Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Soil".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 January 2022) | Viewed by 39780

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, 2444 Seibersdorf, Austria
Interests: forest soils; soil carbon; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forest soil carbon is an important component of global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition, stabilization and destabilization directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming.

Due to of crucial importance of soil carbon storage to climate regulations, stability of forest ecosystem functions, scientists have devoted a significant amount of attention to the topic over the last decades. Despite of the progress, many important questions remain unanswered so far, for example questions concerning the temperature dependence of C mineralization and how this temperature sensitivity depends on litter quality, how forest stand density alter temperature sensitivity and stability of SOM to accelerated input of fresh organic matter (primability). Therefore, the scope of the special issue is to collect recent findings from different geographic locations, tackling these important to the society issues.  

We welcome papers dealing with temperature sensitivity of C mineralization, priming of soil organic matter, tree species and stand density effect on soil C storage and turnover processes. Also N effects on C storage and fluxes are welcome. The papers might be based on original data, reviews and meta-analysis will also be considered.

Dr. Oleg V. Menyailo
Guest Editor

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Keywords


  • tree species
  • soil organic matter
  • temperature sensitivity
  • priming
  • nitrogen effects
  • stand density
  • CO2 flux

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 618 KiB  
Editorial
Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes
by Oleg V. Menyailo
Forests 2022, 13(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030398 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Forest soil carbon is an important component of the global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition, stabilization and destabilization directly affect the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

11 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Effect of Two Exogenous Organic Acids on the Excitation Effect of Soil Organic Carbon in Beijing, China
by Yongli Xiao, Yanni Yu, Yue Wang, Xuqin Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Wei Dai and Yaning Luan
Forests 2022, 13(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030487 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Significance: The study of the effects and pathways of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon mineralization has a positive effect on mastering soil carbon transformation. Methods and objectives: In this study, we took 0–20 cm soil from Pinus tabulaeformis forest as [...] Read more.
Significance: The study of the effects and pathways of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon mineralization has a positive effect on mastering soil carbon transformation. Methods and objectives: In this study, we took 0–20 cm soil from Pinus tabulaeformis forest as an object to investigate the effects of catechol and pyrogallic acid with different concentrations on soil organic carbon mineralization through a 60-day mineralization incubation test. The soil active carbon content and changes in soil microbial diversity and community composition were analyzed by using single exponential fitting, quantitative PCR, and high-throughput sequencing to explore the influencing mechanisms of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon excitation. Results: Catechol and pyrogallic acid had the effect of enhancing the soil organic carbon mineralization and soil active carbon content, and the higher the concentration, the stronger the enhancement effect. Catechol reduced the Ace index, Chao1 index, and Shannon index of bacteria and fungi, and further changed the relative abundance of two dominant groups (Proteobacteria and Acidobacteriota) in bacteria and Basidiomycota in fungi at high concentrations. There was no obvious regularity in the effects of pyrogallic acid on bacteria and fungi, but the Ace index and Chao1 index of bacteria underwent drastic and disordered changes. Conclusions: Catechol and pyrogallic acid can trigger positive excitation of the soil organic carbon through two pathways: increasing the soil active carbon content and modulating soil microorganisms, but the way they modulate soil microorganisms are different. Catechol regulates soil microorganisms by reducing the number, richness, and evenness of the bacteria and fungi species, as well as the community composition, while the way pyrogallic acid regulates only closely relates to the changes in the number, richness, and evenness of bacteria species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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13 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Tree Species and Stand Density: The Effects on Soil Organic Matter Contents, Decomposability and Susceptibility to Microbial Priming
by Oleg V. Menyailo, Roman S. Sobachkin, Mikhail I. Makarov and Chih-Hsin Cheng
Forests 2022, 13(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020284 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Forest stand density has been shown to have different, albeit small, effects on soil carbon. We hypothesized that the absence of a density effect on soil carbon (C) storage could be explained by a loss of old soil C. This replacement of old [...] Read more.
Forest stand density has been shown to have different, albeit small, effects on soil carbon. We hypothesized that the absence of a density effect on soil carbon (C) storage could be explained by a loss of old soil C. This replacement of old by fresh C could result in zero net C sequestration by soils but could also alter the quality of the soil organic matter. We used one afforestation experiment in Siberia, in which three tree species (spruce, larch and Scots pine) have been grown for the last 30 years at 18 levels of stand density, ranging originally from 500 to 125,000 stems per ha. We selected five density levels and studied the C and nitrogen (N) contents in mineral soils at 0–5 cm depth. The age of the soil C was measured under larch and spruce for three levels of density by radiocarbon (14C) dating. In all soil samples, we determined the stability of the soil organic matter (SOM) by assessing two indices: C decomposability (mineralization of C per unit of soil C) and primability (susceptibility of the SOM to microbial priming). The stand density affected the soil C and N contents differently depending on the tree species. Only under spruce did both the C and N contents increase with density; under larch and pine, the covariation was insignificant and N even tended to decline with a density increase. With the 14C data, we were able to show the strong dilution of old SOM by fresh C derived from the trees; the effect was stronger with a higher density. This provides the first evidence that a density increase increases the fractions of new C versus old C and this can happen without altering the total C contents such as under larch. Although the stand density altered the soil C and N contents only under spruce, it altered C decomposability under all tree species; with a density increase, the C decomposability declined under spruce but increased under larch and pine. This is relevant to predicting C losses from forest soils with different tree species and densities. Higher C losses would occur under larch and pine with higher densities but under spruce, a density increase would reduce the losses of C from the soil. Furthermore, although no significant covariation of stand density with C primability was detected, we first observed strong tree species effects on C primability. Twice as much C was lost from the soil under larch than under spruce or pine by an equal addition of C-glucose. This indicated that elevated C deposition from roots and exudates to the soil as predicted due to an elevated CO2 concentration would most strongly accelerate the soil C turnover and C losses under larch than under spruce and Scots pine. Overall, the tree species altered the susceptibility of the soil C to an elevated C input and the stand density had a strong effect on the decomposability of the SOM, which is an important parameter of C stability. The effect of stand density is, therefore, important to consider even if the stand density does not affect the total soil C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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9 pages, 1263 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Roots, Mycorrhizal Hyphae, and Soil Free-Living Microbes to Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity in a Larch Forest
by Naoki Makita, Roma Fujimoto and Azusa Tamura
Forests 2021, 12(10), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12101410 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Soil respiration plays a critical role in driving soil carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial forest ecosystems. However, evidence to demonstrate the response of roots, mycorrhizal hyphae, and soil free-living microbes of soil respiration and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) remains lacking. [...] Read more.
Soil respiration plays a critical role in driving soil carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial forest ecosystems. However, evidence to demonstrate the response of roots, mycorrhizal hyphae, and soil free-living microbes of soil respiration and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) remains lacking. Here, we used a root exclusion method to assess the contribution and response of root respiration (Rroot), mycorrhizal respiration (Rmyc), and (soil organic matter) SOM respiration (Rsom) to soil temperature in a larch forest. During the growing period, the contributions of Rroot, Rmyc, and Rsom to soil respiration were 42%, 6%, and 52%, respectively. The respiration rates of all components increased exponentially with increasing temperature. Based on these constitutive respiration rates with soil temperature, the Q10 values for Rroot, Rmyc, and Rsom were 3.84, 5.18, and 1.86, respectively. The results showed that the response to temperature change was different among roots, mycorrhizal hyphae, and microbes in the soil, while the temperature sensitivity of autotrophic respiration was higher than that of heterotrophic respiration. Importantly, the Rmyc at this site was extremely sensitive to temperature, although its overall emission was small. Mycorrhizal associations were identified as the key drivers of soil respiration and temperature sensitivity. A good understanding of the different soil CO2 efflux components will provide useful information for determining soil C fluxes and predicting soil C dynamics under changing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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15 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
Variability in Carbon Stocks across a Chronosequence of Masson Pine Plantations and the Trade-Off between Plant and Soil Systems
by Jie He, Quanhou Dai, Fengwei Xu, Xudong Peng and Youjin Yan
Forests 2021, 12(10), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12101342 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Plantations sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and positively respond to climate change, but the carbon (C) sequestration capacity and the trade-off between plant and soil systems in plantations may vary significantly across a chronosequence. Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) plantations were selected to [...] Read more.
Plantations sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and positively respond to climate change, but the carbon (C) sequestration capacity and the trade-off between plant and soil systems in plantations may vary significantly across a chronosequence. Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) plantations were selected to investigate the variability of C stocks in 7-, 14-, and 30-year-old stands. The total ecosystem C stock increased with stand age from 14.82 to 19.21 Mg C. Carbon stocks increased with stand age in the plant system but decreased in the soil system, with the ratio of plant-to-soil C stocks increasing from 0.06 in the 7-year-old plantation to 0.70 in the 30-year-old plantation. Carbon stocks in the first 20 cm of the soil accounted for 44.60%, 43.01%, and 30.18% of the total ecosystem carbon stock in 7-, 14-, and 30-year-old plantations, respectively. The variation trends for the proportions of C stock in soil decreased with soil depth as a result of tree and root growth regardless of stand age. Most C was stored in the stems, which contributed 1.36%, 6.85%, and 29.57% of total ecosystem C stock across the chronosequence. Results of structural equation model indicated that the effect of plant system C stock on ecosystem C stock was far larger than soil system C stock, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (ks) and fractal dimension (D) could be the primary parameters affecting ecosystem C stocks according to redundancy analysis (Variance explained by the variables selected). In summary, the plant system increased biomass C stocks by regulating soil properties to meet their growth requirements, the growth of plants in turn changed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, then both regulated ecosystem carbon sequestration in Masson pine plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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13 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stock after Forest Regeneration of Agricultural Fields in Taiwan
by Yi-Han Lin, Pei-Chen Lee, Oleg V. Menyailo and Chih-Hsin Cheng
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091222 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Afforestation or abandonment of agricultural fields to forest regeneration is a method of sequestering carbon to offset the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2. We selected 11 sites with altitudes ranging from 14 to 2056 m and with paired forest regenerated and [...] Read more.
Afforestation or abandonment of agricultural fields to forest regeneration is a method of sequestering carbon to offset the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2. We selected 11 sites with altitudes ranging from 14 to 2056 m and with paired forest regenerated and adjacent agricultural fields. Our objectives were to (1) examine the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stock after forest regeneration of agricultural fields and (2) identify the factors related to elevation and adjacent agricultural practices that affect the SOC accumulation rate. Our results demonstrated overall increases in both SOC concentrations and stocks after forest regeneration of the abandoned agricultural fields. The average increase rates of SOC concentrations in the forest regenerated soil samples were 1.65 and 0.95 g C kg−1 at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths, respectively, representing 101% and 65% increases relative to those in the soil samples from agricultural fields. The average accumulation rates of SOC stocks in the regenerated forests were 13.0 and 6.7 ton C ha−1 at the 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths, respectively, representing 96% and 62% increases relative to those in the agricultural soil samples. The average annual sequestration rate was 1.03 Mg C ha−1 year−1 for the top 0–20 cm soils, which is greater than that observed by previous reviews and meta-analyses. The tropical/subtropical climate, sampling soil depth, forest regeneration period, and tree species in this study are likely to have contributed to the high average SOC accumulation levels. In addition, the SOC stock accumulation rates were higher at low-elevation sites than at middle-elevation sites, which could also be attributed to the favorable climatic conditions at the low-elevation sites. Along with the build-up of carbon sequestration in the forest floor and tree biomass, the afforestation/abandonment of agricultural fields to forest regeneration appears to be a promising carbon offset mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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15 pages, 1124 KiB  
Article
Carbon and Oxygen Gas Exchange in Woody Debris: The Process and Climate-Related Drivers
by Victor A. Mukhin, Daria K. Diyarova, Mikhail L. Gitarskiy and Dmitry G. Zamolodchikov
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091156 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The carbon-to-oxygen relationship and gas exchange balance, organic carbon to CO2 conversion intensity and efficiency, and their relevance to climate parameters and wood decay fungi were investigated for birch woody debris (WD) in the Mid-Urals mixed pine and birch forests. It was [...] Read more.
The carbon-to-oxygen relationship and gas exchange balance, organic carbon to CO2 conversion intensity and efficiency, and their relevance to climate parameters and wood decay fungi were investigated for birch woody debris (WD) in the Mid-Urals mixed pine and birch forests. It was shown that, within the range of temperatures from 10 to 40 °C and relative moisture (RM) of wood of 40% and 70%, aerobic gas exchange was observed in the WD, encompassing the physiologically entwined processes of CO2 emission and O2 uptake. Their volumetric ratio (0.9) confirmed that (1) the WD represents a globally significant CO2 source and appropriate O2 consumer and (2) the oxidative conversion of organic carbon is highly efficient in the WD, with an average ratio of CO2 released to O2 consumed equal to 90%. The balance of carbon-to-oxygen gas exchange and oxidizing conversion efficiency in the WD were not affected by either fungal species tested or by moisture or temperature. However, the intensity of gas exchange was unique for each wood decay fungi, and it could be treated as a climate-reliant parameter driven by temperature (Q10 = 2.0–2.1) and moisture (the latter induced a corresponding trend and value changes in CO2 emission and O2 uptake). Depending on the direction and degree of the change in temperature and moisture, their combined effect on the intensity of gas exchange led to its strengthening or weakening; otherwise, it was stabilized. Aerobic respiration of wood decay Basidiomycetes is an essential prerequisite and the major biotic factor in the WD gas exchange, while moisture and temperature are its climatic controllers only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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16 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Metabolically Active Prokaryotic Complex in Grassland and Forests’ Sod-Podzol under Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Influence
by Natalia A. Manucharova, Lev A. Pozdnyakov, Anastasiya P. Vlasova, Anastasiya S. Yanovich, Natalia A. Ksenofontova, Maria A. Kovalenko, Pavel Y. Stepanov, Alexander N. Gennadiev, Alla V. Golovchenko and Alexey L. Stepanov
Forests 2021, 12(8), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12081103 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Molecular genetic techniques (FISH, RT-PCR, and metagenomic analysis) were used to investigate the comparative functional biodiversity in the prokaryotic complex in grassland and forests’ sod-podzol under polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influence. The polluted samples showed a decrease in the biomass of the prokaryotic community [...] Read more.
Molecular genetic techniques (FISH, RT-PCR, and metagenomic analysis) were used to investigate the comparative functional biodiversity in the prokaryotic complex in grassland and forests’ sod-podzol under polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influence. The polluted samples showed a decrease in the biomass of the prokaryotic community representatives and a change in the metabolically active dominants–representatives of the Bacteria and Archaea domains compared to the control samples. The suppression of the metabolic activity of prokaryote cells under the influence of PAHs in sod-podzolic soil under meadow vegetation was more pronounced compared to soils under forest vegetation. The representatives of prokaryotes that are sensitive and resistant to the studied PAHs were identified. The representatives of the phylogenetic groups from the bacterial complex resistant to PAH pollution were Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and Thaumarhaeota in the archaeal complex. Representatives of the phylum Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria (Streptosporangiales) are noted among those sensitive to PAH contamination. The presence and expression of the functional alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene were established in all the experimental variants studied. In the plant variants, the number of copies of alkB genes increased by an order of magnitude and the biomass of metabolically active prokaryotic representatives with the functional alkB gene doubled compared to the unpolluted territories. The copy number index of the alkB gene can be used as one of the parameters when characterizing an ecosystem for the presence of PAH pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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14 pages, 4561 KiB  
Article
Assessing Wood and Soil Carbon Losses from a Forest-Peat Fire in the Boreo-Nemoral Zone
by Andrey Sirin, Alexander Maslov, Dmitry Makarov, Yakov Gulbe and Hans Joosten
Forests 2021, 12(7), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12070880 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Forest-peat fires are notable for their difficulty in estimating carbon losses. Combined carbon losses from tree biomass and peat soil were estimated at an 8 ha forest-peat fire in the Moscow region after catastrophic fires in 2010. The loss of tree biomass carbon [...] Read more.
Forest-peat fires are notable for their difficulty in estimating carbon losses. Combined carbon losses from tree biomass and peat soil were estimated at an 8 ha forest-peat fire in the Moscow region after catastrophic fires in 2010. The loss of tree biomass carbon was assessed by reconstructing forest stand structure using the classification of pre-fire high-resolution satellite imagery and after-fire ground survey of the same forest classes in adjacent areas. Soil carbon loss was assessed by using the root collars of stumps to reconstruct the pre-fire soil surface and interpolating the peat characteristics of adjacent non-burned areas. The mean (median) depth of peat losses across the burned area was 15 ± 8 (14) cm, varying from 13 ± 5 (11) to 20 ± 9 (19). Loss of soil carbon was 9.22 ± 3.75–11.0 ± 4.96 (mean) and 8.0–11.0 kg m−2 (median); values exceeding 100 tC ha−1 have also been found in other studies. The estimated soil carbon loss for the entire burned area, 98 (mean) and 92 (median) tC ha−1, significantly exceeds the carbon loss from live (tree) biomass, which averaged 58.8 tC ha−1. The loss of carbon in the forest-peat fire thus equals the release of nearly 400 (soil) and, including the biomass, almost 650 tCO2 ha−1 into the atmosphere, which illustrates the underestimated impact of boreal forest-peat fires on atmospheric gas concentrations and climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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18 pages, 4041 KiB  
Article
Soil Respiration in Alder Swamp (Alnus glutinosa) in Southern Taiga of European Russia Depending on Microrelief
by Tamara V. Glukhova, Danil V. Ilyasov, Stanislav E. Vompersky, Alla V. Golovchenko, Natalia A. Manucharova and Alexey L. Stepanov
Forests 2021, 12(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040496 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Swamp forests have been insufficiently studied yet in comparison with thoroughly examined carbon pools and greenhouse gas fluxes of peat bogs. This is primarily since the GHGs in swamp forests have huge spatial (due to the developed microrelief) and temporal variations (due to [...] Read more.
Swamp forests have been insufficiently studied yet in comparison with thoroughly examined carbon pools and greenhouse gas fluxes of peat bogs. This is primarily since the GHGs in swamp forests have huge spatial (due to the developed microrelief) and temporal variations (due to strong fluctuations in the groundwater level (GWL)). This significantly complicates their study, producing ambiguous results, especially in short-term field research. From June to October 2013–2016, we measured soil respiration (Rsoil) in an alder swamp using the static chamber method at five microsites: depression (DEP), flat surface (FL), elevations (EL), tussocks (TUS), and near-stem tussocks (STUS). We carried out a computer simulation of the total Rsoil for the season based on Rsoil measurements, monitoring of GWL, and soil temperature. In 2013–2016, the average Rsoil values (mgC m−2 h−1 ± σ) on DEP, FL, EL, TUS and STUS comprised 54 ± 50, 94 ± 72, 146 ± 89, 193 ± 96, and 326 ± 183, respectively, whereas the total Rsoil values for the season (tC ha−1 season−1 ± σ) comprised 2.0 ± 0.5, 3.5 ± 0.5, 5.3 ± 1.6, 5.4 ± 2.7, and 12.6 ± 3.2. According to the results of observations, GWL was at the level of several cm below the soil surface for most of the season. In 2014 and 2015, there were extra dry periods that led to a drop in GWL to a mark of 30–40 cm below the soil surface. Despite their short duration (2–3 weeks), these dry periods can lead to an increase in the total Rsoil for the season from 9 to 45% in the TUS–EL–STUS–FL–DEP sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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16 pages, 3281 KiB  
Article
High Rainfall Inhibited Soil Respiration in an Asian Monsoon Forest in Taiwan
by Jui-Chu Yu, Po-Neng Chiang, Yen-Jen Lai, Ming-Jer Tsai and Ya-Nan Wang
Forests 2021, 12(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020239 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Soil respiration represents the second largest carbon flux, next to photosynthesis of the terrestrial biosphere, and thus plays a dual role in regional and global carbon cycles. However, soil respiration in Asian monsoon forests with high rainfall has rarely been studied. In this [...] Read more.
Soil respiration represents the second largest carbon flux, next to photosynthesis of the terrestrial biosphere, and thus plays a dual role in regional and global carbon cycles. However, soil respiration in Asian monsoon forests with high rainfall has rarely been studied. In this study, we continuously measured soil respiration using a 12-channel automated chamber system in a 61-year-old Japanese cedar forest in central Taiwan with annual rainfall greater than 2500 mm. A 4-year (2011–2014) continuous half-hourly dataset was used to quantify the influences of soil temperature and moisture, especially rainfall events, on both total soil respiration (Rs) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The annual mean Rs was approximately 10.8 t C ha−1 (ranging from 10.7 to 10.9) t C ha−1, with Rh contributing approximately 74.6% (ranging from 71.7% to 80.2%). Large seasonal variations in both Rs and Rh were primarily controlled by soil temperature. Over 45.8% of total annual rainfall amounts were provided by strong rainfall events (over 50 mm), and over 40% of rainfall events occurred during summers between 2012 and 2014. These strong rainfall events caused rainwater to enter soil pores and cover the soil surface, which resulted in limited soil microorganism activity and, consequently, restricted CO2 production. The mean Q10 values were 2.38 (ranging from 1.77 to 2.65) and 2.02 (ranging from 1.71 to 2.34) for Rs and Rh, respectively. The Q10 values in this study, which were lower than in global forest ecosystems, may imply that the interannual Rs values observed in this study that were caused by high rainfall were less temperature-dependent than the Rs levels in global forest ecosystems. Both Rs and Rh were negatively correlated with soil moisture, which indicated that the soil moisture levels in the studied forest were usually under saturated conditions. These results also provide the lack of data for respiration in the Asian monsoon region under high-rainfall conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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25 pages, 33777 KiB  
Article
Age-Dependent Changes in Soil Respiration and Associated Parameters in Siberian Permafrost Larch Stands Affected by Wildfire
by Oxana V. Masyagina, Svetlana Y. Evgrafova, Oleg V. Menyailo, Shigeta Mori, Takayoshi Koike and Stanislav G. Prokushkin
Forests 2021, 12(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010107 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
The observed high spatial variation in soil respiration (SR) and associated parameters emphasized the importance of SR heterogeneity at high latitudes and the involvement of many factors in its regulation, especially within fire-affected areas. The problem of estimating CO2 emissions during post-fire [...] Read more.
The observed high spatial variation in soil respiration (SR) and associated parameters emphasized the importance of SR heterogeneity at high latitudes and the involvement of many factors in its regulation, especially within fire-affected areas. The problem of estimating CO2 emissions during post-fire recovery in high-latitude ecosystems addresses the mutual influence of wildfires and climate change on the C cycle. Despite its importance, especially in permafrost regions because of their vulnerability, the mutual influence of these factors on CO2 dynamics has rarely been studied. Thus, we aimed to understand the dynamics of soil respiration (SR) in wildfire-affected larch recovery successions. We analyzed 16-year data (1995–2010) on SR and associated soil, biological, and environmental parameters obtained during several field studies in larch stands of different ages (0–276 years) in the Krasnoyarsk region (Russia). We observed a high variation in SR and related parameters among the study sites. SR varied from 1.77 ± 1.18 (mean ± SD) µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 in the 0–10-year-old group to 5.18 ± 2.70 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 in the 150–276-year-old group. We found a significant increasing trend in SR in the 88–141-year old group during the study period, which was related to the significant decrease in soil water content due to the shortage of precipitation during the growing season. We observed a high spatial variation in SR, which was primarily regulated by biological and environmental factors. Different parameters were the main contributors to SR in each group, an SR was significantly affected by the inter-relationships between the studied parameters. The obtained results can be incorporated into the existing SR databases, which can allow their use in the construction and validation of C transport models as well as in monitoring global fluctuations in the C cycle in response to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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15 pages, 2706 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Carbon Storage of Soil and Litter from National Forest Inventory Data in South Korea
by Sunjeoung Lee, Seunghyun Lee, Joonghoon Shin, Jongsu Yim and Jinteak Kang
Forests 2020, 11(12), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11121318 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3310
Abstract
Research Highlights: The estimation of soil and litter carbon stocks by the Land Use, Land-Use Changes, and Forestry (LULUCF) sectors has the potential to improve reports on national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Background and Objectives: Forests are carbon sinks in the LULUCF sectors [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: The estimation of soil and litter carbon stocks by the Land Use, Land-Use Changes, and Forestry (LULUCF) sectors has the potential to improve reports on national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Background and Objectives: Forests are carbon sinks in the LULUCF sectors and therefore can be a comparatively cost-effective means and method of GHG mitigation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to assess soil at 0–30 cm and litter carbon stocks using the National Forest Inventory (NFI) data and random forest (RF) models, mapping their carbon stocks. The three main types of forest in South Kora were studied, namely, coniferous, deciduous, and mixed. Results: The litter carbon stocks (t C ha−1) were 4.63 ± 0.18 for coniferous, 3.98 ± 0.15 for mixed, and 3.28 ± 0.13 for deciduous. The soil carbon stocks (t C ha−1) were 44.11 ± 1.54 for deciduous, 35.75 ± 1.60 for mixed, and 33.96 ± 1.62 for coniferous. Coniferous forests had higher litter carbon stocks while deciduous forests contained higher soil carbon stocks. The carbon storage in the soil and litter layer increased as the forest grew older; however, a significant difference was found in several age classes. For mapping the soil and litter carbon stocks, we used four random forest models, namely RF1 to RF4, and the best performing model was RF2 (root mean square error (RMSE) (t C ha−1) = 1.67 in soil carbon stocks, 1.49 in soil and litter carbon stocks). Our study indicated that elevation, accessibility class, slope, diameter at breast height, height, and growing stock are important predictors of carbon stock. Soil and litter carbon stock maps were produced using the RF2 models. Almost all prediction values were appropriated to soil and litter carbon stocks. Conclusions: Estimating and mapping the carbon stocks in the soil and litter layer using the NFI data and random forest models could be used in future national GHG inventory reports. Additionally, the data and models can estimate all carbon pools to achieve an accurate and complete national GHG inventory report. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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14 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Reduced Lignin Decomposition and Enhanced Soil Organic Carbon Stability by Acid Rain: Evidence from 13C Isotope and 13C NMR Analyses
by Jianping Wu, Qi Deng, Dafeng Hui, Xin Xiong, Huiling Zhang, Mengdi Zhao, Xuan Wang, Minghui Hu, Yongxian Su, Hongou Zhang, Guowei Chu and Deqiang Zhang
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111191 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
Due to the emissions of air pollutants, acid rain in southern China poses a great threat to terrestrial ecosystems. However, its influences on ecological processes such as litter decomposition and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation are still not clear. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Due to the emissions of air pollutants, acid rain in southern China poses a great threat to terrestrial ecosystems. However, its influences on ecological processes such as litter decomposition and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation are still not clear. The aim of this study was to understand the potential mechanisms of carbon sequestration change in response to long-term acid rain in a subtropical forest. A field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment was conducted in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatment were implemented by irrigating the plots with water of different pH values (4.5 as a control, 4.0, 3.5, and 3.0). The results showed that the concentration of SOC and recalcitrant index for the SAR pH = 3.0 treatment were significantly higher compared to the control. Lignin fractions in litter residue layers were significantly increased, while soil microbial biomass carbon and soil ligninolytic enzyme activities were reduced under the SAR treatment. The concentration of SOC and recalcitrant index had positive relationships with the litter residue lignin fraction, but negative relationships with soil ligninolytic enzyme activity. These findings indicate that soil carbon accumulation could be enhanced with more stable lignin input under prolonged acid rain in forest ecosystems in southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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19 pages, 4638 KiB  
Article
Linking Forest Vegetation and Soil Carbon Stock in Northwestern Russia
by Natalia Lukina, Anastasia Kuznetsova, Elena Tikhonova, Vadim Smirnov, Maria Danilova, Aleksey Gornov, Olga Bakhmet, Aleksandr Kryshen, Daria Tebenkova, Maxim Shashkov and Svetlana Knyazeva
Forests 2020, 11(9), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090979 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Research Highlights: It was found that both tree species and ground vegetation affected soil carbon stock in boreal forests. Carbon stocks in the mineral layers were related negatively to the C/N ratio in the organic horizon and pine proportion in the growing stock [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: It was found that both tree species and ground vegetation affected soil carbon stock in boreal forests. Carbon stocks in the mineral layers were related negatively to the C/N ratio in the organic horizon and pine proportion in the growing stock volume, and positively to the share of herbaceous plants and the proportion of spruce. Background and Objectives: Existing research showed the effects of tree species on soil carbon stocks in organic horizons, but these effects were less clear in mineral horizons. Little is known about the effects of ground vegetation on soil carbon stock. This study aims to identify associations between the forest vegetation composition and soil carbon stocks in northwestern Russia. Materials and Methods: Research data from 109 pine, spruce and birch forests of different Cajander’s and Sukachev’s types with different functional compositions of ground vegetation at autonomous positions are discussed in this paper. The V-test was used to assess the impact of vegetation on soil carbon stocks. Results: Variations in Carbon stocks in the mineral layers were associated with the soil types and vegetation composition. Carbic Albic Podzols accumulated the least amount of carbon in the mineral profile. Carbon stock in the mineral layers in pine forests was considerably lower than in spruce and birch forests. Spruce forests with the highest share of herbaceous plants were characterised by the highest carbon stocks in the mineral layers, while pine forests with dwarf shrubs and green mosses accumulated more carbon in the organic layers, but carbon stocks in the mineral layers here were the lowest. Conclusions: Differences in soil carbon stocks between and within northern and middle taiga in northwestern Russia were associated not only with soil types but also with the proportions of forest types dominated by different tree species and ground vegetation functional groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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Review

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15 pages, 1128 KiB  
Review
Analysis of the Effect of Climate Warming on Paludification Processes: Will Soil Conditions Limit the Adaptation of Northern Boreal Forests to Climate Change? A Synthesis
by Ahmed Laamrani, Osvaldo Valeria, Abdelghani Chehbouni and Yves Bergeron
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111176 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3399
Abstract
Northern boreal forests are characterized by accumulation of accumulation of peat (e.g., known as paludification). The functioning of northern boreal forest species and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes appear to depend on soil conditions. Climate warming is expected to have particularly [...] Read more.
Northern boreal forests are characterized by accumulation of accumulation of peat (e.g., known as paludification). The functioning of northern boreal forest species and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes appear to depend on soil conditions. Climate warming is expected to have particularly pronounced effects on paludified boreal ecosystems and can alter current forest species composition and adaptation by changing soil conditions such as moisture, temperature regimes, and soil respiration. In this paper, we review and synthesize results from various reported studies (i.e., 88 research articles cited hereafter) to assess the effects of climatic warming on soil conditions of paludified forests in North America. Predictions that global warming may increase the decomposition rate must be considered in combination with its impact on soil moisture, which appears to be a limiting factor. Local adaptation or acclimation to current climatic conditions is occurring in boreal forests, which is likely to be important for continued ecosystem stability in the context of climate change. The most commonly cited response of boreal forest species to global warming is a northward migration that tracks the climate and soil conditions (e.g., temperature and moisture) to which they are adapted. Yet, some constraints may influence this kind of adaptation, such as water availability, changes in fire regimes, decomposer adaptations, and the dynamic of peat accumulation. In this paper, as a study case, we examined an example of potential effects of climatic warming on future paludification changes in the eastern lowland region of Canada through three different combined hypothetical scenarios based on temperature and precipitation (e.g., unchanged, increase, or decrease). An increase scenario in precipitation will likely favor peat accumulation in boreal forest stands prone to paludification and facilitate forested peatland expansion into upland forest, while decreased or unchanged precipitation combined with an increase in temperature will probably favor succession of forested peatlands to upland boreal forests. Each of the three scenarios were discussed in this study, and consequent silvicultural treatment options were suggested for each scenario to cope with anticipated soil and species changes in the boreal forests. We concluded that, despite the fact boreal soils will not constrain adaptation of boreal forests, some consequences of climatic warming may reduce the ability of certain species to respond to natural disturbances such as pest and disease outbreaks, and extreme weather events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
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