Special Issue "Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Storage and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alon Kuperman
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653 Beer-Sheva 8410501 Israel
Interests: energy conversion; power electronics; electric drives; energy storage; wireless power transfer; applied control and signal processing; hybrid power systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alessandro Lampasi
Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Unit, ENEA, ‎Rome, Italy
Interests: electrical and electronic systems for nuclear fusion and experimental physics; power electronics; energy storage; applied electromagnetics; applied nanotechnology; modeling and simulation; measurement and testing techniques
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage is a key topic for research, industry and business, gaining more and more interest. Supercapacitors (also known as ultracapacitors, electrochemical capacitors or double-layer capacitors) feature exceptional capacitance values, creating new scenarios and opportunities in both research and industrial applications, also because the related market is relatively recent. Developments in supercapacitor technology and supporting electronics, combined with reductions in costs, may revolutionize everything from large power systems to consumer electronics. We are inviting submissions to this Special Issue of Energies to collect the latest developments and applications in this field, but also to compare supercapacitors with other energy storage solutions.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Supercapacitor technologies, processes and materials;
  • Special devices for unconventional applications or harsh environments;
  • Hybrid and lithium-ion capacitors;
  • Experimental techniques for testing, characterization, monitoring and diagnosis of supercapacitors;
  • Approaches and tools for supercapacitor modeling and simulation;
  • Sizing and optimization algorithms;
  • Capacitor chargers and management systems;
  • Pulsed power supplies and fast controls;
  • Power electronics and converters for supercapacitors interfacing;
  • Systems and applications exploiting supercapacitors, such as energy storage, uninterruptible power supplies, smart grids, advanced transportation, renewable sources and clean energies;
  • Supercapacitor integration and combinations with other energy storage solutions;
  • Electrical vehicles, machines, starters and drives supported by supercapacitors;
  • Power quality, load management, peak shaving and back-up issues;
  • Energy harvesting and recovery, including regenerative braking;
  • Supercapacitors for sensor networks and distributed systems;
  • Reliability and safety of supercapacitors and related systems;
  • Technical-economical evaluations and market analyses.

Prof. Dr. Alon Kuperman
Dr. Alessandro Lampasi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • supercapacitors
  • energy storage
  • energy management
  • power systems
  • power electronics
  • pulsed power
  • high power testing and modeling
  • fast control
  • peak shaving
  • electrical machines and drives
  • electric and hybrid vehicles

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Ultracapacitors for Port Crane Applications: Sizing and Techno-Economic Analysis
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082091 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
The use of energy storage with high power density and fast response time at container terminals (CTs) with a power demand of tens of megawatts is one of the most critical factors for peak reduction and economic benefits. Peak shaving can balance the [...] Read more.
The use of energy storage with high power density and fast response time at container terminals (CTs) with a power demand of tens of megawatts is one of the most critical factors for peak reduction and economic benefits. Peak shaving can balance the load demand and facilitate the participation of small power units in generation based on renewable energies. Therefore, in this paper, the economic efficiency of peak demand reduction in ship to shore (STS) cranes based on the ultracapacitor (UC) energy storage sizing has been investigated. The results show the UC energy storage significantly reduce the peak demand, increasing the load factor, load leveling, and most importantly, an outstanding reduction in power and energy cost. In fact, the suggested approach is the start point to improve reliability and reduce peak demand energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Experimental Validation of a Supercapacitor Frequency Domain Model for Industrial Energy Applications Considering Dynamic Behaviour at High Frequencies
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051156 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
Supercapacitors, one of the most promising energy storage technologies for high power density industrial applications, exchange the energy mostly through power electronic converters, operating under high frequency components due to the commutation. The high frequency produces important effects on the performance of the [...] Read more.
Supercapacitors, one of the most promising energy storage technologies for high power density industrial applications, exchange the energy mostly through power electronic converters, operating under high frequency components due to the commutation. The high frequency produces important effects on the performance of the supercapacitors in relation to their capacitance, inductance and internal resistance (ESR). These parameters are fundamental to evaluate the efficiency of this energy storage system. The aim of the paper is to obtain an accurate model of two supercapacitors connected in series (functional and extrapolated unit) to represent the frequency effects for a wide range of frequencies. The methodology is based on the definition of an appropriate equivalent electric circuit with voltage dependance, obtaining their parameters from experimental tests, carried out by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the use of specific software tools such as EC-Lab® and Statgraphics Centurion®. The paper concludes with a model which reproduces with accuracy both the frequency response of the model BCAP3000 supercapacitors, provided by the manufacturer, and the experimental results obtained by the authors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Memory Effect and Fractional Differential Dynamics in Planar Microsupercapacitors Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Arrays
Energies 2020, 13(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010213 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
The development of portable electronic devices has greatly stimulated the need for miniaturized power sources. Planar supercapacitors are micro-scale electrochemical energy storage devices that can be integrated with other microelectronic devices on a chip. In this paper, we study the behavior of microsupercapacitors [...] Read more.
The development of portable electronic devices has greatly stimulated the need for miniaturized power sources. Planar supercapacitors are micro-scale electrochemical energy storage devices that can be integrated with other microelectronic devices on a chip. In this paper, we study the behavior of microsupercapacitors with in-plane interdigital electrodes of carbon nanotube array under sinusoidal excitation, step voltage input and sawlike voltage input. Considering the anomalous diffusion of ions in the array and interelectrode space, we propose a fractional-order equivalent circuit model that successfully describes the measured impedance spectra. We demonstrate that the response of the investigated micro-supercapacitors is linear and the system is time-invariant. The numerical inversion of the Laplace transforms for electric current response in an equivalent circuit with a given impedance leads to results consistent with potentiostatic measurements and cyclic voltammograms. The use of electrodes based on an ordered array of nanotubes reduces the role of nonlinear effects in the behavior of a supercapacitor. The effect of the disordering of nanotubes with increasing array height on supercapacitor impedance is considered in the framework of a distributed-order subdiffusion model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fractional-Order Modeling and Parameter Identification for Ultracapacitors with a New Hybrid SOA Method
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224251 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper deals with an ultracapacitor (UC) model and its identification procedure. To take UC’s fractional characteristic into account, two constant phase elements (CPEs) are used to construct a model structure according to impedance spectrum analysis. The different behaviors of UC such as [...] Read more.
This paper deals with an ultracapacitor (UC) model and its identification procedure. To take UC’s fractional characteristic into account, two constant phase elements (CPEs) are used to construct a model structure according to impedance spectrum analysis. The different behaviors of UC such as capacitance, resistance, and charge distribution dynamics are simulated by the corresponding part in the model. The resistance under different voltages is calculated through the voltage rebound method to explore its non-linear characteristics and create a look-up table. A nonlinear fractional model around an operation voltage is then deduced by applying the resistance table. This time identification is carried by a proposed hybrid optimization algorithm: Nelder-Mead seeker algorithm (NMSA), which embeds the Nelder–Mead Simplex (NMS) method into the seeker optimization algorithm (SOA). Its time behavior has been compared with the linear fractional model for charging and discharging current profiles at different levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Validation of Ultra-Fast Charging Infrastructures Based on Supercapacitors for Urban Public Transportation Applications
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122348 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The last few decades have seen a significant increase in the number of electric vehicles (EVs) for private and public transportation around the world. This has resulted in high power demands on the electrical grid, especially when fast and ultra-fast or flash (at [...] Read more.
The last few decades have seen a significant increase in the number of electric vehicles (EVs) for private and public transportation around the world. This has resulted in high power demands on the electrical grid, especially when fast and ultra-fast or flash (at the bus-stop) charging are required. Consequently, a ground storage should be used in order to mitigate the peak power request period. This paper deals with an innovative and simple fast charging infrastructure based on supercapacitors, used to charge the energy storage system on board electric buses. According to the charging level of the electric bus, the proposed fast charging system is able to provide the maximum power of 180 kW without exceeding 30 s and without using DC–DC converters. In order to limit the maximum charging current, the electric bus is charged in three steps through three different connectors placed between the supercapacitors on board the bus and the fast charging system. The fast charging system has been carefully designed, taking into account several system parameters, such as charging time, maximum current, and voltage. Experimental tests have been performed on a fast charging station prototype to validate the theoretical analysis and functionality of the proposed architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Model Predictive Control Strategy of Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Based on Double Active Bridge
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112134 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of which the dynamic response of a supercapacitor (SC) is limited due to the mismatch dynamic characteristics between the DC/DC converter and supercapacitor in an energy storage system, this paper proposes a hybrid model predictive control strategy [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of which the dynamic response of a supercapacitor (SC) is limited due to the mismatch dynamic characteristics between the DC/DC converter and supercapacitor in an energy storage system, this paper proposes a hybrid model predictive control strategy based on a dual active bridge (DAB). The hybrid model predictive control model considers the supercapacitor and DAB in a unified way, including the equivalent series resistance and capacitance parameters of the SC. The method can obtain a large charging and discharging current of the SC, thereby not only improving the overall response speed of the system, but also expanding the actual capacity utilization range of the SC. The simulation results show that compared with the model prediction method of the dual active bridge converter, the proposed control method can effectively improve the overall response speed of the system, which can be improved by at least 0.4 ms. In addition, the proposed method increases the actual upper limit of the SC voltage, reduces the actual lower limit of the SC voltage, and then expands the actual capacity utilization range of the SC by 18.63%. The proposed method has good application prospects in improving the dynamic response performance of energy storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Facilely Synthesized NiCo2O4/NiCo2O4 Nanofile Arrays Supported on Nickel Foam by a Hydrothermal Method and Their Excellent Performance for High-Rate Supercapacitance
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071308 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
NiCo2O4 nanoleaf arrays (NCO NLAs) and NiCo2O4/NiCO2O4 nanofile arrays (NCO/NCO NFAs) material was fabricated on flexible nickel foam (NF) using a facile hydrothermal approach. The electrochemical performance, including the specific capacitance, charge/discharge cycles, [...] Read more.
NiCo2O4 nanoleaf arrays (NCO NLAs) and NiCo2O4/NiCO2O4 nanofile arrays (NCO/NCO NFAs) material was fabricated on flexible nickel foam (NF) using a facile hydrothermal approach. The electrochemical performance, including the specific capacitance, charge/discharge cycles, and lifecycle of the material after the hydrothermal treatment, was assessed. The morphological and structural behaviors of the [email protected] NLAs and [email protected]/NCO NFAs electrodes were analyzed using a range of analysis techniques. The as-obtained nanocomposite of the [email protected]/NCO NFAs material delivered outstanding electrochemical performance, including an ultrahigh specific capacitance (Cs) of 2312 F g−1 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2, along with excellent cycling stability (98.7% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at 5 mA cm−2). These values were higher than those of [email protected] NLAs (Cs of 1950 F g−1 and 96.3% retention). The enhanced specific capacitance was attributed to the large electrochemical surface area, which allows for higher electrical conductivity and rapid transport between the electrons and ions as well as a much lower charge-transfer resistance and superior rate capability. These results clearly show that a combination of two types of binary metal oxides could be favorable for improving electrochemical performance and is expected to play a major role in the future development of nanofile-like composites ([email protected]/NCO NFAs) for supercapacitor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Hierarchical NiMoO4/NiMoO4 Nanoflowers on Highly Conductive Flexible Nickel Foam Substrate as a Capacitive Electrode Material for Supercapacitors with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061143 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hierarchical NiMoO4/NiMoO4 nanoflowers were fabricated on highly conductive flexible nickel foam (NF) substrates using a facile hydrothermal method to achieve rapid charge-discharge ability, high energy density, long cycling lifespan, and higher flexibility for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized composite [...] Read more.
Hierarchical NiMoO4/NiMoO4 nanoflowers were fabricated on highly conductive flexible nickel foam (NF) substrates using a facile hydrothermal method to achieve rapid charge-discharge ability, high energy density, long cycling lifespan, and higher flexibility for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized composite electrode material, NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4 with a nanoball-like NF/NiMoO4 structure on a NiMoO4 surface over a NF substrate, formed a three-dimensional interconnected porous network for high-performance electrodes. The novel NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4 nanoflowers not only enhanced the large surface area and increased the electrochemical activity, but also provided an enhanced rapid ion diffusion path and reduced the charge transfer resistance of the entire electrode effectively. The NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4 composite exhibited significantly improved supercapacitor performance in terms of a sustained cycling life, high specific capacitance, rapid charge-discharge capability, high energy density, and good rate capability. Electrochemical analysis of the NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4 nanoflowers fabricated on the NF substrate revealed ultra-high electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 2121 F g−1 at 12 mA g−1 in a 3 M KOH electrolyte and 98.7% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at 14 mA g−1. This performance was superior to the NF/NiMoO4 nanoball electrode (1672 F g−1 at 12 mA g−1 and capacitance retention 93.4% cycles). Most importantly, the SC (NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4) device displayed a maximum energy density of 47.13 W h kg−1, which was significantly higher than that of NF/NiMoO4 (37.1 W h kg−1). Overall, the NF/NiMoO4/NiMoO4 composite is a suitable material for supercapacitor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Time on a Hierarchical Corn Skeleton-Like Composite of [email protected] as Capacitive Electrode Material for High Specific Performance Supercapacitors
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123285 - 25 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
CoO–ZnO-based composites have attracted considerable attention for the development of energy storage devices because of their multifunctional characterization and ease of integration with existing components. This paper reports the synthesis of [email protected] (CZ) nanostructures on Ni foam by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) [...] Read more.
CoO–ZnO-based composites have attracted considerable attention for the development of energy storage devices because of their multifunctional characterization and ease of integration with existing components. This paper reports the synthesis of [email protected] (CZ) nanostructures on Ni foam by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for facile and eco-friendly supercapacitor applications. The formation of a [email protected] electrode functioned with cobalt, zinc, nickel and oxygen groups was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The as-synthesized hierarchical nanocorn skeleton-like structure of a [email protected] (CZ3h) electrode delivered a higher specific capacitance (Cs) of 1136 F/g at 3 A/g with outstanding cycling performance, showing 98.3% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles in an aqueous 2 M KOH electrolyte solution. This retention was significantly better than that of other prepared electrodes, such as CoO, ZnO, [email protected] (CZ1h), and [email protected] (CZ7h) (274 F/g, 383 F/g, 240 F/g and 537 F/g). This outstanding performance was attributed to the excellent surface morphology of CZ3h, which is responsible for the rapid electron/ion transfer between the electrolyte and the electrode surface area. The enhanced features of the CZ3h electrode highlight potential applications in high performance supercapacitors, solar cells, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Novel Cu-MnS with PVP Cabbage-Like Nanostructures for High-Performance Supercapacitors
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061590 - 17 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a novel architecture of Cu-MnS with PVP, where the high theoretical capacitance of MnS, low-cost, and high electrical conductivity of Cu, as well as appreciable surface area with high thermal and mechanical conductivity of PVP, as [...] Read more.
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a novel architecture of Cu-MnS with PVP, where the high theoretical capacitance of MnS, low-cost, and high electrical conductivity of Cu, as well as appreciable surface area with high thermal and mechanical conductivity of PVP, as a single entity to fabricate a high-performance electrode for supercapacitor. Benefiting from their unique structures, the Cu-MnS with 2PVP electrode materials show a high specific capacitance of 833.58 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, reversibility for the charge/discharge process, which are much higher than that of the MnS-7 h, Cu-MnS, and Cu-MnS with 1 and 3PVP. The presence of an appropriate amount of PVP in Cu-MnS is favorable for improving the electrochemical performance of the electrode and the existence of Cu was inclined to enhance the electrical conductivity. The Cu-MnS with 2PVP electrode is a good reference for researchers to design and fabricate new electrode materials with enhanced capacitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercapacitor Technology and Applications)
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