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Special Issue "Wood Properties and Processing"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Miha Humar

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Biotechnology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wood, wood preservation, wood modification, service life prediction, wood-water interactions, performance of wood, weathering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood based materials are CO2-neutral, renewable, and considered to be environmentally friendly. The huge variety of wood species and wood-based composites allows a wide scope of creative and aesthetic alternatives to materials with higher environmental impacts during production, use and disposal. Modern building and construction practice would not be possible without use of wood or wood based composites. Use of composites enables use of wood of lower quality for production of materials with engineered properties for specific, target applications. Even more, utilization of reinforcing particles as carbon nano-tubes, nano-cellulose…, enables development of new generation of composites with even better properties. They have a potential to replace other construction materials like steel in many applications. The positive aspect of decomposability of waste wood can turn into the opposite when wood or wood based materials are exposed to weathering, moisture oscillations, different discoloring and degrading organisms. Protective measures are therefore unavoidable for many outdoor applications. These techniques includes: application of biocides, water repellents, surface coatings, wood modification, protection by construction, development of new generation of composites and hybrids… Resistance of wood against different aging factors is always a combined effect of toxic or inhibiting ingredients on one hand, and of structural, anatomical or chemical ways of exclusion of moisture, which is one of the most important factors for deterioration. In order to predict service life of wood various models can be applied.

Prof. Dr. Miha Humar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wood
  • Wood based composites
  • Performance
  • Properties of wood
  • Building with wood
  • Degradation
  • Protection
  • Water-wood interactions
  • Mechanical properties
  • Fine chemicals

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effect of Rotation Age and Thinning Regime on Visual and Structural Lumber Grades of Douglas-Fir Logs
Forests 2018, 9(9), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090576
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Douglas-fir, the most important timber species in the Pacific Northwest, US (PNW), has high stiffness and strength. Growing it in plantations on short rotations since the 1980s has led to concerns about the impact of juvenile/mature wood proportion on wood properties. Lumber recovered
[...] Read more.
Douglas-fir, the most important timber species in the Pacific Northwest, US (PNW), has high stiffness and strength. Growing it in plantations on short rotations since the 1980s has led to concerns about the impact of juvenile/mature wood proportion on wood properties. Lumber recovered from four sites in a thinning trial in the PNW was analyzed for relationships between thinning regime and lumber grade yield. Linear mixed-effects models were developed for understanding how rotation age and thinning affect the lumber grade yield. Log small-end diameter was overall the most important for describing the presence of an appearance grade, generally exhibiting an indirect relationship with the lower quality grades. Stand Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) was found to be the next most uniformly important predictor, its influence (positive or negative) depending on the lumber grade. For quantity within a grade, as log small-end diameter increased, the quantity of the highest grade increased, while decreasing the quantity of the lower grades differentially. Other tree and stand attributes were of varying importance among grades, including stand density, tree height, and stand slope, but logically depicted the tradeoffs or rebalancing among the grades as the tree and stand characteristics change. Structural lumber grade presence was described best by acoustic wave flight time, log position (decreasing presence in upper logs), and an increasing presence with rotation age. A smaller set of variables proved useful for describing quantity within a structural grade. Forest managers can use these results in planning to best capture value in harvesting, allowing them to direct raw materials (logs) to appropriate manufacturing facilities given market demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Properties and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Changes of Selected Hardwoods Due to Weather Conditions
Forests 2018, 9(9), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090557
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The study is focused on the surface changes of five hardwoods (oak, black locust, poplar, alder and maple) that were exposed to natural weathering for 24 months in the climatic conditions of Central Europe. Colour, roughness, visual and chemical changes of exposed surface
[...] Read more.
The study is focused on the surface changes of five hardwoods (oak, black locust, poplar, alder and maple) that were exposed to natural weathering for 24 months in the climatic conditions of Central Europe. Colour, roughness, visual and chemical changes of exposed surface structures were examined. The lowest total colour changes (ΔE*) were found for oak (23.77), the highest being recorded for maple (34.19). Roughness differences after 24-month exposure (ΔRa) showed minimal changes in poplar wood (9.41); the highest changes in roughness were found on the surface of alder (22.18). The presence of mould and blue stains was found on the surface of maple, alder and poplar. Chemical changes were characterized by lignin and hemicelluloses degradation. Decreases of both methoxy and carbonyl groups, cleavage of bonds in lignin and hemicelluloses, oxidation reaction and formation of new chromophores were observed. In the initial phases of the degradation process, the discoloration was related to chemical changes; in the longer period, the greying due to settling of dust particles and action of mould influenced the wood colour. The data were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained results revealed degradation processes of tested hardwood surfaces exposed to external environmental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Properties and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Preferences for Urban Building Materials: Does Building Culture Background Matter?
Forests 2018, 9(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080504
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
A fast-growing global population, increasing urbanization, and an increasing flow of people with different building cultural backgrounds bring material use in the housing sector into focus. The aim of this study is to identify material preferences in the building environment in cities and
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A fast-growing global population, increasing urbanization, and an increasing flow of people with different building cultural backgrounds bring material use in the housing sector into focus. The aim of this study is to identify material preferences in the building environment in cities and to determine if the building cultural background impacts those preferences. The data in this study consisted of responses from two groups of dwellers in Norway, including immigrants from countries where wood is an uncommon building material and native Norwegians from a building culture where wood is common. We found that the most preferred materials were often the same as the most common materials currently used in city buildings. Only small differences were found between the two groups of dwellers that were studied. Most differences were related to concerns about material choice in general and where individuals wanted to live. Respondents who preferred city living preferred commonly used city materials, such as concrete and steel. For cladding materials, stone/bricks were the most preferred. However, stained or painted wood was one of the most preferred, even though it is not commonly used in city buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Properties and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Natural and Artificial Weathering on the Colour Change of Different Wood and Wood-Based Materials
Forests 2018, 9(8), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080488
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of the aesthetic performance of wood is increasing and the colour is one of the most important parameters of aesthetics, hence the colour stability of twelve different wood-based materials was evaluated by several in-service and laboratory tests. The wood used for
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The importance of the aesthetic performance of wood is increasing and the colour is one of the most important parameters of aesthetics, hence the colour stability of twelve different wood-based materials was evaluated by several in-service and laboratory tests. The wood used for wooden façades and decking belongs to a group of severely exposed surfaces. Discolouration of wood in such applications is a long-known phenomenon, which is a result of different biotic and abiotic causes. The ongoing in-service trial started in October 2013, whilst a laboratory test mimicking seasonal exposure was performed in parallel. Samples were exposed to blue stain fungi (Aureobasidium pullulans and Dothichiza pithyophila) in a laboratory test according to the EN 152 procedure. Afterwards, the same samples were artificially weathered and re-exposed to the same blue stain fungi for the second time. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the synergistic effect of weathering and staining. The broader aim of the study was to determine the correlation factors between artificial and natural weathering and to compare laboratory and field test data of fungal disfigurement of various bio-based materials. During the four years of exposure, the most prominent colour changes were determined on decking. Respective changes on the façade elements were significantly less prominent, being the lest evident on the south and east façade. The results showed that there are positive correlations between natural weathering and the combination of artificial weathering and blue staining. Hence, the artificial weathering of wood-based materials in the laboratory should consist of two steps, blue staining and artificial weathering, in order to simulate colour changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Properties and Processing)
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