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Open AccessArticle

Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature

1
Graduate School of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Oura-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan
2
Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-machi, Oura-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan
3
Grain Legume and Oil Crops Research and Development Centre, Department of Agriculture, Angunakolapelessa 82220, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010023
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
Phytic acid (PA) is a storage form of phosphorus in seeds. Phytase enzyme is activated at germination and hydrolyses PA into myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. PA inhibits the absorption of minerals in the human intestine by chelation. Its degradation, therefore, is a key factor to improve mineral bioavailability in rice. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is favoured because it improves the availability of nutrients, and thus have a positive effect on health. In this study, we show the effects of soaking temperature on phytase activity and PA content in GBR. Rice phytase showed thermostability and its activity peaked at 50 °C. After 36 h of soaking, phytase activity was significantly increased at 50 °C and PA content was significantly decreased, compared to that at 30 °C. Zinc (Zn) analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in Zn content among different temperature treatments. Calculated total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) was significantly higher in GBR compared with non-soaked seeds. Moreover, brown rice grains germinated at 50 °C showed a higher TAZ value than that at 30 °C. Seed germination and seed water soaking at high temperatures reduce PA content in brown rice showing a potentially effective way to improve mineral bioavailability in brown rice. View Full-Text
Keywords: germination; phytase; phytic acid; rice germination; phytase; phytic acid; rice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fukushima, A.; Uchino, G.; Akabane, T.; Aiseki, A.; Perera, I.; Hirotsu, N. Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature. Foods 2021, 10, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010023

AMA Style

Fukushima A, Uchino G, Akabane T, Aiseki A, Perera I, Hirotsu N. Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature. Foods. 2021; 10(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fukushima, Ayaka; Uchino, Gun; Akabane, Tatsuki; Aiseki, Ayaka; Perera, Ishara; Hirotsu, Naoki. 2021. "Phytic Acid in Brown Rice Can Be Reduced by Increasing Soaking Temperature" Foods 10, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010023

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