Assessment of Climate Change Factors Affecting Wood Growth and Timber Quality

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2023) | Viewed by 4154

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CNR IBE, Institute of Bioeconomy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: wood science; wood-based products; mechanical testing; physical testing; wood properties; wood quality; visual and machine timber grading; diagnosis of timber structures; model forest network
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CNR IBE, Institute of BioEconomy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: wood; wood products for structural uses; strength grading; mechanical characterization of wood; non-destructive techniques; assessment of historical wooden structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of global climate change on all ecosystems have stimulated significant scientific interest, including in the context of forests. While the changing climate’s impacts on some ecological processes are well-established, the consequences of altered environmental conditions on wood formation and timber quality are not as clear. This issue gives rise to a number of intriguing, unresolved questions: how might wood biology help to disentangle the effect of global change on future wood quality? How might wood technologists use biological inputs to manage future innovative and sustainable wood chains? In an attempt to address such questions, this Special Issue will offer a platform for scientific debate and communication to stimulate the development of new approaches to address climate-related challenges through the perspective of wood biology and technology nexus. We encourage contributions analyzing the growth trends of forests in general and trees in particular, including cultivated stands (plantation). Particular attention will be paid to wood production and the possible changes in wood material quality in relation to its possible uses, underlining that wood may represent a possible instrument in tackling climate change itself, e.g., in the building sector. Changes in wood density, mechanical properties or chemical composition could have a considerable impact in the processing and subsequent use of the several wood products. Studies deepening the knowledge on the effectiveness of forest trees as carbon sinks in relation to growth conditions (climate, location, species, etc.) will also be welcomed.

Dr. Michele Brunetti
Dr. Alessio Giovannelli
Dr. Michela Nocetti
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • wood production
  • climate change
  • wood quality
  • tree growth
  • carbon storage

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3365 KiB  
Article
May Temperature Drives Cambial Resumption in the Boreal Black Spruce
by Qiao Zeng, Afsheen Khan, Annie Deslauriers and Sergio Rossi
Forests 2022, 13(12), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13122168 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
The timings of the onset and ending of xylogenesis define the time window when environmental conditions are suitable for xylem formation. The relationship between the occurrence of xylem phenological events and the related climatic factors is critical to revealing how xylem formation responds [...] Read more.
The timings of the onset and ending of xylogenesis define the time window when environmental conditions are suitable for xylem formation. The relationship between the occurrence of xylem phenological events and the related climatic factors is critical to revealing how xylem formation responds to the changing climate. Given that temperature is the most important factor influencing growth in the boreal forest, we monitored air temperature and xylem phenology at five permanent plots of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) along a latitudinal gradient of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Microcores were collected weekly or biweekly from five to ten trees per site during the growing seasons from 2002 to 2019. We compared the relationships between air temperature and timings of the onset and termination of xylogenesis, testing the hypothesis that spring temperatures trigger the initiation of cambial activity. The onset of xylogenesis occurred from late May (DOY 149) to mid-June (DOY 163), and it terminated between late August (DOY 240) and late September (DOY 270). The spring phases of xylem phenology showed similar inter-annual variation among sites, while the variation in autumnal phases was less correlated among sites. The onset of xylogenesis was negatively correlated with the mean May temperature, and the correlations were consistent among sites, with r ranging from −0.61 to −0.77. The warmer May temperatures would advance cambial resumption, allowing the initial hypothesis that spring temperatures are a driving factor of xylogenesis to be accepted. With an increase of 1 °C in the mean May temperature, cambial resumption could be advanced by 2.7 days. Yet, no relationship between the termination of xylem phenology and monthly temperature was established, suggesting that other factors, possibly endogenous, could have affected the xylem phenology in autumn. Under warming conditions, we expect an advancement in the onset of xylogenesis, which may lengthen the growing season and potentially enhance cell production in black spruce. Full article
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15 pages, 4791 KiB  
Article
Quality and Price of Spruce Logs, Determined Conventionally and by Dendrochronological and NDE Techniques
by Aleš Straže, Klemen Novak and Katarina Čufar
Forests 2022, 13(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050729 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
We examined valuable log assortments of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from a traditional auction in Slovenia where spruce growth on many sites is affected by climate change. From 6620 logs, we selected 817 that obtained the highest prices. Factors including log [...] Read more.
We examined valuable log assortments of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from a traditional auction in Slovenia where spruce growth on many sites is affected by climate change. From 6620 logs, we selected 817 that obtained the highest prices. Factors including log dimensions and geometry, tree-ring characteristics, quality grades according to the standard, properties measured by NDE stress wave testing, and their combined effect on price were modelled. The results showed that half of the auctioned logs were of highest quality (Q1, Q2), with diameters over 60 cm. These logs were more expensive than the thinner logs of lower quality (Q3, Q4). The quality class of the logs, determined by their external features and geometry, was associated with tree-ring and acoustic characteristics. The artificial neural network model (ANN) with feed-forward backpropagation using tree-ring data, longitudinal stress wave velocity, and damping showed that more than 75% of the logs could be accurately classified into quality classes. On the other hand, tree-ring data and acoustic characteristics could not adequately explain the price offered at auction, which probably also depends on unidentified individual requirements and the needs of the buyer. Full article
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