Research and Development in Dairy Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 25794

Special Issue Editors

Technology and Innovation Unit, National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Research, I. P. (INIAV), Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: dairy science; food development; food quality; food texture and rheology
Food Quality and Microbiology, University Institute for the Research in Agrifood Resources-INURA, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
Interests: food safety; food microbiology; toxigenic molds; biocontrol; prevention research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: quality of dairy products; cheese production; dairy industry
School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Rua Pedro Soares, 7800-295 Beja, Portugal
Interests: applied technology to dairy industry; food products development; computer vision; cheese ripening

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to consider recent developments concerning the science and technology of milk and dairy products, with an impact on product development considering the most current drivers within the dairy sector. This Special Issue has a broad range of topics, and we welcome you to contribute submissions (including original research and current review articles) addressing milk or milk product composition and the effects of genetic factors as well as technology on the nutritional/functional properties of dairy products, energy consumption and sustainability. We are also interested in papers investigating new milk sources, the development of new products with nutritional added-value products and consumers acceptance. Further, we welcome recent developments in the detection of bioactive compounds naturally present in traditional products (mainly traditional cheeses) as natural elements contributing nutritional value.

Additional topics of interest for the Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Recent evolutions of milk and milk product technology and processing, including packaging and market solutions;
  • Recent knowledge on nutritional attributes of traditional dairy products;
  • New solutions for dairy product sustainable processing;
  • New dairy product development and novel clean-label ingredients with nutritional added-value properties;
  • New technologies applied to the dairy sector including Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and machine learning.

Prof. Dr. Nuno Alvarenga
Prof. Dr. María G. Córdoba
Dr. António Pedro Louro Martins
Prof. Dr. João Dias
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • milk production 
  • genetics and milk quality improvement 
  • processing, packing and edible films 
  • traditional cheeses 
  • quality and safety 
  • microbiota and probiotics 
  • product development 
  • nutritional added value 
  • clean label 
  • circular economy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
The Physicochemical Properties and Melting Behavior of Ice Cream Fortified with Multimineral Preparation from Red Algae
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244481 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Ice cream is a popular frozen food consumed worldwide throughout the year. However, as a thermally unstable product, it requires proper cold chain management. Thermal fluctuations alter the physicochemical properties of ice cream and reduce its quality. This study was conducted to evaluate [...] Read more.
Ice cream is a popular frozen food consumed worldwide throughout the year. However, as a thermally unstable product, it requires proper cold chain management. Thermal fluctuations alter the physicochemical properties of ice cream and reduce its quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of ice cream containing different amounts (0.5; 0.8; 1.0%) of a multimineral preparation from Atlantic red algae. The effect of thermal shock on the quality of ice cream after preparation and 90 days of frozen storage was studied. The addition of a multimineral component slightly increased the freezing and glass transition temperatures of the ice cream. The overrun of the ice cream ranged from 48.55 to 52.78% and decreased with the frozen storage time, but the samples with 0.8 and 1.0% mineral content had the most stable overrun in terms of storage time and thermal fluctuations. Ice cream stored for both 7 and 90 days showed a similar melting behavior, although a shift in the melting curves was observed after long frozen storage. The samples exposed to the thermal treatment had lower melting rates by 39.2–59.9% and 55.2–65.4% for 7-day and 90-day stored ice cream, respectively. The hardness parameters of the ice cream did not change significantly under the conditions applied, so the fragility of the ice cream and its fluffiness did not seem to be affected. The organoleptic evaluation showed that ice cream with a mineral content of 0.8% was the most acceptable in terms of taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The applied mineral and sucrose content ratios did not alter the main physicochemical and organoleptic parameters, but significantly affected the nutrient density of the ice cream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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19 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Goat Milk Pretreatment with Pulsed Electric Fields on Cheese Quality
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234193 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
To reduce the microbial load in goat’s milk, which is less thermally stable than cow’s milk, an alternative processing method was used in this study. This involved treating the milk with pulsed electric fields (PEFs) (at 10 kV·cm−1, with 50 µs [...] Read more.
To reduce the microbial load in goat’s milk, which is less thermally stable than cow’s milk, an alternative processing method was used in this study. This involved treating the milk with pulsed electric fields (PEFs) (at 10 kV·cm−1, with 50 µs pulses for 3 Hz) and then heat-treating it at 63 °C for 6.0 s, as well as using heat treatment alone at 75 °C for 3.4 s. Cheeses were made using both types of milk treatment, and samples were collected after 5, 15, and 25 days of ripening for DNA extraction and purification, followed by high-throughput sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. Analysis of the bacterial populations in the two types of cheese using various diversity indices revealed no significant differences in species richness and abundance, although there was a trend for the PEF-treated cheese to have a less diverse set of species with an uneven distribution of relative abundance. However, when examining the composition of the microbial communities in the two types of cheese using Weighted UniFrac analysis and Analysis of Similarities, there were significant differences in the presence and abundance of various species, which could have implications for the development of starter cultures. Concerning physicochemical properties (pH, aw, moisture content, total acidity and L, and a and b color parameters), the results also reveal that, generally, no significant differences were found, except for the color parameter, where cheeses treated with PEF demonstrated more whiteness (L) and yellowness (b) during ripening. Sensory scores for typicity (caprylic, goaty, and acetic) increased over time, but between treatments, only small differences were perceived by panellists in cheese with 5 days of ripening. Concerning texture firmness and cohesiveness, the PEF+HT samples presented lower values than the HT samples, even over storage time. In general, concerning quality parameters, similar behavior was observed between the treatments during the ripening period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Implications of Pulsed Electric Field Pre-Treatment on Goat Milk Pasteurization
Foods 2023, 12(21), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12213913 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Goat milk is an interesting product from a nutritional and health standpoint, although its physico-chemical composition presents some technological challenges, mainly for being less stable than cow’s milk at high temperatures. As pasteurization and ultra-high temperature processing are universally employed to ensure milk [...] Read more.
Goat milk is an interesting product from a nutritional and health standpoint, although its physico-chemical composition presents some technological challenges, mainly for being less stable than cow’s milk at high temperatures. As pasteurization and ultra-high temperature processing are universally employed to ensure milk quality and safety, non-thermal methods, such as pulsed electric fields (PEFs), reduce the microbial load and eliminate pathogens, representing an interesting alternative for processing this product. This study demonstrates how the combined use of a PEF with short thermal processing and moderate temperature can be effective and energy-efficient in goat milk processing. A combination of thermal treatment at 63 °C after a low-intensity PEF (50 µs pulses, 3 Hz, and 10 kV·cm−1) caused the same reduction effect on the population of Listeria monocytogenes (goat’s raw milk artificially spiked), as compared to a thermal treatment at 72 °C without a PEF. However, z values are significantly higher when PEF is used as a pre-treatment, suggesting that it may induce heat resistance in the survival population of L. monocytogenes. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes to high temperatures is less pronounced in goat’s milk than cow’s milk, with a more pronounced impact of a PEF on lethality when combined with lower temperatures in goat’s milk. The effect of a PEF on Escherichia coli viability was even more pronounced. It was also observed that thermal treatment energy needs with a PEF as a pre-treatment can be reduced by at least 50% of the total energy requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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19 pages, 5737 KiB  
Article
New Coagulant Proteases for Cheesemaking from Leaves and Latex of the Spontaneous Plant Pergularia tomentosa: Biochemical Characterization of Coagulants and Sensorial Evaluation of Cheese
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132467 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the caseinolytic and milk-clotting activities of aqueous crude extracts from leaves and latex of the Pergularia tomentosa, to determine their suitability as a rennet substitute. These extracts were subjected to a series of biochemical [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the caseinolytic and milk-clotting activities of aqueous crude extracts from leaves and latex of the Pergularia tomentosa, to determine their suitability as a rennet substitute. These extracts were subjected to a series of biochemical tests before being used in the production of cheese. The results showed that the enzymatic latex extract had a higher coagulant activity than the leaf extract. However, under different clotting conditions (pH, temperature, and CaCl2 concentration), both coagulants behaved similarly in the coagulation of Berridge substrate. The SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis revealed identical protein bands with a single active zone in both extracts, corresponding to a molecular weight of 26.98 kDa and 26.03 kDa in the extract of leaf and latex, respectively. Both extracts were stable to different effectors but strongly inhibited by iodoacetamide and Hg, suggesting it to be a cysteine protease. Both extracts were able to hydrolyze casein and generate peptides of 14 kDa, with excessive hydrolysis of the other casein fractions. The physicochemical parameters of cheese made from latex and leaf extract evolved similarly to control cheese. According to the sensory evaluation, cheese made with latex had a mildly bitter flavor but showed a high acceptance rate (>80%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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17 pages, 4251 KiB  
Article
Comparing Different Packaging Conditions on Quality Stability of High-Pressure Treated Serra da Estrela Cheeses during Cold Storage
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101935 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Serra da Estrela cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) is a traditional cheese that is wrapped in paper without vacuum. High-pressure processing (HPP), which requires vacuum packaging of the cheese, has been used for its cold pasteurization to overcome safety issues. [...] Read more.
Serra da Estrela cheese with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) is a traditional cheese that is wrapped in paper without vacuum. High-pressure processing (HPP), which requires vacuum packaging of the cheese, has been used for its cold pasteurization to overcome safety issues. In this study, two packaging systems were studied: non-vacuum greaseproof paper wrapping package and vacuum packaging in plastic film. Lactococci, lactobacilli, enterococci, and total mesophiles reached ca. 8 log cfu g−1 and 4–6 log cfu g−1 in control (unpasteurized) and HPP-treated cheeses, respectively, with no significant differences between packaging systems. Spoilage microorganisms' viable cell numbers were reduced to <3 log cfu g−1 (quantification limit) in HPP-treated cheeses, independently of the packaging system. Yeasts and molds reached >5 log cfu g−1 in non-vacuum paper-wrapped cheeses. A vacuum-packaging system enabled better control of cheese proteolysis, which was revealed to be closer to that of the original control cheese values at the end of the 10-month storage period. In addition, cheese stored under vacuum film packaging became harder than non-vacuum paper-wrapped cheeses at each time point. Overall, conventional non-vacuum paper wrapping is adequate for short storage periods (<3 months), but for long periods vacuum packaging in plastic film is preferable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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19 pages, 4417 KiB  
Article
Impact of Salting Techniques on the Physio-Chemical Characteristics, Sensory Properties, and Volatile Organic Compounds of Ras Cheese
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091855 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Ras cheese is the main Egyptian hard cheese that is well-known worldwide. Herein, we investigated how different salting techniques affect the physio-chemical properties, sensory properties, and volatile compounds of Ras cheese over a six-month ripening period. Five Ras cheese treatments were made from [...] Read more.
Ras cheese is the main Egyptian hard cheese that is well-known worldwide. Herein, we investigated how different salting techniques affect the physio-chemical properties, sensory properties, and volatile compounds of Ras cheese over a six-month ripening period. Five Ras cheese treatments were made from pasteurized cow’s milk using various salting techniques: traditional salting of Ras cheese, salting by applying all of the salt to the curd after the entire whey drainage, salting by applying all of the salt to the curd after half to two-thirds of the whey drainage, salting in a brine solution for 24 h without dry salting, and salting in a brine solution for 12 h and then dry salting. The obtained results by GC-MS recorded that thirty-eight volatile compounds were identified in Ras cheese treatments after six months of ripening, and the development of volatile compounds was affected by the salting technique as well as the ripening period of the cheeses, which played a major role in the type and concentration of volatile compounds. Results revealed that there are six esters, 15 fatty acids, five ketones, two aldehydes, four alcohols, and eight other compounds identified in most treatments. Some physio-chemical characteristics and sensory properties were found to have high correlations with the storage period, while some others have low correlations during the ripening period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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20 pages, 3778 KiB  
Article
Novel, Edible Melanin-Protein-Based Bioactive Films for Cheeses: Antimicrobial, Mechanical and Chemical Characteristics
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091806 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The cheese rind is the natural food packaging of cheese and is subject to a wide range of external factors that compromise the appearance of the cheese, including color defects caused by spoilage microorganisms. First, eight films based on whey protein isolate (WPI) [...] Read more.
The cheese rind is the natural food packaging of cheese and is subject to a wide range of external factors that compromise the appearance of the cheese, including color defects caused by spoilage microorganisms. First, eight films based on whey protein isolate (WPI) coatings were studied, of which IS3CA (WPI 5% + sorbitol 3% + citric acid 3%) was selected for presenting better properties. From the IS3CA film, novel films containing melanin M1 (74 µg/mL) and M2 (500 µg/mL) were developed and applied to cheese under proof-of-concept and industrial conditions. After 40 days of maturation, M2 presented the lowest microorganism count for all the microbial parameters analyzed. The cheese with M2 showed the lowest lightness, which indicates that it is the darkest cheese due to the melanin concentration. It was found that the mechanical and colorimetric properties are the ones that contribute the most to the distinction of the M2 film in cheese from the others. Using FTIR-ATR, it was possible to distinguish the rinds of M2 cheeses because they contained the highest concentrations of melanin. Thus, this study shows that the film with M2 showed the best mechanical, chemical and antimicrobial properties for application in cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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17 pages, 4310 KiB  
Article
Distinct Bacterial Communities in São Jorge Cheese with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)
Foods 2023, 12(5), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12050990 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
São Jorge cheese is an iconic product of the Azores, produced from raw cow’s milk and natural whey starter (NWS). Although it is produced according to Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) specifications, the granting of the PDO label depends crucially on sensory evaluation [...] Read more.
São Jorge cheese is an iconic product of the Azores, produced from raw cow’s milk and natural whey starter (NWS). Although it is produced according to Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) specifications, the granting of the PDO label depends crucially on sensory evaluation by trained tasters. The aim of this work was to characterize the bacterial diversity of this cheese using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and to identify the specific microbiota that contributes most to its uniqueness as a PDO by distinguishing the bacterial communities of PDO and non-PDO cheeses. The NWS and curd microbiota was dominated by Streptococcus and Lactococcus, whereas Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were also present in the core microbiota of the cheese along with these genera. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in bacterial community composition were found between PDO cheese and non-certified cheese; Leuconostoc was found to play the chief role in this regard. Certified cheeses were richer in Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, but had fewer Streptococcus (p < 0.05). A negative correlation was found between contaminating bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter, and the development of PDO-associated bacteria such as Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. A reduction in contaminating bacteria was found to be crucial for the development of a bacterial community rich in Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, thus justifying the PDO seal of quality. This study has helped to clearly distinguish between cheeses with and without PDO based on the composition of the bacterial community. The characterization of the NWS and the cheese microbiota can contribute to a better understanding of the microbial dynamics of this traditional PDO cheese and can help producers interested in maintaining the identity and quality of São Jorge PDO cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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18 pages, 1617 KiB  
Article
Nutritional, Physicochemical, Microstructural, Rheological, and Organoleptical Characteristics of Ice Cream Incorporating Adansonia digitata Pulp Flour
Foods 2023, 12(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030533 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Ice cream’s appeal is unrivaled. Nonmilk and milk ingredients in ice cream formulas affect their nutritional value, structure, and organoleptical qualities. Seeking novel dietary ingredients instead of artificial flavoring compounds is vital for improving ice cream taste preference, adding antioxidants, and increasing nutritional [...] Read more.
Ice cream’s appeal is unrivaled. Nonmilk and milk ingredients in ice cream formulas affect their nutritional value, structure, and organoleptical qualities. Seeking novel dietary ingredients instead of artificial flavoring compounds is vital for improving ice cream taste preference, adding antioxidants, and increasing nutritional value. The current study examines the feasibility of manufacturing a new flavored ice cream with excellent dietary value using Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) fruit pulp (ADFP). The prepared ice cream’s physicochemical and microbiological quality, and rheological, microstructural, and organoleptic properties were investigated. Using ADFP instead of skim milk powder with a partial or complete replacement, five ice cream samples were produced and marked as IB-0, IB-25, IB-50, IB-75, and IB-100. Chemical characteristics were not noticeably impacted except protein and ash, which considerably decreased with increasing ADFP levels. Increasing ADFP in the samples increased titratable acidity and reduced pH. All ice cream samples were microbiologically acceptable with no pathogenic bacteria. By increasing ADFP in the samples, the daily values (%DV) of sodium, potassium, and magnesium were not considerably affected. Calcium reduced from 14.91% in IB-0 to 7.75% in IB-100. All microelements found in the study rose considerably as ADFP increased. Increasing ADFP levels significantly boosted antioxidant levels. The IB-100 sample had the highest total phenolic content (149.29 mg GAE 100 g−1), antioxidant activity (98.12 µmol of TE 100 g−1), total flavonoids (5.96 mg QE 100 g−1), and total flavanols (4.01 mg QE 100 g−1). The inclusion of ADFP had a beneficial effect on the color of the samples. It did not negatively affect the ice cream’s organoleptic acceptability as determined by organoleptic, rheological, and microstructural examinations. Interestingly, when skim milk powder was replaced with 50% and 75%, the hardness, viscosity, and aqueous phase separation were significantly improved. In conclusion, ADPF improves the nutritional value of ice cream and can be used as a natural coloring ingredient without affecting microstructural and rheological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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18 pages, 4098 KiB  
Article
Probiotic of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NWAFU-BIO-BS29 Isolated from Chinese Traditional Fermented Milk and Its Potential Therapeutic Applications Based on Gut Microbiota Regulation
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233766 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria are one of the bioresources that can promote the host’s health and have potential therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of novel Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NWAFU-BISO-BS29 isolated in vitro from traditional Chinese fermented milk, assess its safety, [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria are one of the bioresources that can promote the host’s health and have potential therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of novel Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NWAFU-BISO-BS29 isolated in vitro from traditional Chinese fermented milk, assess its safety, and study its interaction with the gut microbiota using a BALB/c mouse model. The findings reveal that this strain had a high tolerance to gastric acidity (64.4%) and bile salts (19.83–87.92%) with remarkable auto-aggregation and co-aggregation abilities (33.01–83.96%), respectively. Furthermore, it lowered the cholesterol levels in dead cells (44.02%) and live cells (34.95%) and produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Likewise, it showed good antioxidant properties and strong antipathogen activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zones at 21 and 25 mm, respectively. The safety assessment results indicate that all of the virulence factor genes were not detected in the whole DNA; additionally, no hemolysis or resistance to antibiotics commonly used in food and feed was observed. Interestingly, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the mouse gut microbiota showed a marked alteration in the microbial composition of the administrated group, with a noticeable increase in Firmicutes, Patescibacteria, Campylobacterota, Deferribacterota, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria at the phylum level. The modulation of gut microbial diversity significantly improved the production of SCFCs due to the abundance of lactobacillus genera, which was consistent with the functional gene predictive analysis and is believed to have health-promoting properties. Based on these results, our novel strain is considered a safe and good probiotic and could hold high potential to be used as a starter culture or to safely supplement functional foods as a probiotic and may provide new insights into therapeutic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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11 pages, 995 KiB  
Article
Acid and Rennet Coagulation Properties of A2 Milk
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223648 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
This study investigated the acid and rennet milk coagulation properties of A2 milk (β-casein (CN) A2A2 genotype), in comparison to a control milk (blend of A2A1/A1A1/A2A2 genotypes). Acid and rennet coagulation were evaluated using the Optigraph® system, measuring the coagulation time, aggregation [...] Read more.
This study investigated the acid and rennet milk coagulation properties of A2 milk (β-casein (CN) A2A2 genotype), in comparison to a control milk (blend of A2A1/A1A1/A2A2 genotypes). Acid and rennet coagulation were evaluated using the Optigraph® system, measuring the coagulation time, aggregation rate, and gel density or curd firmness. The acidification kinetics were monitored using a CINAC® system, evaluating the time to reach pH 4.6, the acidification rate, the maximum acidification rate, the time required to reach it, and the latency time. The water-holding capacity of acid milk gels and the potential yield, total solids, and syneresis of enzymatic gels were also evaluated. Some variables were highly influenced by the farm factor, showing the importance of the effect of extrinsic parameters. Acid and enzymatic coagulation times were not affected in either milk. The A2 milk presented higher acid gel density and latency time than the control milk. Although the differences in water-holding capacity were not statistically significant, the A2 milk presented lower values, related with the higher gel density. The A2 milk also showed higher rennet aggregation rate and curd firmness than the control milk. Potential yield and syneresis were higher in the A2 milk, which is in accordance with the higher firmness of curd. Coagulation results and gel and curd properties indicate that it is possible to manufacture acid and rennet coagulation dairy products from A2 milk with no major differences when compared with a control milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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Review

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17 pages, 1700 KiB  
Review
A Literature Database Review of the Competitive Factors That Influence the Production and Use of Whey in the Brazilian Dairy Industry
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183348 - 07 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The consumption of milk and derivatives is part of the diet of a large part of the population. The substantial demand for dairy products has prompted the industry to expand its product range by incorporating whey, a previously disregarded by-product, as a significant [...] Read more.
The consumption of milk and derivatives is part of the diet of a large part of the population. The substantial demand for dairy products has prompted the industry to expand its product range by incorporating whey, a previously disregarded by-product, as a significant ingredient. Consequently, the application of whey within the dairy sector has escalated, fostering novel food trends driven by market, nutritional, technical, environmental, and economic considerations. In this context, the primary objective of this research was to identify, categorise, and analyse the competitive factors influencing the production and use of whey within the dairy products industry and to correlate these factors with Brazil’s economic, food, and nutritional landscape. A comprehensive literature review encompassing 41 articles and scientific documents sourced from PubMed, Scopus, and SciELO databases and supplementary research was undertaken to pinpoint these factors. A total of seventeen competitive factors that exert influence over the production and use of whey within the dairy industry were identified. These seventeen factors were systematically classified and modelled into a hierarchical decision tree structure. A meticulous analysis of these factors revealed a spectrum of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with this sector, considering the Brazilian nutritional, food, and economic context. This research will help elaborate healthy strategies for developing new products with whey in the composition and maintaining the nutritional quality for the consumer. In addition, the research can help companies manage their operations, which can be directed towards improving their performance in the factors discussed in this research, with reflections and impacts on competitiveness in nutritional, environmental, economic, technological, and organisational dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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21 pages, 439 KiB  
Review
Cow’s Milk in Human Nutrition and the Emergence of Plant-Based Milk Alternatives
Foods 2023, 12(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010099 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7143
Abstract
Cow’s milk is considered a complete food, providing high-quality protein and essential micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals. For medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice, consumers are replacing cow’s milk with plant-based milk alternatives (PBMA); some perceive them as healthier alternatives to cow’s [...] Read more.
Cow’s milk is considered a complete food, providing high-quality protein and essential micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals. For medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice, consumers are replacing cow’s milk with plant-based milk alternatives (PBMA); some perceive them as healthier alternatives to cow’s milk due to their low saturated fatty acid content and no cholesterol content. However, the nutritional composition of PBMA is quite variable between different types and even within, which makes a comparison with cow’s milk a complex issue. Furthermore, the consumption of PBMA has been associated with the development of some diseases in infants and children. Meanwhile, the consumption of cow’s milk in human health is a controversial issue since it has been associated with a favorable effect in some diseases (such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s) and a negative effect in others (such as prostate cancer risk and Parkinson’s disease); while in some diseases, there is no consensus in the cow’s milk consumption effect. The aim of this review is to make a nutritional comparison of cow’s milk with PBMA and to clarify the potential health issues related to their consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development in Dairy Products)
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