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Article

Carbon and Oxygen Gas Exchange in Woody Debris: The Process and Climate-Related Drivers

1
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620144 Yekaterinburg, Russia
2
Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, 620026 Yekaterinburg, Russia
3
Ecology and Environmental Management Program, Ugresha Branch, Dubna State University, 140090 Dzerzhinsky, Russia
4
Russian Energy Agency, Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, 129085 Moscow, Russia
5
Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117234 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oleg V. Menyailo
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091156
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
The carbon-to-oxygen relationship and gas exchange balance, organic carbon to CO2 conversion intensity and efficiency, and their relevance to climate parameters and wood decay fungi were investigated for birch woody debris (WD) in the Mid-Urals mixed pine and birch forests. It was shown that, within the range of temperatures from 10 to 40 °C and relative moisture (RM) of wood of 40% and 70%, aerobic gas exchange was observed in the WD, encompassing the physiologically entwined processes of CO2 emission and O2 uptake. Their volumetric ratio (0.9) confirmed that (1) the WD represents a globally significant CO2 source and appropriate O2 consumer and (2) the oxidative conversion of organic carbon is highly efficient in the WD, with an average ratio of CO2 released to O2 consumed equal to 90%. The balance of carbon-to-oxygen gas exchange and oxidizing conversion efficiency in the WD were not affected by either fungal species tested or by moisture or temperature. However, the intensity of gas exchange was unique for each wood decay fungi, and it could be treated as a climate-reliant parameter driven by temperature (Q10 = 2.0–2.1) and moisture (the latter induced a corresponding trend and value changes in CO2 emission and O2 uptake). Depending on the direction and degree of the change in temperature and moisture, their combined effect on the intensity of gas exchange led to its strengthening or weakening; otherwise, it was stabilized. Aerobic respiration of wood decay Basidiomycetes is an essential prerequisite and the major biotic factor in the WD gas exchange, while moisture and temperature are its climatic controllers only. View Full-Text
Keywords: boreal forest; woody debris; CO2; O2; gas exchange; temperature; moisture; wood decay Basidiomycetes boreal forest; woody debris; CO2; O2; gas exchange; temperature; moisture; wood decay Basidiomycetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mukhin, V.A.; Diyarova, D.K.; Gitarskiy, M.L.; Zamolodchikov, D.G. Carbon and Oxygen Gas Exchange in Woody Debris: The Process and Climate-Related Drivers. Forests 2021, 12, 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091156

AMA Style

Mukhin VA, Diyarova DK, Gitarskiy ML, Zamolodchikov DG. Carbon and Oxygen Gas Exchange in Woody Debris: The Process and Climate-Related Drivers. Forests. 2021; 12(9):1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091156

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mukhin, Victor A., Daria K. Diyarova, Mikhail L. Gitarskiy, and Dmitry G. Zamolodchikov 2021. "Carbon and Oxygen Gas Exchange in Woody Debris: The Process and Climate-Related Drivers" Forests 12, no. 9: 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091156

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