Factors Affecting Composition of Cow, Goat, Sheep, Buffalo and Camel Milk

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 April 2021) | Viewed by 10001

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary Sciences Brno, Palacky Avenue, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: milk hygiene and technology; milk composition; nutritional importance of milk and dairy products; relationship of physico-chemical parameters and botanical origin with honey quality
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Guest Editor
Dairy Research Institute s.r.o. Ke Dvoru 12a, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: dairy cow production disorders; milk composition and properties; milk secretion disorders; milk yield; breeder factors; milk quality assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Milk is one of the best-balanced foods, making it an excellent food. Dairy products occupy an exceptional place among food products. The range of products is increased by the use of individual milk components separately. Uniquely, especially in fermented dairy products, the biological value of the original raw material increases and shifts many of these products to the category of “functional foods”.

In this Special Issue of Foods, we encourage the submission of manuscripts related to the management, dietary factors and post-milking and processing factors affecting  composition of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel milk. We invite both original research and review articles in particular focusing on biologically active components (e.g., natural antimicrobial substances, vitamins) and other important components of milk. Works focused on modern methodological aspects of these components will also benefit. Scientific studies dealing with milk intolerance and dairy products belonging to the field of special nutrition are also welcome.

The aim of this Special Issue is to demonstrate, on the basis of scientific evidence, the necessity of the consumption of milk and dairy products, and to deny a number of false claims.

Regards,

Prof. Dr. Lenka Vorlová
Prof. Dr. Oto Hanuš
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • composition of milk
  • composition of goat, sheep, buffalo and camel milk
  • heat treatment
  • vitamins
  • methods
  • biologically active components
  • management
  • dietary factors
  • post-milking
  • processing factors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Raw Cow Milk Protein Stability under Natural and Technological Conditions of Environment by Analysis of Variance
by Oto Hanuš, Josef Kučera, Eva Samková, Irena Němečková, Jindřich Čítek, Tomáš Kopec, Daniel Falta, Hana Nejeschlebová, Lucie Rysová, Marcela Klimešová and Ondřej Elich
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092017 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3028
Abstract
Heat stability (HS) is substantial technology property of raw milk. Analysis of sources of HS variation and its regular monitoring can contribute to creating higher added value in the dairy industry. The goal of this analysis was to assess the practice sources of [...] Read more.
Heat stability (HS) is substantial technology property of raw milk. Analysis of sources of HS variation and its regular monitoring can contribute to creating higher added value in the dairy industry. The goal of this analysis was to assess the practice sources of raw cow milk HS variability on the results of an extensive data set of bulk tank milk samples. There was implemented neither a compositional technology modification nor acidity adjustment of milk, just original raw milk was used for the analysis. A total 2634 HS analyses were performed, including other milk indicators, during three years of an experimental period. The log HS mean and standard deviation were 1.273654 ± 0.144189, equal to the HS geometric mean of 18.8 min. Explanation of the HS variability through the linear model used was 41.1% (p < 0.0001). According to the results of the variance analysis, the milk HS was influenced (p = 0.0033 and mostly <0.0001) by all the farm factors such as year; season; calendar month; altitude; total annual rainfall; herd size by the number of cows; milk yield; cow breed; type of milking; litter type in the stable; summer grazing application; farm effect. During the calendar months (p < 0.0001), milk HS values suggest similar seasonal dynamics with the somatic cell count, total count of mesophilic microorganisms, coli bacteria count and urea and lactose concentration and opposite configuration pattern to fat, crude protein, solids-not-fat and total solids content and milk freezing point depression. Here performed quantification of these effects by analyzing the variance may allow efficient raw milk selection to be processed into specific dairy products. Full article
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9 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Effect on Benzoic Acid Production of Yoghurt Culture and the Temperatures of Storage and Milk Heat Treatment in Yoghurts from Cow, Goat and Sheep Milk
by Klára Bartáková, Lenka Vorlová, Sandra Dluhošová, Ivana Borkovcová, Šárka Bursová, Jan Pospíšil and Bohumíra Janštová
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071535 - 2 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
Yoghurts from cow, goat and sheep milk were produced and stored under defined conditions to monitor the influence of various factors on the benzoic acid content as determined by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The highest level of benzoic acid was found [...] Read more.
Yoghurts from cow, goat and sheep milk were produced and stored under defined conditions to monitor the influence of various factors on the benzoic acid content as determined by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The highest level of benzoic acid was found in sheep yoghurt (43.26 ± 5.11 mg kg−1) and the lowest in cow yoghurt (13.38 ± 3.56 mg kg−1), with goat yoghurt (21.31 ± 5.66 mg kg−1) falling in between. Benzoic acid content did not show statistically significant variation until the second and third weeks of storage, and the dynamics of this variation varied depending on the type of yoghurt. The yoghurt culture containing different strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus also affected the contents of benzoic acid. Further, the different storage temperatures (2 and 8 °C) as well as the temperatures used to milk heat treatment before yoghurt production (80, 85 and 90 °C) affected the amount of benzoic acid in different types of yoghurts. Full article
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11 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Somatic Cell Count in Goat Milk: An Indirect Quality Indicator
by Klára Podhorecká, Markéta Borková, Miloslav Šulc, Růžena Seydlová, Hedvika Dragounová, Martina Švejcarová, Jitka Peroutková and Ondřej Elich
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051046 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3982
Abstract
A high somatic cell count (SCC) impacts dairy quality to a large extent. The goal of this work was to investigate differences in goat milk composition and technological parameters according to SCC cut-off (600, 700, 800, and 1000.103/mL). Thirty-four individual milk [...] Read more.
A high somatic cell count (SCC) impacts dairy quality to a large extent. The goal of this work was to investigate differences in goat milk composition and technological parameters according to SCC cut-off (600, 700, 800, and 1000.103/mL). Thirty-four individual milk samples of White Shorthair goats in a similar stage of lactation were investigated. The first differences in milk quality appeared already at SCC cut-off of 600.103/mL (5.58 LSCS-linear somatic cell score), yet the most striking differences were found for SCC over 1000.103/mL (6.32 LSCS), which was expressed by lowering heat stability (126 vs. 217 s, p = 0.034), increasing protein (3.41 vs. 3.04%, p = 0.009), casein (2.80 vs. 2.44%, p = 0.034) and chloride (164 vs. 147 mg/100 mL, p = 0.004) levels, as well as non-fat dry matter (8.79 vs. 8.45%, p = 0.045). It has been shown that low levels of Staphylococcus spp. bacteria (120–1600 CFU/mL) in the mammary gland correlated with decreased lactose content (4.60 vs. 4.47 g/100 g, p = 0.022). Since our results indicate that even low SCC values may significantly affect the technological properties of goat milk, SCC should therefore be routinely screened and reported to dairy manufacturers to assure the consumer of high end-product quality. Full article
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