Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish

A special issue of Fishes (ISSN 2410-3888). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 April 2024) | Viewed by 8965

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Key Laboratory of Mariculture Biobreeding and Sustainable Goods, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: fish breeding; fish reproductive biology; fish physiology; aquaculture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: reproduction; physiology; endocrinology; aquaculture; artificial breeding

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Guest Editor
Department of Structural and Functional Biology, São Paulo State University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Interests: reproductive biology of fish; fish physiology; fish endocrinology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reproductive biology and breeding are very important to maintain sustainable development for the fish aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some bottlenecks remain to be conquered in fish culture, such as accurate reproductive cycle control and scaled seedlings production of some fish species, such as the Japanese eel, tuna, seriola, salmon, European seabass and neotropical fishes, among others. Accordingly, the first step to improve and solve aquaculture bottlenecks is understanding the basic aspects of fish reproductive physiology, including the behavioral, physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction. The management of sexual maturation and natural spawning of captive-reared fish broodstocks plays an essential role in obtaining stable and healthy fertilized eggs. However, some issues exist during the development and growth of embryos, larvae and juveniles, which restrict the seedling production of fish. These fundamental and technological problems need to be addressed and clarified, which would be helpful for the construction of stable reproductive cycle control and seedlings production technology for fish. This Special Issue invites contributions (original research articles, short communication, perspectives, reviews, and mini reviews) that focus on reproductive biology and breeding of fish.

Prof. Dr. Yongjiang Xu
Dr. Bin Wang
Dr. Rafael Nóbrega
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fish
  • reproductive biology
  • breeding
  • genetics
  • growth
  • development

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3964 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of In Vivo Semen Collection and Description of the Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Spermatozoa of Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822)
by Lucas S. Torati, Júlia T. Lopes, Adriana F. Lima, Velmurugu Puvanendran, Sergio R. Batlouni and Luciana N. Ganeco-Kirschnik
Fishes 2024, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9010024 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
The pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, is an emblematic endangered Amazon osteoglossid with high potential for aquaculture development. In this study, we report the in vivo collection of semen from pirarucu for the first-time and a complete description of the spermatozoa ultrastructure using scanning [...] Read more.
The pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, is an emblematic endangered Amazon osteoglossid with high potential for aquaculture development. In this study, we report the in vivo collection of semen from pirarucu for the first-time and a complete description of the spermatozoa ultrastructure using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The spermatozoon of pirarucu is biflagellate with no acrosomal cell, comprising a spherical head (8.26 ± 2.19 µm2), a short intermediate piece region and two long flagella (68.34 ± 5.69 µm). The nucleus is spherical and electron-dense, and at its base, there are two nuclear fossae where the centrioles are found. The anterior part of the flagellum is positioned at the lateral base of the nucleus, forming an intermediate piece. Lateral to the intermediate piece, an abundant number of mitochondria are present and occupy most of the cytoplasmic volume. The two flagella were found with a 9 + 2 axonemal structure (nine peripheral doublets and two central microtubules). The central microtubules are aligned with two side fins formed laterally by the axoneme plasma membrane. Side fins were observed from the anterior region to the posterior end. The results show that the spermatozoa of A. gigas are biflagellate, mitochondria-rich and robust, corroborating the external fertilization characteristic of the species. The novel description of sperm morphology presented herein will contribute to advancing the knowledge of and aiding future research on the reproductive biology of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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16 pages, 4413 KiB  
Article
Effects of Recombinant Leptin Proteins on the Expression of Key Genes in the HPG Axis and Liver of Tongue Sole In Vitro
by Xin Cai, Yaxing Zhang, Bin Wang, Aijun Cui, Yan Jiang, Zhaojun Meng, Yuting Li and Yongjiang Xu
Fishes 2023, 8(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8120608 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Leptin (Lep) plays a crucial role in controlling food intake and maintaining energy balance in mammals. While several studies have shown the presence of multiple leptin genes in teleosts, limited information is currently available on how sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of [...] Read more.
Leptin (Lep) plays a crucial role in controlling food intake and maintaining energy balance in mammals. While several studies have shown the presence of multiple leptin genes in teleosts, limited information is currently available on how sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of these genes in fish. In this study, we used two previously expressed and purified leptin proteins to incubate four tissues in vitro (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and liver) and used the RT-qPCR method to detect the expression of genes related to growth and reproduction in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The results showed that both recombinant LepA and LepB proteins of tongue sole almost entirely suppressed the expression of genes related to growth and reproduction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and liver, while LepB may have had a positive role on steroid synthesis in gonads. Further, a high concentration of LepA facilitated the expression of IGF-Ι in liver. At the same time, we utilized human leptin to incubate four tissues in vitro; although most of them had trends similar to those stimulated with tongue sole leptins, there were still some differences, indicating differences among leptin homologs between humans and fishes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the function of tongue sole LepA and LepB within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and liver in vitro. Our results provide a valuable resource and foundation for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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10 pages, 12300 KiB  
Article
Reproductive Behavior and Sexual Patterns in Two Cales, Heteroscarus acroptilus and Olisthops cyanomelas (Odacidae) at Rocky Reefs in Temperate Australia
by Hiroshi Kawase and Tomoki Sunobe
Fishes 2023, 8(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8100491 - 2 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
We investigated reproductive behavior and sexual patterns in two odacid fish—Rainbow cale Heteroscarus acroptilus and Herring cale Olisthops cyanomelas—inhabiting temperate reefs in Australia on the basis of underwater observations and histological studies. The males of both species established a territory and continuously [...] Read more.
We investigated reproductive behavior and sexual patterns in two odacid fish—Rainbow cale Heteroscarus acroptilus and Herring cale Olisthops cyanomelas—inhabiting temperate reefs in Australia on the basis of underwater observations and histological studies. The males of both species established a territory and continuously courted females they encountered in the territory. The males and females went up in the water column to release gametes in pairs. We found ovarian cavities in the gonadal tissue of H. acroptilus males, suggesting that protogynous sex change occurred in this species. Dichromatism is reported in O. cyanomelas, with males having a dark blue body color while females have a brown body color; however, we found small mature males also included among brown individuals. Furthermore, we diagnosed O. cyanomelas with gonochorism, which is rare in closely related labrids. We compared the similarities and differences in reproductive behavior and sexual patterns between the two species and with labrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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13 pages, 8710 KiB  
Article
Successful Cryopreservation of Spermatogonia Stem Cells of Neotropical Catfish (Rhamdia quelen) and Enriched Germ Cell Transplantation into Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Testes
by Ivana F. Rosa, Emanuel R. M. Martinez, Melanie Digmayer, Lucas B. Doretto and Rafael H. Nóbrega
Fishes 2023, 8(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8100478 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Cryopreservation and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) offer new possibilities in the conservation of valuable genetic resources. Therefore, the present study developed a cryopreservation method for whole testicular tissue and for spermatogonial stem cells of jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) and [...] Read more.
Cryopreservation and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) offer new possibilities in the conservation of valuable genetic resources. Therefore, the present study developed a cryopreservation method for whole testicular tissue and for spermatogonial stem cells of jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) and developed an enriched germ cell transplantation of jundia catfish into depleted common carp (Cyprinus carpio) testes. Our findings from whole testes indicate that the cryoprotectants MeOH (1.3 M), DMSO (1.4 M), and EG (1.4 M) resulted in high cell viability rates of 67%, 62%, and 51.5%, respectively. Notably, in the case of enriched post-thaw SSCs, DMSO exhibited the highest cell viability at 27%, followed by EG at 16% and MeOH at 7%. Additionally, we observed the successful colonization and proliferation of jundia germ cells within the recipient gonads of common carp following transplantation. Notably, Sertoli cells were identified in the recipient gonads, providing support to the stained donor germ cells and indicated the formation of cysts. Our data suggest that cryopreserving entire testicular tissue presents a viable alternative to cryopreserving isolated testicular cells, and the spermatogonial cells isolated from testes of jundia retained transplantability characteristics. Nonetheless, more investigations are required to reach the goal of functional gamete and to assess the effectiveness of transplantation using these cryopreserved tissues. Taken together, proper cryopreservation methodology and transplantation technology could aid the preservation practice of fish genetic resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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17 pages, 47758 KiB  
Article
Year-Round Spawning, Filial Cannibalism, and Embryonic and Larval Development of the Coral Reef Fish Orchid Dottyback, Pseudochromis fridmani
by Jun Yu Chen, Chaoshu Zeng and Jennifer M. Cobcroft
Fishes 2023, 8(9), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8090451 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish could potentially reduce the fishing pressure on wild stocks by the global aquarium trade, but its expansion is often constrained by the limited understanding on the biology and early life history of candidate species. The orchid dottyback Pseudochromis [...] Read more.
Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish could potentially reduce the fishing pressure on wild stocks by the global aquarium trade, but its expansion is often constrained by the limited understanding on the biology and early life history of candidate species. The orchid dottyback Pseudochromis fridmani is a valuable and popular marine ornamental fish, but scientific reports on its baseline biology, especially the egg filial cannibalistic behaviour, are scarce. The present study documented key aspects of reproductive biology and early ontogeny of P. fridmani in captivity, including reproductive behaviour, patterns of spawning and filial cannibalism throughout a 12-month period by seven pairs of brood fish, as well as the embryonic and larval development. The results showed that the captive spawning of the broodstock pairs generally occurred every 5–11 days, most commonly every 6–8 days, throughout a year. Despite feeding the brood fish to satiation throughout the data collection period, the average monthly rate of egg filial cannibalism reached 55 ± 37%, but the cannibalism frequency appeared to be pair-specific. The egg incubation duration was approximately 96 h at 27 ± 1 °C, and the development of embryos from cleavage, blastula, gastrula, and segmentation to the pharyngula stage is herein described in detail. The newly hatched P. fridmani larvae possessed important structures and organs for first feeding, including pigmented eyes, developed jaws, and a straight-tube gut. The 0 to 14 days post-hatching (DPH) period appeared to be an important larval stage, as P. fridmani larvae were observed to complete major changes in morphology, gut development, and phototactic behaviour by 14 DPH. Under the culture conditions of this study, the earliest transition to the juvenile stage was observed on 31 DPH, and the majority of fish became juveniles by 56 DPH. The results of this study inform baseline aquaculture production protocols and direct future research, particularly to reduce filial cannibalism through broodstock management and to improve larval culture through supporting the early ontogenetic development of P. fridmani. Additionally, these findings form a foundation for further studying the biology and ecology of P. fridmani in the wild. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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15 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
Identification of a New Insulin-like Growth Factor 3 (igf3) in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): Comparison and Expression Analysis of IGF System Genes during Gonadal Development
by Chunyan Zhao, Sujie Zheng, Yongji Dang, Mengshu Wang and Yichao Ren
Fishes 2023, 8(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8050240 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Fish reproduction is closely related to the regulation of the brain and liver, making it essential to identify the factors that control this process. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is an economically significant species that has been successfully breeding through industrial aquaculture. [...] Read more.
Fish reproduction is closely related to the regulation of the brain and liver, making it essential to identify the factors that control this process. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is an economically significant species that has been successfully breeding through industrial aquaculture. Investigation of factors into the involvement of gonadal development is crucial for artificial breeding. In this study, a new insulin-like growth factor 3 igf3 gene was cloned and characterized. Additionally, all three types of turbot IGFs contain a distinct IGF domain, with IGF3 and IGF2 being grouped with other teleosts, demonstrating a closely related genetic relationship. The expression analysis showed that igf3 mRNA is predominantly expressed in the gonad and brain (specifically in the pituitary and hypothalamus), suggesting its effects at multiple levels in the brain–pituitary–gonadal axis. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of igfs during gonadal development were examined. In the gonad and liver of female turbots, the expression levels of igfs mRNA significantly increased from stage II to VI during the process of oogenesis, including maturation and degeneration. In the testis and liver of male turbots, igf3 mRNA maintained high expression levels during the proliferation of spermatogonia at stages II and III. In addition, the highest levels of igf1 and igf2 were observed at the beginning of spermatogenesis and during sperm production at stages V and VI. All the results suggest that the IGFs were closely related to the gonadal development in turbot and improve a better understanding of the IGF system in the regulation of gonadal development in teleost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Breeding of Fish)
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