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Feature Papers in Thermal Management

A topical collection in Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This collection belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

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Editors

Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA) KTH and Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: combustion and flame theory and modeling; dust explosions; detonation; exciton; Bose condensation; magnetic biexcitons; high magnetic field; magnetic exciton
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, E2402 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Interests: heat transfer; boiling and condensation; thermal desalination; thermal management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection, “Featured Papers on Thermal Management”, will provide a focused examination of the state-of-the-art thermal management technologies for modern applications such as electric vehicles/aircraft, spacecraft, and hypersonic vehicles. It will cover the thermal requirements, operating conditions, thermal management design, and system configuration for such applications and provide guidance on the setup, instrumentation, and operation of their thermal management systems (TMSs) in the most efficient and effective manner.

While much effort is devoted to conventional thermal management technologies (air and liquid cooling), there is a pressing need to innovate and demonstrate advanced technologies, including two-phase cooling (heat pipes including capillary-based pumped loops, vapor chambers, oscillating heat pipes, pumped two-phase loops), heat storage (phase change materials, chemical reaction), thermoelectric (Peltier) coolers, and thermionic coolers, to be implemented in this area. This Topical Collection is focused on bringing together innovative developments, technologies, and solutions in the field of thermal management for electric vehicles and aircraft, spacecraft, and emerging applications.

As the Collection Editor, I cordially invite you to contribute a review or a research article to this Topical Collection. If you are able to contribute, please let me or the Special Issue Editor ([email protected]) know, and we will be happy to provide additional details.

Prof. Dr. Michael Liberman
Prof. Dr. Chanwoo Park
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thermal management
  • temperature control
  • heat transfer enhancement
  • cooling
  • rechargeable batteries
  • electronics
  • electric vehicles
  • electric aircraft
  • spacecraft
  • hypersonic vehicles

Published Papers (8 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

20 pages, 8821 KiB  
Article
Influence of a Cooling System on Power MOSFETs’ Thermal Parameters
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082923 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
In the current paper, an analysis of the influence of cooling system selection on the thermal parameters of two thermally coupled power MOSFETs is presented. The required measurements of the thermal parameters were performed using the indirect electrical method at different values of [...] Read more.
In the current paper, an analysis of the influence of cooling system selection on the thermal parameters of two thermally coupled power MOSFETs is presented. The required measurements of the thermal parameters were performed using the indirect electrical method at different values of power dissipated in the investigated transistors and various supply conditions for the active parts of their cooling systems. The results of the investigations are analysed and discussed. Functions modelling the observed dependences of thermal parameters of the investigated MOSFETs on the power that was dissipated in them as well as the supply conditions of the active parts of their cooling systems are proposed. A good agreement between the results of the measurements and the computations was obtained. It is shown that the use of active cooling systems makes it possible to reduce the value of the thermal resistance of the tested transistor up to 20 times. In each of the tested systems, the self- and transfer-thermal resistances decreased with an increase in the dissipated power and the rotational speed of the fan. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

24 pages, 5953 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Large-Scale External Heat Exchanger with Horizontal Smooth Tube Bundle
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175553 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
In the research work, energy transport between a dense fluidized bed and submerged horizontal tube bundle is analyzed in the commercial external heat exchanger (EHE). In order to investigate the heat transfer behavior, the authors carried out eight performance tests in a fluidized [...] Read more.
In the research work, energy transport between a dense fluidized bed and submerged horizontal tube bundle is analyzed in the commercial external heat exchanger (EHE). In order to investigate the heat transfer behavior, the authors carried out eight performance tests in a fluidized bed heat exchange chamber with a cross-section of 2.7 × 2.3 m in depth and width and a height of 1.3 m. The authors have been developing a mechanistic model for the prediction of the average heat transfer coefficient, which includes the effect of the geometric structure of the tube bundle and the location of the heat transfer surface on the heat transfer rate. The computational results depict that the average heat transfer coefficient is essentially affected by superficial gas velocity and suspension density rather than bed particle size. The empirical correlations have been proposed for predicting heat transfer data since the existing literature data is not sufficient for industrial fluidized bed heat exchangers. On the basis of the evaluated operating conditions of an external heat exchanger, the optimal conditions where heat transfer occurs could be deduced. The developed mechanistic heat transfer model is validated by experimental data under the examined conditions. Full article
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18 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal Phenomena on the Characteristics of Selected Electronics Networks
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164750 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
This paper presents the results of investigations on the influence of thermal phenomena—self-heating in semiconductor devices and mutual thermal couplings between them—on the characteristics of selected electronics networks containing bipolar transistors (BJTs) or insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Using the authors’ compact electrothermal [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of investigations on the influence of thermal phenomena—self-heating in semiconductor devices and mutual thermal couplings between them—on the characteristics of selected electronics networks containing bipolar transistors (BJTs) or insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Using the authors’ compact electrothermal models of the transistors mentioned above, the non-isothermal DC and dynamic characteristics of these devices and selected networks with these devices are calculated. Their selected characteristics are compared with the measurement results. The waveforms of currents in the considered networks are also determined taking into account thermal phenomena. Discrepancies between the obtained calculation and measurement results and the calculation results obtained without thermal phenomena are indicated. In particular, attention is paid to cooling conditions at which the networks under consideration may be damaged due to thermal phenomena. Full article
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16 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Improving Public Attitude towards Renewable Energy
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4521; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154521 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4395
Abstract
In recent years, the urgent necessity and tremendous opportunity to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon competitive economy has resulted in growth of long-term targets for renewable energy and energy efficiency, which are coming from policy bodies worldwide. The inherent distributed nature of [...] Read more.
In recent years, the urgent necessity and tremendous opportunity to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon competitive economy has resulted in growth of long-term targets for renewable energy and energy efficiency, which are coming from policy bodies worldwide. The inherent distributed nature of renewable energies, together with the modularity of those technologies, brings opportunities for consumer empowerment in terms of participation. Nevertheless, there is still the need for increasing global awareness and enabling policies, to strengthen the citizen role in the energy system, facilitating their proactive participation as renewable energy purchasers, investors, and clean energy producers. Drawing from research interviews and the academic literature, this article conceptualizes the understanding of the need for improving public attitudes and explores the factors influencing the acceptance in terms of misconceptions, best communication practices, activities addressing public concerns, and potential actions to bolster public support towards renewable energy. Research interviews were conducted at a technical workshop on social acceptance of renewable energy, held in Abu Dhabi in October 2013, and the findings show that despite detecting an increasing trend towards greater and more active participation of citizens, many misconceptions together with insufficient and inefficient awareness and communication initiatives on renewable energies persist. The main conclusions can be used as a basis for formulating sustainable energy communication and awareness campaigns in order to enhance public acceptance and increase active participation in renewable energy technologies. Full article
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21 pages, 12955 KiB  
Article
Novel Twofold Use of Photographic Technique for Simultaneous Flow Boiling Image Recording and Void Fraction Computation in a Mini-Channel Experiment
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4478; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154478 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
The paper presents a novel twofold use of the photographic technique for flow boiling heat transfer investigation in the horizontal mini-channel. The dedicated measurement system was constructed to record basic thermal and flow parameters, i.e., boiling liquid inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, [...] Read more.
The paper presents a novel twofold use of the photographic technique for flow boiling heat transfer investigation in the horizontal mini-channel. The dedicated measurement system was constructed to record basic thermal and flow parameters, i.e., boiling liquid inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, and also temperatures inside the heating block to calculate heat flux going into the liquid. A high-speed video camera equipped with synchronous movement system was applied to combine the recording of two-phase flow images with simultaneous local void fraction measurements both based on the same photographic data set. The data were collected, managed, and refined with the scripts developed in the MathWorks Matlab 2019b environment. The synchronous use of two intelligent techniques in the scripts, i.e., the background subtraction technique and the statistical analysis of individual pictures allowed obtaining reliable experimental results. The proposed method of the void fraction determination ensures high measurement accuracy. Full article
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27 pages, 8727 KiB  
Article
Conventional and Advanced Exergoeconomic Analysis of a Compound Ejector-Heat Pump for Simultaneous Cooling and Heating
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123511 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
This work focused on a compound PV/T waste heat driven ejector-heat pump system for simultaneous data centre cooling and waste heat recovery for district heating. The system uses PV/T waste heat as the generator’s heat source, acting with the vapour generated in an [...] Read more.
This work focused on a compound PV/T waste heat driven ejector-heat pump system for simultaneous data centre cooling and waste heat recovery for district heating. The system uses PV/T waste heat as the generator’s heat source, acting with the vapour generated in an evaporative condenser as the ejector drive force. Conventional and advanced exergy and advanced exergoeconomic analyses are used to determine the cause and avoidable degree of the components’ exergy destruction rate and cost rates. Regarding the conventional exergy analysis for the whole system, the compressor represents the largest exergy destruction source of 26%. On the other hand, the generator shows the lowest sources (2%). The advanced exergy analysis indicates that 59.4% of the whole system thermodynamical inefficiencies can be avoided by further design optimisation. The compressor has the highest contribution to the destruction in the avoidable exergy destruction rate (21%), followed by the ejector (18%) and condenser (8%). Moreover, the advanced exergoeconomic results prove that 51% of the system costs are unavoidable. In system components cost comparison, the highest cost comes from the condenser, 30%. In the same context, the ejector has the lowest exergoeconomic factor, and it should be getting more attention to reduce the irreversibility by design improving. On the contrary, the evaporator has the highest exergoeconomic factor (94%). Full article
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18 pages, 4271 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Energy Management Strategy Based on PSO Optimization for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092438 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
The hybrid electric vehicle is equipped with an internal combustion engine and motor as the driving source, which can solve the problems of short driving range and slow charging of the electric vehicle. Making an effective energy management control strategy can reasonably distribute [...] Read more.
The hybrid electric vehicle is equipped with an internal combustion engine and motor as the driving source, which can solve the problems of short driving range and slow charging of the electric vehicle. Making an effective energy management control strategy can reasonably distribute the output power of the engine and motor, improve engine efficiency, and reduce battery damage. To reduce vehicle energy consumption and excessive battery discharge at the same time, a multi-objective energy management strategy based on a particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. First, a simulation platform was built based on a compound power-split vehicle model. Then, the ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy) was used to realize the real-time control of the model, and the penalty function was added to modify the objective function based on the current SOC (State of Charge) to maintain the SOC balance. Finally, the key parameters of ECMS were optimized by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the effectiveness of the control strategy was verified under the WLTC (Worldwide Light-Duty Test Cycle) and the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle). The results show that under the WLTC test cycle, the overall fuel consumption of the whole vehicle was 6.88 L/100 km, which was 7.7% lower than that before optimization; under the NEDC test cycle, the fuel consumption of the whole vehicle was 5.88 L/100 km, which was 9.8% lower than that before optimization. Full article
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14 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Prediction of System-Level Energy Harvesting Characteristics of a Thermoelectric Generator Operating in a Diesel Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092426 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
This study evaluated the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator (TEG), whose performance depends on various variables including engine load, engine rotation speed, and external load resistance. Therefore, a Python code was developed to [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator (TEG), whose performance depends on various variables including engine load, engine rotation speed, and external load resistance. Therefore, a Python code was developed to determine an optimal ANN structure by tracking the training/prediction errors of the ANN as a function of the number of hidden layers and nodes of hidden layers. The optimal ANN was trained using 484 output current (I)–load resistance (R) datasets obtained under three different engine rotation speeds and five different engine loads. The prediction accuracy of the ANN was validated by comparing 88 I–R datasets reproduced by the ANN using experimental data that were not used for training. In the validation procedure, differences of only 3.49% and 2.59% were observed in the experimental and ANN-predicted output power obtained for the 1000 rpm–0.8 MPa brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 1500 rpm–0.4 MPa BMEP scenarios, respectively. The exhaust gas flow characteristics were used for training and validation to predict the pumping loss caused by the installation of the TEG in the middle of the exhaust tailpipe with high accuracy. The results demonstrated that the ANN effectively reproduced datasets to fill the gaps between the discretized experimental results for all the experimental scenarios without any noticeable overfitting and underfitting. The net power gain obtained by the ANN exhibited a clear peak point for the engine rotation speed of 2000 rpm, which is difficult to obtain using experimental data. Full article
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