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Special Issue "Biological Control of Forest Invaders"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. George Newcombe

Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant biotic interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forests can be invaded by a range of non-native organisms. In this Special Issue, we focus on invasions by alien (non-native) forest plants and their biological control. Recent overviews in some regions of the world suggest pervasive, far-reaching effects of such invasions on specific organisms, and ecosystem processes. Although many aliens fail to naturalize or to invade, the rate of introduction is such that all forests globally are at risk. Many introductions were well-meaning as the plants in question possessed desirable attributes and their potential as invasives was not understood. Hundreds of examples provide instructive case histories. Invasive vines, trees, and even some parasitic plants have become problematic in at least some natural forests or plantations. Some fire-prone invaders affect forests from the forest periphery. Some plants only become invasive as mycorrhizal partners are introduced. Others have proliferated on the forest floor as they poison the mycorrhizae of trees. Hybridization has increased the invasiveness of yet others. Invaders tend to be in a state of enemy release. Succession may be stalled by their presence. Climate change may exacerbate the challenge that they pose. Biological control of forest invaders has sometimes relied on the classical approach with the selection of agents in the native range. In other cases, biocontrol agents have been found in the invaded range. The agents themselves represent a range of organisms although most are microbes or arthropods. We encourage studies from all fields that touch on forest plant invasions, to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge and improve strategies for biological control.

Prof. Dr. George Newcombe
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biotic homogenization
  • Natural distributions
  • Specialized pathogens and herbivores
  • Enemy release
  • Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis
  • Host range
  • Regeneration

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Occurrence, Seasonal Abundance, and Superparasitism of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as an Egg Parasitoid of the Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) in North America
Forests 2019, 10(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020079
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
The occurrence of egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on its new host, the spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)), was surveyed at 4 study plots in 2016 and 10 additional plots in 2017 in Pennsylvania through field collection and [...] Read more.
The occurrence of egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on its new host, the spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)), was surveyed at 4 study plots in 2016 and 10 additional plots in 2017 in Pennsylvania through field collection and laboratory incubation. O. kuvanae adults were found on L. delicatula egg mass surfaces at two plots (ODSouth and Lutz) in 2016, but at none in 2017. The results of laboratory incubation showed that O. kuvanae adults were only recovered from host eggs collected at plot ODSouth in 2016, with adults emerging between 22 April and 2 May 2016 at 22 ± 1 °C, 40% ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and a 16:8 h photoperiod (light/dark). The overall parasitism at this study plot was 6.0% by egg mass and 1.2% by egg. Two oviposition sites contained parasitized L. delicatula eggs, with 12.3% (9.5–15.0%) host egg masses and 3.1% (1.3–5.0%) host eggs utilized by the parasitoid. O. kuvanae parasitism by egg was significantly higher on oviposition site ODSouth #7 than on ODSouth #8. No O. kuvanae adults were reared out of field-collected host eggs from the 10 plots in 2017. Seasonal abundance and superparasitism of O. kuvanae was examined at plot ODSouth in 2017. O. kuvanae-parasitized L. delicatula eggs were found on all four oviposition sites based on field monitoring of parasitoid adult emergence, resulting in a parasitism of 35.4% (18.8–55.6%) by egg mass and 2.2% (0.5–3.9%) by egg. No significant difference in parasitism by egg was observed among oviposition sites. O. kuvanae adults emerged in the field between 2 May and 1 June 2017. Superparasitism was confirmed for O. kuvanae on L. delicatula eggs based on parasitoid production (1.0–3.3 adults/parasitized egg) and adult exit holes (1–3 exit holes/parasitized egg). As the first parasitoid recorded from L. delicatula in North America, O. kuvanae has the potential to become an important biological control agent for L. delicatula in North America, with its well-synchronized life history in the spring, century-long field establishment, superparasitism, and female-biased progeny population. L. delicatula complements the gypsy moth well as an alternative host for O. kuvanae in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Forest Invaders)
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Open AccessArticle Phenology and Synchrony of Scymnus coniferarum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Multiple Adelgid Species in the Puget Sound, WA, USA
Forests 2018, 9(9), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090558
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of Tsuga spp. in eastern North America. Scymnus coniferarum is a predaceous beetle that was collected from HWA in the western United States. Limited knowledge of this insect in its native [...] Read more.
The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of Tsuga spp. in eastern North America. Scymnus coniferarum is a predaceous beetle that was collected from HWA in the western United States. Limited knowledge of this insect in its native habitat led to studies to evaluate its potential for biological control of HWA. Seasonal abundance was sampled at six sites in Tacoma, WA, twice monthly, for one year on different host trees of potential adelgid prey. Tree species included Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. Scymnus coniferarum adults were found on all conifer species, except P. menziesii. Each conifer species supported a different adelgid species, suggesting S. coniferarum feeds on multiple adelgid species. More S. coniferarum were found on pine than hemlock. DNA barcoding of S. coniferarum found two distinct clusters that differed by 6% divergence. Beetles in each cluster were co-habiting the same conifer species, and they could not be distinguished morphologically. Further taxonomic studies are needed to understand the significance of DNA barcode sequence divergence. Because S. coniferarum was more frequently associated with pine adelgids than HWA, and because of remaining taxonomic uncertainty, S. coniferarum may not be suitable for HWA biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Forest Invaders)
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Open AccessArticle First Report on Establishment of Laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the Eastern U.S.
Forests 2018, 9(8), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080496
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive insect species native to Japan causing significant hemlock mortality in the eastern United States. Laricobius spp. have been targeted as biological control agents because they are adelgid specialists. Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake is native [...] Read more.
The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive insect species native to Japan causing significant hemlock mortality in the eastern United States. Laricobius spp. have been targeted as biological control agents because they are adelgid specialists. Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake is native to the same region of Japan from which the strain of HWA found in the eastern United States originated. Studies in Japan found that it is phenologically synchronous with HWA. Following approval to release L. osakensis from quarantine in 2010, approximately 32,000 were released at a total of 61 sites starting in 2012. In winter of 2014 and 2015, periods of extreme cold temperatures throughout the eastern USA, as well as the polar vortex, resulted in extensive mortality to HWA, which likely delayed the establishment of L. osakensis. The ability of the beetle to survive and establish in the eastern United States is reported here. In the first year of this study (2015–2016), limited numbers of L. osakensis were recovered, as HWA populations were still rebounding. In the second year (2016–2017), 147 L. osakensis were collected at 5 of 9 sites sampled, coinciding with rebounding HWA populations. Larval recovery was much greater than adult recovery throughout the study. HWA density was directly correlated with warmer plant hardiness zones and recovery of Laricobius beetles was significantly correlated with HWA density. Our results suggest that L. osakensis is successfully establishing at several of the sampled release sites and that the best predictor of its presence at a site is the HWA density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Forest Invaders)
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