Factors Affecting the Composition and Quality of Milk and Dairy Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 November 2023) | Viewed by 12649

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Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary Sciences Brno, Palacky Avenue, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: milk hygiene and technology; milk composition; nutritional importance of milk and dairy products; relationship of physico-chemical parameters and botanical origin with honey quality
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Dear Colleagues,

Milk is one of the key foods of animal origin. It is the only food with a complete representation of nutrients from the point of view of human nutrition. The composition of milk fundamentally affects the quality of dairy products, which in many cases have an even higher biological value. In addition, milk and dairy products are a unique source of a number of biologically active components.

For this Special Issue of Foods, we encourage the submission of manuscripts related to the following factors and their influence on the composition and quality of milk: breeding factors, e.g., genetic potential, nutrition, breeding methods, etc.; factors of animal health; physiological factors, e.g., stage and order of lactation, individuality of the animal, etc.; external environmental factors, e.g., climatic conditions and the influence of global warming; and factors of hygiene when obtaining, treating and storing milk.

We invite both original research and review articles focusing on technological factors and their influence on the composition and quality of dairy products. Scientific studies dealing with milk intolerance and dairy products belonging to the field of special nutrition are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Lenka Vorlová
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • composition of goat, sheep, buffalo and camel milk
  • composition of cow's, goat, sheep, buffalo, camel and donkey milk
  • quality of milk and dairy products
  • biologically active substances
  • hygiene of milk production

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 1697 KiB  
Article
SVR Chemometrics to Quantify β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin in Milk Using MIR
by Habeeb Abolaji Babatunde, Joseph Collins, Rianat Lukman, Rose Saxton, Timothy Andersen and Owen M. McDougal
Foods 2024, 13(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010166 - 03 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Protein content variation in milk can impact the quality and consistency of dairy products, necessitating access to in-line real time monitoring. Here, we present a chemometric approach for the qualitative and quantitative monitoring of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). In this [...] Read more.
Protein content variation in milk can impact the quality and consistency of dairy products, necessitating access to in-line real time monitoring. Here, we present a chemometric approach for the qualitative and quantitative monitoring of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). In this study, we employed Hotelling T2 and Q-residual for outlier detection, automated preprocessing using nippy, conducted wavenumber selection with genetic algorithms, and evaluated four chemometric models, including partial least squares, support vector regression (SVR), ridge, and logistic regression to accurately predict the concentrations of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in milk. For the quantitative analysis of these two whey proteins, SVR performed the best to interpret protein concentration from 197 MIR spectra originating from 42 Cornell University samples of preserved pasteurized modified milk. The R2 values obtained for β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin using leave one out cross-validation (LOOCV) are 92.8% and 92.7%, respectively, which is the highest correlation reported to date. Our approach introduced a combination of preprocessing automation, genetic algorithm-based wavenumber selection, and used Optuna to optimize the framework for tuning hyperparameters of the chemometric models, resulting in the best chemometric analysis of MIR data to quantitate β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin to date. Full article
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9 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Essential Trace and Toxic Element Content in Lacaune Sheep Milk during Lactation
by Zvonko Antunović, Boro Mioč, Josip Novoselec, Ivan Širić, Valentino Držaić and Željka Klir Šalavardić
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4291; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234291 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of essential trace and toxic elements in the milk of Lacaune sheep during lactation in intensive rearing systems. This research was conducted with 30 Lacaune sheep that were monitored in the early (60 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of essential trace and toxic elements in the milk of Lacaune sheep during lactation in intensive rearing systems. This research was conducted with 30 Lacaune sheep that were monitored in the early (60 days of lactation), medium (120 days of lactation), and late (180 days of lactation) stages of lactation. The sheep were fed a pelleted feed mixture (1 kg/day), a cereal mixture (600 g/day), and alfalfa hay (ad libitum). The essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Mo, Se, Cr, and Ni) and toxic element (heavy metals: Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) concentrations in the feed and milk were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Significant variations in the main essential trace and toxic elements, except for the Mo, Se, Ni, As, and Hg concentrations, were found in the milk of Lacaune sheep during lactation. As lactation progressed, in the late stage of lactation, significantly higher concentrations of Co, Mn, Mo, Cr, and Pb were found, while Zn and Cu in the milk of Lacaune sheep decreased significantly (4.15 and 0.21 mg/kg) compared to their concentrations in the early stage of lactation (5.66 and 0.43 mg/kg). Significantly lower concentrations of Fe and higher concentrations of Cd were found in the medium stage (0.23 mg/kg and 1.08 µg/kg) of lactation compared to both the early and late stages of lactation. An analysis of the correlation coefficients between the essential trace and toxic elements in Lacaune sheep milk during lactation determined a significantly positive correlation between Fe:Cr, Fe:Mn, Fe:Co, Fe:Se, Zn:Ni, Zn:Se, Cr:Mn, Cr:Co, Cr:Se, Cr:Mo, Mn:Co, Mn:Pb, Co:Ni, Co:Se, Ni:Se, Se:Mo, Se:Pb, and Cd:Pb. A significantly negative correlation was also found between Cu:Mn, Zn:Mo, Cg:Hg, and Hg:Pb. Based on the obtained results, it is recommended that the influence of the stage of lactation, as well as the breed of sheep, should be included when designing experiments. In general, sheep milk is rich in essential trace elements, but it also contains a very low content of toxic elements, which provides justification for increasing the breeding of Lacaune sheep and indicates the convenience of consuming their milk without risking the consumer’s health. Full article
10 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Chlorate Levels in Dairy Products Produced and Consumed in Ireland
by Lorna Twomey, Ambrose Furey, Bernadette O’Brien, Tom P. Beresford, Paula Reid, Martin Danaher, Mary Moloney, Moses Madende and David Gleeson
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132566 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
In recent years, chlorate has become a residue of concern internationally, due to the risk that it poses to thyroid gland function. However, little is known about its occurrence in dairy products of Irish origin. To address this, a study was conducted in [...] Read more.
In recent years, chlorate has become a residue of concern internationally, due to the risk that it poses to thyroid gland function. However, little is known about its occurrence in dairy products of Irish origin. To address this, a study was conducted in which samples of milk (n = 317), cream (n = 199), butter (n = 178), cheese (n = 144) and yoghurt (n = 440) were collected from grocery stores in the Republic of Ireland. Sampling was conducted across spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2021. Samples from multiple manufacturers of each respective dairy product were procured and analysed for chlorate using UPLC-MS/MS. Chlorate was detected in milk, cream, natural, blueberry, strawberry and raspberry yoghurts. Mean chlorate levels detected in these products were 0.0088, 0.0057, 0.055, 0.067, 0.077 and 0.095 mg kg−1, respectively. Chlorate was undetected in butter and cheese (<0.01 mg kg−1). All products sampled, except yoghurt, were found to be compliant with the EU limit for chlorate in milk (0.10 mg kg−1). Some manufacturers produced product with greater incidence and levels of chlorate. Chlorate levels from samples tested at different times of the year did not differ significantly, with the exception of strawberry and raspberry yoghurts which had higher chlorate levels in the winter period. Full article
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13 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
ACE-Inhibitory Activity of Whey Proteins Fractions Derived of Fermentation by Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102
by Laura Berenice Olvera-Rosales, Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante, Araceli Castañeda-Ovando, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Alma Elizabeth Cruz-Guerrero, Patricia Regal-López, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas and Luis Guillermo González-Olivares
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122416 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Many studies have reported the benefits of probiotic microorganisms and the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Determining the proteolytic and ACE inhibition capacities during whey fermentation was the goal of the study. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102, and both bacteria together [...] Read more.
Many studies have reported the benefits of probiotic microorganisms and the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Determining the proteolytic and ACE inhibition capacities during whey fermentation was the goal of the study. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102, and both bacteria together were initially inoculated into whey, reaching an initial concentration of 108 CFU per milliliter in each fermentation system. Through the use of TNBS, SDS-PAGE, and SEC-HPLC methods, the proteolytic profile was examined. An in vitro investigation was performed to test the ACE inhibition capacity. With S. thermophilus, the logarithmic phase of microbial development was shorter than with L. rhamnosus (6 and 12 h, respectively). The logarithmic phase in the co-culture fermentation, however, was extended to 24 h. There were no significant differences in pH between the fermentations. However, the co-culture had a greater concentration of protein hydrolysis (453 ± 0.06 μg/mL), as indicated by the amount of free amino groups. Similarly, this fermentation produced more low molecular weight peptides. The higher inhibition activity, which increased at the conclusion of the fermentation with the co-culture and reached 53.42%, was influenced by the higher peptide synthesis. These findings highlighted the significance of creating useful co-culture products. Full article
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10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Effect of Buffalo Breed on the Detailed Milk Composition in Guangxi, China
by Mahmoud Abdel-Hamid, Li Huang, Zizhen Huang, Ehab Romeih, Pan Yang, Qingkun Zeng and Ling Li
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081603 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Buffalo is the second source of milk in the world, and its milk is rich in nutritive components. It is well-known that breed influences milk composition. This work aimed to compare the detailed milk composition of three buffalo breeds (Murrah, Nili-Ravi, and Mediterranean) [...] Read more.
Buffalo is the second source of milk in the world, and its milk is rich in nutritive components. It is well-known that breed influences milk composition. This work aimed to compare the detailed milk composition of three buffalo breeds (Murrah, Nili-Ravi, and Mediterranean) housed under the same environmental conditions. Mediterranean buffalo milk showed a significantly higher content of fat, protein, and some fatty acids. Moreover, the milk from the Mediterranean breed was characterized by the highest content of sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol, and lanosterol. However, the Murrah buffalo milk contained the highest amount of total unsaturated fatty acids, phosphatidylinositol, and whey proteins. Furthermore, the Nili-Ravi buffalo milk was characterized by the highest content of total saturated fatty acids, phosphatidylglycerol, squalene, lathosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, and casein fractions. Nevertheless, the lactose and amino acid profiles of the milk remained almost similar across the three buffalo breeds. The generated results in this study enable a comprehensive understanding of the milk constituent variability that is linked to buffalo breeds, which may support the acquirement of essential scientific knowledge on milk ingredient–processing interactions that will offer a foundation of knowledge for Chinese dairy processors in terms of milk processability and innovation. Full article
23 pages, 7353 KiB  
Article
Implications of Organic Dairy Management on Herd Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Profiles and Interactions with Season
by Sabrina Ormston, Nanbing Qin, Gergely Faludi, Joe Pitt, Alan W. Gordon, Katerina Theodoridou, Tianhai Yan, Sharon A. Huws and Sokratis Stergiadis
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081589 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Interest in organic cows’ milk has increased due to the perceived superior nutritional quality and improved sustainability and animal welfare. However, there is a lack of simultaneous assessments on the influence of organic dairy practices and dietary and breed drivers on productivity, feed [...] Read more.
Interest in organic cows’ milk has increased due to the perceived superior nutritional quality and improved sustainability and animal welfare. However, there is a lack of simultaneous assessments on the influence of organic dairy practices and dietary and breed drivers on productivity, feed efficiency, health parameters, and nutritional milk quality at the herd level. This work aimed to assess the impact of organic vs. conventional management and month on milk yield and basic composition, herd feed efficiency, health parameters, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. Milk samples (n = 800) were collected monthly from the bulk tanks of 67 dairy farms (26 organic and 41 conventional) between January and December 2019. Data on breed and feeding practices were gathered via farm questionnaires. The samples were analyzed for their basic composition and FA profile using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, repeated measures design and multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA). The conventional farms had higher yields (kg/cow per day) of milk (+7.3 kg), fat (+0.27 kg), and protein (+0.25 kg) and higher contents (g/kg milk) of protein, casein, lactose, and urea. The conventional farms produced more milk (+0.22 kg), fat (+8.6 g), and protein (+8.1 g) per kg offered dry matter (DM). The organic farms produced more milk per kg of offered non-grazing and concentrate DM offered, respectively (+0.5 kg and +1.23 kg), and fat (+20.1 g and +51 g) and protein (+17 g and +42 g). The organic milk had a higher concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA; +14 g/kg total FA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; +2.4 g/kg total FA), and nutritionally beneficial FA alpha linolenic acid (ALNA; +14 g/kg total FA), rumenic acid (RA; +14 g/kg total FA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; +14 g/kg total FA); the conventional milk had higher concentrations of monounsaturated FA (MUFA; +16 g/kg total FA). Although the conventional farms were more efficient in converting the overall diet into milk, fat, and protein, the organic farms showed better efficiency in converting conserved forages and concentrates into milk, fat, and protein as a result of reduced concentrate feeding. Considering the relatively small differences in the FA profiles between the systems, increased pasture intake can benefit farm sustainability without negatively impacting consumer nutrition and health. Full article
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11 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Parity Effect on Characteristics and Minerals in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Colostrum and Mature Milk
by Zhigao An, Gan Luo, Shanshan Gao, Xinxin Zhang, Chao Chen, Zhiqiu Yao, Junwei Zhao, Haimiao Lv, Kaifeng Niu, Pei Nie and Liguo Yang
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061321 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Colostrum is a vital performance for buffaloes and potentially functional foods in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the difference between the parity of buffalo colostrum and mature milk. Twenty pregnant buffaloes (primiparous = 10; multiparous = 10) were assigned to [...] Read more.
Colostrum is a vital performance for buffaloes and potentially functional foods in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the difference between the parity of buffalo colostrum and mature milk. Twenty pregnant buffaloes (primiparous = 10; multiparous = 10) were assigned to the same diet prepartum and milking routine postpartum. Calves were separated from the dams immediately after birth and colostrum was harvested within 2 h, whilst mature milk was harvested at 7 days postpartum. The colostrum was analyzed for immunoglobulin G and milk composition as the mature milk. The results showed that there was a higher level of protein, solid not fat, and milk urea nitrogen (p < 0.05), with a tendency for higher total solids (p = 0.08) in primiparous buffaloes’ colostrum compared with multiparous. No parity effect was observed in colostrum immunoglobulin G, fat, lactose, and yields of colostrum and composition (p > 0.05). There was no difference in mature milk composition and yield by parity affected (p > 0.05). Compared with mature milk composition, colostrum had a higher content protein, total solids, solid not fat, and milk urea nitrogen (p < 0.05); however, fat and lactose were lower than that of mature milk (p < 0.05). For minerals, multiparous buffaloes’ colostrum had a higher concentration of Fe (p = 0.05), while the mature milk had higher concentrations of K and P compared with primiparous. Buffalo colostrum had higher concentrations of Na, Mg, Co, Fe, and K with a lower concentration of Ca relative to mature milk (p < 0.05). It was observed that parity affected colostrum characteristics rather than mature milk and caused subtle variations in minerals in colostrum and mature milk of buffaloes. As lactation proceeded, both milk composition and minerals in the milk changed drastically. Full article
17 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Addition of Selected Herbal Extracts on the Quality Characteristics of Flavored Cream and Butter
by Małgorzata Ziarno, Mariola Kozłowska, Katarzyna Ratusz and Rozeta Hasalliu
Foods 2023, 12(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030471 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Herbs have been used for centuries in order to enrich food as preservatives, flavorings, and medicinal agents. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of selected herbal extracts (dried leaves of Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., [...] Read more.
Herbs have been used for centuries in order to enrich food as preservatives, flavorings, and medicinal agents. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of selected herbal extracts (dried leaves of Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Satureja hortensis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Ocimum basilicum L.) on selected parameters of fermented flavored cream (counts of starter culture bacteria and pH value) and the resulting flavored butter (water content, water distribution, butter plasma pH, butter fat acidity, and oxidative stability), preceded by a study of the activity of the herbal extracts against starter lactic acid bacteria determined using the well diffusion method. The extracts did not inhibit the starter lactic acid bacteria at a fixed level. The presence of the herbal extracts contributed to a shorter fermentation course and influenced the counts of starter culture bacteria during fermentation and refrigerated storage (at 5 °C) for 21 days. The extract additives did not affect the water content or the degree of its dispersion, the butter plasma pH, or the butter fat acidity. The positive effect of the rosemary and thyme extract addition was only noted when analyzing the oxidative stability of the milk fat of the butter. Full article
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21 pages, 1000 KiB  
Article
Impact of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin on Bovine Milk Composition and Fatty Acidome: A Multidose Longitudinal Study
by Rocío Barreiro, Alexandre Lamas, José M. Miranda, Carlos M. Franco, Alberto Cepeda and Patricia Regal
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213477 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Somatotropin is a species-specific polypeptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland of vertebrates. When administered exogenously to cattle, it can increase milk yield. However, the trade and administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to farm animals have been banned in the European Union [...] Read more.
Somatotropin is a species-specific polypeptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland of vertebrates. When administered exogenously to cattle, it can increase milk yield. However, the trade and administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to farm animals have been banned in the European Union (EU). Aside from food safety issues, very little is known about the effects of this hormone on milk composition and quality. In this work, a wide profile of fatty acids (the so-called fatty acidome) was determined by GC-FID in raw milk collected from control and rbST-treated lactating cows in a multidose longitudinal study. Milk composition (lactose, protein, fat, dry matter), including minerals (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), was also determined, and milk yield was recorded. A tendency toward a less saturated profile was observed in the milk collected from animals treated with rbST, with higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids. In addition, less calcium and potassium and more lactose and protein content were observed in milk from treated animals than in regular milk. As a result of this multicomponent profiling of milk, a clear impact of somatotropin treatment on milk quality was observed. The obtained results should be particularly interesting for those countries that permit the use of this hormone in dairy production. Full article
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