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Power System Dynamic and Stability Issues in Modern Power Systems Facing Energy Transition

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F1: Electrical Power System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2022) | Viewed by 17240

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Special Issue Editors

Dispatching and Operation, Terna Italian Transmission System Operator, 00156 Rome, Italy
Interests: dynamic stability of power systems; wide area monitoring and protection systems; high voltage direct current systems; power system restoration
Dispatching and Operation, Terna Italian Transmission System Operator, 00156 Rome, Italy
Interests: dynamic stability of power systems; wide area monitoring and protection systems; protection systems; EMS and SCADA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As you probably know, we are experiencing one of the most radical transformations ever experienced in electrical power systems. This process is essentially driven by the establishment of very ambitious energy and climate programs which are based on phasing out coal and increasing the production of electricity from renewable energy sources (RESs). Short circuit power and inertia are hence expected to be reduced more and more in future power systems due to the phasing out of conventional generation and the introduction of power-electronics-based RESs. Overall, the stable operation of the power systems will be consequently affected. Actually, in this transition scenario, power systems are much more prone to experience static and dynamic stability issues that could lead to wide-area blackouts if not properly addressed. Some recent examples around the world confirm the pressing need to address power system stability in a new way with respect to the past. The classic treatment of the stability and control of transmission systems concerns two major areas: steady-state stability and dynamic stability. The steady-state stability of electrical power systems refers to the behavior of a system while operating at any given equilibrium operating point. The main variables to control in maintaining steady-state stability are voltage and current in terms of the load-bearing capacity of transmission lines, transformers, etc. In the world before the sensible energy transition, voltage stability margins were much smaller than the thermal stability ones and consequentially determined the overall stability margins for the power systems. Nevertheless, already today the massive penetration of RES is causing some hours of local congestion bringing certain corridors very close to their thermal rating. On the other side, the dynamic stability of electrical power systems refers to the behavior of the system following any disturbance event, by focusing on the trajectory that it takes from pre-disturbance operating point to post-disturbance operating point. It basically deals with the interactions among the system components. Following a disturbance, the system's variables undergo transients that can induce oscillations in active and reactive power generation, resulting in the appearance of voltage oscillatory modes and frequency deviation in the system. Depending on the entity of the disturbance, small- or large-signal stability of the system under consideration can be investigated. Introduction of RES-based generation that does not participate in the network services (i.e., frequency and voltage regulation) due to lack of special controls undoubtedly affects both the overall frequency and voltage stability. Large-scale transient stability is also a concern not to be overlooked: inverter-based wind and solar generation have a different angle/speed swing behavior with respect to the traditional generation due to reduced inertia, a different voltage swing behavior due to different voltage control systems, different power flow patterns, and displacement of synchronous generation at key locations. Therefore, although power system stability and dynamics have played a very central role in the management and the study of electrical power systems so far, it is also true that the emerging scenario requires new methodologies, technologies, and analyses. In this light, the current Special Issue aims to collect contributions (i.e., research papers and review articles) on power system dynamics and stability from experts in academia and industry.

Dr. Cosimo Pisani
Dr. Giorgio Maria Giannuzzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Power system dynamics 
  • Power system stability 
  • Power electronics 
  • High voltage direct current systems 
  • Power system stabilizer 
  • Renewable energy sources 
  • Wide area monitoring protection and control systems 
  • Tools and alarms for control rooms 
  • Inertia 
  • Synthetic inertia 
  • Special integrity protection schemes 
  • System defense plans 
  • System restoration 
  • Dynamic security assessment 
  • SCADA and energy management systems 
  • Limited energy reservoirs 
  • Battery energy storage systems 
  • Synchronous condensers 
  • STATCOMs 
  • Dynamic brakings/resistors 
  • Dispersed generation 
  • Dynamic models for power system analysis and stability

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

24 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Probabilistic Description of the State of Charge of Batteries Used for Primary Frequency Regulation
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6508; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186508 - 06 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Battery participation in the service of power system frequency regulation is universally recognized as a viable means for counteracting the dramatic impact of the increasing utilization of renewable energy sources. One of the most complex aspects, in both the planning and operation stage, [...] Read more.
Battery participation in the service of power system frequency regulation is universally recognized as a viable means for counteracting the dramatic impact of the increasing utilization of renewable energy sources. One of the most complex aspects, in both the planning and operation stage, is the adequate characterization of the dynamic variation of the state of charge of the battery in view of lifetime preservation as well as the adequate participation in the regulation task. Since the power system frequency, which is the input of the battery regulation service, is inherently of a stochastic nature, it is easy to argue that the most proper methodology for addressing this complex issue is that of the theory of stochastic processes. In the first part of the paper, a preliminary characterization of the power system frequency is presented by showing that with an optimal degree of approximation it can be regarded as an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. Some considerations for guaranteeing desirable performances of the control strategy are performed by assuming that the battery-regulating power depending on the frequency can be described by means of a Wiener process. In the second part of the paper, more realistically, the regulating power due to power system changes is described as an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck or an exponential shot noise process driven by a homogeneous Poisson process depending on the frequency response features requested of the battery. Because of that, the battery state of charge is modeled as the output of a dynamic filter having this exponential shot noise process as input and its characterization constitutes the central role for the correct characterization of the battery life. Numerical simulations are carried out for demonstrating the goodness and the applicability of the proposed probabilistic approach. Full article
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23 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Impact of Passive-Components’ Models on the Stability Assessment of Inverter-Dominated Power Grids
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6348; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176348 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Power systems are experiencing some profound changes, which are posing new challenges in many different ways. One of the most significant of such challenges is the increasing presence of inverter-based resources (ibrs), both as loads and generators. This calls for new [...] Read more.
Power systems are experiencing some profound changes, which are posing new challenges in many different ways. One of the most significant of such challenges is the increasing presence of inverter-based resources (ibrs), both as loads and generators. This calls for new approaches and a wide reconsideration of the most commonly established practices in almost all the levels of power systems’ analysis, operation, and planning. This paper focuses specifically on the impacts on stability analyses of the numerical models of power system passive components (e.g., lines, transformers, along with their on-load tap changers). Traditionally, loads have been modelled as constant power loads, being this both a conservative option for what concerns stability results and a computationally convenient simplification. However, compared to their counterparts above, in some operating conditions ibrs can effectively be considered real constant power loads, whose behaviour is much more complex in terms of the equivalent impedance seen by the network. This has an impact on the way passive network components should be modelled to attain results and conclusions consistent with the real power system behaviour. In this paper, we investigate these issues on the ieee14 bus test network. To begin with, we assess the effects of constant-power and constant-impedance load models. Then, we replace a transmission line with a dc line connected to the network through two modular multilevel converters (mmcs), which account for the presence of ibrs in modern grids. Lastly, we analyse how and to which extent inaccurate modelling of mmcs and other passive components can lead to wrong stability analyses and transient simulations. Full article
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24 pages, 7747 KiB  
Article
Development and Performance Verification of Frequency Control Algorithm and Hardware Controller Using Real-Time Cyber Physical System Simulator
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5722; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155722 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Frequency stability is a critical factor in maintaining the quality of the power grid system. A battery energy storage system (BESS) with quick response and flexibility has recently been used as a primary frequency control (PFC) resource, and many studies on its control [...] Read more.
Frequency stability is a critical factor in maintaining the quality of the power grid system. A battery energy storage system (BESS) with quick response and flexibility has recently been used as a primary frequency control (PFC) resource, and many studies on its control algorithms have been conducted. The cyber physic system (CPS) simulator, which can perform virtual physical modelling and verification of many hardware systems connected to the network, is an optimal solution for the performance verification of control algorithms and hardware systems. This study introduces a large-scale real-time dynamic simulator that includes the national power system. This simulator comprises a power grid model, an energy management system (EMS) model, a BESS system model, and a communication model. It performs the control algorithm performance evaluation and the hardware controller’s response performance evaluation. The performance of the control algorithm was evaluated by tracking the power system’s characteristic trajectory in the transient state based on the physical response delay time between the output instruction of the frequency regulation controller (FRC), a hardware controller, and the output response of the BESS. Based on this, we examined the response performance evaluation results by linking them to the optimally designed actual FRC. As a result, we present an analysis of the BESS’s characteristic trajectories in the transient state, such as frequency, power system inertia, and power grid constant, and provide FRC response performance evaluation results at a level of 163 ms, by connecting the BESS installed at the actual site with the CPS simulator. Full article
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14 pages, 3829 KiB  
Article
Lessons Learnt from Modelling and Simulating the Bottom-Up Power System Restoration Processes
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4145; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114145 - 05 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
This paper aims to present the gained experience in modeling and simulating bottom-up power system restoration processes. In a system with low inertia, such as a restoration path, the Common Information Models for the regulation systems appear to no longer be suitable for [...] Read more.
This paper aims to present the gained experience in modeling and simulating bottom-up power system restoration processes. In a system with low inertia, such as a restoration path, the Common Information Models for the regulation systems appear to no longer be suitable for the estimation of the frequency behavior, and thus a detailed model must be considered. On the other hand, due to the predominantly inductive behavior of the HV transmission network, the assumption of decoupling the power-frequency behavior to study the restoration stability seems to be licit. All these issues are discussed and justified in the paper by means of the use of different software packages and of the comparison with on-field recordings. Full article
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33 pages, 5334 KiB  
Article
Power System Stability Analysis of the Sicilian Network in the 2050 OSMOSE Project Scenario
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103517 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
This paper summarizes the results of a power system stability analysis realized for the EU project OSMOSE. The case study is the electrical network of Sicily, one of the two main islands of Italy, in a scenario forecasted for 2050, with a large [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes the results of a power system stability analysis realized for the EU project OSMOSE. The case study is the electrical network of Sicily, one of the two main islands of Italy, in a scenario forecasted for 2050, with a large penetration of renewable generation. The objective is to establish if angle and voltage stabilities can be guaranteed despite the loss of the inertia and the regulation services provided today by traditional thermal power plants. To replace these resources, new flexibility services, potentially provided by renewable energy power plants, battery energy storage systems, and flexible loads, are taken into account. A highly detailed dynamical model of the electrical grid, provided by the same transmission system operator who manages the system, is modified to fit with the 2050 scenario and integrated with the models of the mentioned flexibility services. Thanks to this dynamic model, an extensive simulation analysis on large and small perturbation angle stability and voltage stability is carried out. Results show that stability can be guaranteed, but the use of a suitable combination of the new flexibility services is mandatory. Full article
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18 pages, 4214 KiB  
Article
Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Test of a Low-Cost Synthetic Inertia Controller for Battery Energy Storage System
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093016 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
In the last years, the overall system inertia is decreasing due to the growing amount of energy resources connected to the grid by means of power inverters. As a consequence, reduced levels of inertia can affect the power system stability since slight variations [...] Read more.
In the last years, the overall system inertia is decreasing due to the growing amount of energy resources connected to the grid by means of power inverters. As a consequence, reduced levels of inertia can affect the power system stability since slight variations of power generation or load may cause wider frequency deviations and higher rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) values. To mitigate this trouble, end-user distributed energy resources (DERs) interfaced through grid-following inverters, if opportunely controlled, can provide additional inertia. This paper investigated the possibility of improving the control law implemented by a low-cost controller on remotely controllable legacy DERs to provide synthetic inertia (SI) contributions. With this aim, power hardware-in-the-loop simulations were carried out to test the capability of the proposed controller to autonomously measure frequency and RoCoF and provide SI actions by controlling an actual battery energy storage system. Full article
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13 pages, 3758 KiB  
Article
Forced Oscillation Grid Vulnerability Analysis and Mitigation Using Inverter-Based Resources: Texas Grid Case Study
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082819 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Forced oscillation events have become a challenging problem with the increasing penetration of renewable and other inverter-based resources (IBRs), especially when the forced oscillation frequency coincides with the dominant natural oscillation frequency. A severe forced oscillation event can deteriorate power system dynamic stability, [...] Read more.
Forced oscillation events have become a challenging problem with the increasing penetration of renewable and other inverter-based resources (IBRs), especially when the forced oscillation frequency coincides with the dominant natural oscillation frequency. A severe forced oscillation event can deteriorate power system dynamic stability, damage equipment, and limit power transfer capability. This paper proposes a two-dimension scanning forced oscillation grid vulnerability analysis method to identify areas/zones in the system that are critical to forced oscillation. These critical areas/zones can be further considered as effective actuator locations for the deployment of forced oscillation damping controllers. Additionally, active power modulation control through IBRs is also proposed to reduce the forced oscillation impact on the entire grid. The proposed methods are demonstrated through a case study on a synthetic Texas power system model. The simulation results demonstrate that the critical areas/zones of forced oscillation are related to the areas that highly participate in the natural oscillations and the proposed oscillation damping controller through IBRs can effectively reduce the forced oscillation impact in the entire system. Full article
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24 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Frequency Dynamics in Fully Non-Synchronous Electrical Grids: A Case Study of an Existing Island
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062220 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
The operation of a power system with 100% converter-interfaced generation poses several questions and challenges regarding various aspects of the design and the control of the system. Existing literature on the integration of renewable energy sources in isolated systems mainly focuses on energy [...] Read more.
The operation of a power system with 100% converter-interfaced generation poses several questions and challenges regarding various aspects of the design and the control of the system. Existing literature on the integration of renewable energy sources in isolated systems mainly focuses on energy aspects or steady-state issues, and only a few studies examine the dynamic issues of autonomous networks operated with fully non-synchronous generation. A lack of research can be found in particular in the determination of the required amount of grid-forming power, the selection of the number and rated power of the units which should implement the grid-forming controls, and the relative locations of the grid-forming converters. The paper aims to address those research gaps starting from a theoretical point of view and then by examining the actual electrical network of an existing island as a case study. The results obtained from the investigations indicate specific observations and design opportunities, which are essential for securing the synchronization and the stability of the grid. Possible solutions for a fully non-synchronous operation of autonomous systems, in terms of dynamic characteristics and frequency stability, are presented and discussed. Full article
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23 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
A Perturbation-Based Methodology to Estimate the Equivalent Inertia of an Area Monitored by PMUs
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8477; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248477 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel methodology to estimate equivalent inertia of an area, observed from its boundary buses where Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are assumed to be installed. The areas are divided according to the measurement points, and the methodology proposed can obtain [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel methodology to estimate equivalent inertia of an area, observed from its boundary buses where Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are assumed to be installed. The areas are divided according to the measurement points, and the methodology proposed can obtain the equivalent dynamic response of the area dependent of or independent of coherency of the generators inside, which is the first contribution of this paper. The methodology is divided in three parts: estimating the frequency response, estimating the power imbalance and estimating inertia through the solution of the swing equation by Least-Squares Method (LSM). The estimation of the power imbalance is the second contribution of this paper, enabling the study of areas that contain perturbations and attending the limitation of methods of the literature that rely on assumptions of slow mechanical power. It can be further divided in three steps: accounting the total power injected, estimating an equivalent load behavior and estimating an equivalent mechanical power. The quality of results is proved with test systems of different sizes, simulating different types of perturbations. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 451 KiB  
Review
Enabling Technologies for Enhancing Power System Stability in the Presence of Converter-Interfaced Generators
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8064; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218064 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The growing attention to environmental issues is leading to an increasing integration of renewable energy sources into electrical grids. This integration process could contribute to power system decarbonization, supporting the diversification of primary energy sources and enhancing the security of energy supply, which [...] Read more.
The growing attention to environmental issues is leading to an increasing integration of renewable energy sources into electrical grids. This integration process could contribute to power system decarbonization, supporting the diversification of primary energy sources and enhancing the security of energy supply, which is threatened by the uncertain costs of conventional energy sources. Despite these environmental and economical benefits, many technological and regulatory problems should be fixed in order to significantly increase the level of penetration of renewable power generators, which are connected to power transmission and distribution systems via power electronic interfaces. Indeed, these converter-interfaced generators (CIGs) perturb grid operation, especially those fueled by non-programmable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar generators), affecting the system stability and making power systems more vulnerable to dynamic perturbations. To face these issues, the conventional operating procedures based on pre-defined system conditions, which are currently adopted in power system operation tools, should be enhanced in order to allow the “online” solution of complex decision-making problems, providing power system operators with the necessary measures and alerts to promptly adjust the system. A comprehensive analysis of the most promising research directions and the main enabling technologies for addressing this complex issue is presented in this paper. Full article
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