments for measuring burnout. The correlation coefficients between the dimensions are significant, with a medium-high magnitude. Participants with burnout had significantly higher scores in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and lower scores in personal accomplishment in both instruments. The area under the curve estimated for the Granada Burnout Questionnaire provided evidence of the predictive validity of the instrument. The police profession needs validated and sensitive tools to identify police changes in the dimensions of burnout. The Granada Burnout Questionnaire instrument correctly classifies burnout in police professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Experiences of Negotiations for Improving Research Environment and Burnout among Young Physician Researchers in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145221 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
Physician scientists in Japan are often too busy to be sufficiently involved in research work. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate their experiences negotiating with their superiors to improve their research environment and determine its relationship with psychological burnout. Among 1790 physician awardees [...] Read more.
Physician scientists in Japan are often too busy to be sufficiently involved in research work. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate their experiences negotiating with their superiors to improve their research environment and determine its relationship with psychological burnout. Among 1790 physician awardees of Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists in 2014–2015, 490 responded (response rate 27.4%) and 408 were eligible for analysis. Outcome measures included two negotiation experiences: for reduction of clinical duty hours/promotion opportunities and for increased space or equipment/increased research budget. The main explanatory variables were personal, patient-related, and work-related burnout measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. The percentages of the above-mentioned two types of negotiations were 20–24% in women and 17–20% in men. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression analyses demonstrated that (1) the negotiation for reduction of clinical duty hours/promotion opportunities was significantly associated with physician scientists who had a short amount of weekly research time and high patient-related burnout score, and (2) the negotiation for increased space or equipment/increased research budget was significantly associated with older age, single status, and high personal and patient-related burnout scores. High burnout is related to negotiation experiences among physician researchers in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
Article
Basic Psychological Needs, Burnout and Engagement in Sport: The Mediating Role of Motivation Regulation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144941 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The purpose of the present research was to analyze the mediating role of motivational regulation between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and burnout and engagement in athletes. From different sports 1011 young Spanish athletes participated in the study. Participants completed several measurement [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present research was to analyze the mediating role of motivational regulation between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and burnout and engagement in athletes. From different sports 1011 young Spanish athletes participated in the study. Participants completed several measurement instruments concerning: the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale, Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire, Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Athlete Engagement Questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs has direct effects on burnout and engagement: a negative effect on athlete burnout (–0.49, p < 0.001) and a positive effect on engagement (0.54, p < 0.001). In addition, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs has a partial indirect effect over these variables in the same direction mediated by the self-determined degree of motivation. Thus, low levels of self-regulated motivation are positively related to burnout, but high levels of self-determined motivation are not. The same was observed with engagement, but vice versa: high levels of self-determined motivation are positively related to athlete engagement, but low levels of self-determined motivation are not. The proposed model explained 37% of the variance of burnout and 51% of the variance of engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome for Public Schoolteachers in the Brazilian Context: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041606 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence of burnout-related symptoms in Brazilian schoolteachers who work in public schools. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. Peer-reviewed studies published in English, Spanish, [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence of burnout-related symptoms in Brazilian schoolteachers who work in public schools. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. Peer-reviewed studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese were considered for inclusion. A total of 2106 records were identified through database searching and 7 additional studies were identified through other sources. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 19 studies were included in the systematic review. Burnout syndrome prevalence was assessed through seven distinct questionnaires. Overall, the majority of the studies presented high methodological quality. Brazilian schoolteachers exhibited high levels of emotional exhaustion (21–69%), high or moderate degrees of depersonalization (8–32%), and high levels of personal realization and enthusiasm toward the job (30–90%). From these data, it is possible to infer that Brazilian schoolteachers are, in general, affected by burnout syndrome. However, and, surprisingly, they seem to be motivated and idealistic, as demonstrated by their high levels of personal realization and enthusiasm toward the job (30–90%). This likely favors the implementation of programs designed to avoid or reduce burnout, deal with stress, and enhance teaching quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Review
An Integrative Review of How Healthcare Organizations Can Support Hospital Nurses to Thrive at Work
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238757 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Background: Solutions that address the anticipated nursing shortage should focus on thriving at work: a positive psychological state characterized by a sense of vitality and learning, resulting in higher levels of work engagement, commitment, and wellbeing. Purpose: To synthesize international evidence on organizational [...] Read more.
Background: Solutions that address the anticipated nursing shortage should focus on thriving at work: a positive psychological state characterized by a sense of vitality and learning, resulting in higher levels of work engagement, commitment, and wellbeing. Purpose: To synthesize international evidence on organizational factors that support hospital nurse wellbeing and to identify how the Social Embeddedness of Thriving at Work Model can support health managers to develop management approaches that enable nurses to thrive. Method: Conduct an integrative review of literature published between 2005–2019. Results: Thematic analysis identified five key themes: (1) Empowerment; (2) Mood of the organization; (3) An enabling environment; (4) Togetherness with colleagues; and (5) Leaders’ connectivity. Conclusions: The Social Embeddedness of Thriving at Work Model supports managers to develop management approaches that enable their nurses to thrive. Health managers should consider strategies to support nurses to thrive at work to improve nurse work engagement and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Review
Burnout in Palliative Care Nurses, Prevalence and Risk Factors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207672 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Palliative care nurses are exposed to hard situations, death, and duel feelings in their daily practice. These, and other work stressors, can favor burnout development. Thus, it is important to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of burnout in palliative care nurses and [...] Read more.
Palliative care nurses are exposed to hard situations, death, and duel feelings in their daily practice. These, and other work stressors, can favor burnout development. Thus, it is important to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of burnout in palliative care nurses and estimate its prevalence. A systematic review and meta-analysis was done with quantitative primary studies. n = 15 studies were included with n = 6 studies including information for the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic prevalence estimation of emotional exhaustion was 24% (95% CI 16–34%), for depersonalization was 30% (95% CI 18–44%) and for low personal accomplishment was 28% with a sample of n = 693 palliative care nurses. The main variables related with burnout are occupational variables followed by psychological variables. Some interventions to improve working conditions of palliative care nurses should be implemented to reduce burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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Review
Burnout in Nursing Managers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Related Factors, Levels and Prevalence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113983 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Burnout syndrome is a major problem in occupational health, which also affects nursing managers. The main aim was to analyze the level, prevalence and risk factors of burnout among nursing managers. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. The databases used were Medline [...] Read more.
Burnout syndrome is a major problem in occupational health, which also affects nursing managers. The main aim was to analyze the level, prevalence and risk factors of burnout among nursing managers. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. The databases used were Medline (Pubmed), PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, Scielo and Scopus. The search equation was “burnout AND nurs* AND (health manager OR case managers)”. Nursing managers present high levels of emotional exhaustion and a high degree of depersonalization. Some studies show that variables like age, gender, marital status, having children or mobbing and other occupational factors are related with burnout. The prevalence estimation of emotional exhaustion with the meta-analysis was high; 29% (95% CI = 9–56) with a sample of n = 780 nursing managers. The meta-analytical estimation of the correlation between burnout and age was r = −0.07 (95% CI = −0.23–0.08). Work overload, the need to mediate personnel conflicts, lack of time and support from superior staff, contribute to the development of burnout among nursing managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout Syndrome and Prevention)
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