Special Issue "Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Thomas Strasser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electric Energy Systems, Center for Energy, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Austria
Tel. +43 (0)664 2351934
Interests: power utility automation; modelling and (real-time) simulation of smart grid systems; ICT for smart grids; Validation and testing of smart grid systems; hardware-in-the-loop experiments
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Rohjans
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
R&D Division Energy, OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg, Germany
Tel. +49 40 428 75 8019
Interests: ICT and automation for smart grids; modeling and co-simulation of smart grid systems; real-time simulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Graeme Burt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Energy & Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
Tel. +44 (0)141 548 2990
Interests: distributed energy and smart grid protection and control; compact power systems for microgrid, aerospace and marine applications; experimental validation, systems testing and power-hardware-in-the-loop; DC distribution; hybrid power systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy efficiency and low-carbon technologies are key contributors to curtailing the emission of greenhouse gases that continue to cause global warming. The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also strongly affect electrical power systems. Renewable sources, storage systems and flexible loads provide new system controls but power system operators and utilities have to deal with their fluctuating nature, limited storage capabilities and typically higher infrastructure complexity with a growing number of heterogeneous components. In addition to the technological change of new components, the liberalization of energy markets and new regulatory rules bring contextual change that necessitate the restructuring of the design and operation of future energy systems. Sophisticated component design methods, intelligent information and communication architectures, automation and control concepts, new and advanced markets, as well as proper standards, are necessary in order to manage the higher complexity of such intelligent power systems that form the smart grid.

Due to the considerably higher complexity of such cyber-physical energy systems, constituting power system, automation, protection, information and communication technology (ICT), and system services, it is expected that the design and validation of smart grid configurations will play a major role in future technology and system developments. However, an integrated approach for the design and evaluation ofsmart grid configurations incorporating these diverse constituent parts remains evasive. Validation approaches available today focus mainly on component-oriented methods. In order to guarantee a sustainable, afforable and secure supply of electricity through the transition to a future smart grid with considerably higher complexity and innovation, new design, validation and testing methods appropriate for cyber-physical systems are required. Papers that present results related to the design and validation of smart grid systems are particularly welcome for this Special Issue.

Dr. Thomas Strasser
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Rohjans
Prof. Dr. Graeme Burt
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • design, development and implementation methods for smart grid technologies
  • modeling and simulation of smart grid systems
  • co-simulation based assessment methods
  • validation techniques for innovative smart grid solutions
  • real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101861 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This Editorial provides an introduction to the Special Issue “Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems”. Furthermore, it also provides an overview of the corresponding papers that where recently published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The Special Issue took place in [...] Read more.
This Editorial provides an introduction to the Special Issue “Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems”. Furthermore, it also provides an overview of the corresponding papers that where recently published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The Special Issue took place in 2018 and accepted a total of 19 papers from 19 different countries. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Wind Power Monitoring and Control Based on Synchrophasor Measurement Data Mining
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123525 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
More and more countries and utilities are trying to develop smart grid projects to make transformation of their power infrastructure towards future grids with increased share of renewable energy production and near zero emissions. The intermittent nature of solar and wind power can [...] Read more.
More and more countries and utilities are trying to develop smart grid projects to make transformation of their power infrastructure towards future grids with increased share of renewable energy production and near zero emissions. The intermittent nature of solar and wind power can in general cause large problems for power system control. Parallel to this process, the aging of existing infrastructure also imposes requirements to utility budgets in the form of a need for large capital investments in reconstruction or maintenance of key equipment. Synchrophasor and other synchronized measurement technologies are setting themselves as one of the solutions for larger wind power integration. With that aim, in this paper one possible solution for wind power control through data mining algorithms used on a large quantity of data gathered from phasor measurement units (PMU) is described. Developed model and algorithm are tested on an IEEE 14 bus test system as well as on real measurements made on wind power plants currently in operation. One such wind power plant is connected to the distribution grid and the other one to the transmission grid. Results are analyzed and compared. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Approaches for the Testing of Smart Grid Controls
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3381; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123381 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The fundamental changes in the energy sector, due to the rise of renewable energy resources and the possibilities of the digitalisation process, result in the demand for new methodologies for testing Smart Grid concepts and control strategies. Using the Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) methodology [...] Read more.
The fundamental changes in the energy sector, due to the rise of renewable energy resources and the possibilities of the digitalisation process, result in the demand for new methodologies for testing Smart Grid concepts and control strategies. Using the Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) methodology is one of the key elements for such evaluations. PHIL and other in-the-loop concepts cannot be considered as plug’n’play and, for a wider adoption, the obstacles have to be reduced. This paper presents the comparison of two different setups for the evaluation of components and systems focused on undisturbed operational conditions. The first setup is a conventional PHIL setup and the second is a simplified setup based on a quasi-dynamic PHIL (QDPHIL) approach which involves fast and continuously steady state load flow calculations. A case study which analyses a simple superimposed voltage control algorithm gives an example for the actual usage of the quasi-dynamic setup. Furthermore, this article also provides a comparison and discussion of the achieved results with the two setups and it concludes with an outlook about further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Integration Profiles to Interoperability Testing for Smart Energy Systems at Connectathon Energy
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123375 - 02 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The project Integrating the Energy System (IES) Austria recognises interoperability as key enabler for the deployment of smart energy systems. Interoperability is covered in the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) activity A4-IA0-5 and provides an added value because it enables new business options [...] Read more.
The project Integrating the Energy System (IES) Austria recognises interoperability as key enabler for the deployment of smart energy systems. Interoperability is covered in the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) activity A4-IA0-5 and provides an added value because it enables new business options for most stakeholders. The communication of smart energy components and systems shall be interoperable to enable smooth data exchange, and thereby, the on demand integration of heterogeneous systems, components and services. The approach developed and proposed by IES, adopts the holistic methodology from the consortium Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), established by information technology (IT) vendors in the health sector and standardised in the draft technical report ISO DTR 28380-1, to foster interoperable smart energy systems. The paper outlines the adopted IES workflow in detail and reports on lesson learnt when trial Integration Profiles based on IEC 61850 were tested at the first Connectathon Energy instalment, organised in conjunction with the IHE Connectathon Europe 2018. The IES methodology is found perfectly applicable for smart energy systems and successfully enables peer-to-peer interoperability testing among vendors. The public specification of required Integration Profiles, to be tested at subsequent Connectathon Energy events, is encouraged. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Assessment of a Centralised Controller for High-RES Active Distribution Networks
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123364 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper assesses the behaviour of active distribution networks with high penetration of renewable energy sources when the control is performed in a centralised manner. The control assets are the on-load tap changers of transformers at the primary substation, the reactive power injections [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the behaviour of active distribution networks with high penetration of renewable energy sources when the control is performed in a centralised manner. The control assets are the on-load tap changers of transformers at the primary substation, the reactive power injections of the renewable energy sources, and the active and reactive power exchanged between adjacent feeders when they are interconnected through a DC link. A scaled-down distribution network is used as the testbed to emulate the behaviour of an active distribution system with massive penetration of renewable energy resources. The laboratory testbed involves hardware devices, real-time control, and communication infrastructure. Several key performance indices are adopted to assess the effects of the different control actions on the system’s operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of control actions enables the optimal integration of a massive penetration of renewable energy. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Multi-Agent System with Plug and Play Feature for Distributed Secondary Control in Microgrid—Controller and Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123253 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Distributed control and optimization strategies are a promising alternative approach to centralized control within microgrids. In this paper, a multi-agent system is developed to deal with the distributed secondary control of islanded microgrids. Two main challenges are identified in the coordination of a [...] Read more.
Distributed control and optimization strategies are a promising alternative approach to centralized control within microgrids. In this paper, a multi-agent system is developed to deal with the distributed secondary control of islanded microgrids. Two main challenges are identified in the coordination of a microgrid: (i) interoperability among equipment from different vendors; and (ii) online re-configuration of the network in the case of alteration of topology. To cope with these challenges, the agents are designed to communicate with physical devices via the industrial standard IEC 61850 and incorporate a plug and play feature. This allows interoperability within a microgrid at agent layer as well as allows for online re-configuration upon topology alteration. A test case of distributed frequency control of islanded microgrid with various scenarios was conducted to validate the operation of proposed approach under controller and power hardware-in-the-loop environment, comprising prototypical hardware agent systems and realistic communications network. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sensitivity Assessment of Microgrid Investment Options to Guarantee Reliability of Power Supply in Rural Networks as an Alternative to Underground Cabling
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102831 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Microgrids could be utilized to improve the distribution network resiliency against weather-related network outages and increase the security of power supply of rural electricity consumers. Whereas underground cabling is expensive for the distribution system operator (DSO), an alternative microgrid investment could benefit the [...] Read more.
Microgrids could be utilized to improve the distribution network resiliency against weather-related network outages and increase the security of power supply of rural electricity consumers. Whereas underground cabling is expensive for the distribution system operator (DSO), an alternative microgrid investment could benefit the DSO and consumer, provided the necessary changes were made in the network regulation. A rural detached house customer microgrid is analysed in comparison to underground cabling, considering the uncertainties in the calculation parameters through a sensitivity analysis. Adequacy of the microgrid power supply during unexpected network outage for a reasonably long duration is assessed, as well as the economics of the feasible microgrid setup consisting of variable generation, controllable generation, and electric storage. The total costs and benefits for the DSO and consumer/prosumer are considered. A microgrid would likely be a more cost-efficient option overall, but not as-is for the consumer. The battery energy storage system (BESS)-related cost-sharing strategies are suggested in this paper in order to assess possible break-even investment solutions for the related parties. The sensitivities of the microgrid and cabling investments were considered in particular. Cost-sharing strategies under network regulatory framework would need to be developed further in order for both the consumer and DSO to benefit from the solution as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Loss Allocation in Smart Distribution Systems with Electric Vehicle Integration
Energies 2018, 11(8), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11081962 - 28 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents a three-phase loss allocation procedure for distribution networks. The key contribution of the paper is the computation of specific marginal loss coefficients (MLCs) per bus and per phase expressly considering non-linear load models for Electric Vehicles (EV). The method was [...] Read more.
This paper presents a three-phase loss allocation procedure for distribution networks. The key contribution of the paper is the computation of specific marginal loss coefficients (MLCs) per bus and per phase expressly considering non-linear load models for Electric Vehicles (EV). The method was applied in a unbalanced 12.47 kV feeder with 12,780 households and 1000 EVs under peak and off-peak load conditions. Results obtained were also compared with the traditional roll-in embedded allocation procedure (pro rata) using non-linear and standard constant power models. Results show the influence of the non-linear load model in the energy losses allocated. This result highlights the importance of considering an appropriate EV load model to appraise the overall losses encouraging the use and further development of the methodology Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Simulation of Smart Distribution Network Fault Management and Reconfiguration with LTE Communication
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061332 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Transition towards a smart grid requires network modernization based on the deployment of information and communication technologies for managing network operation and coordinating distributed energy resources in distribution systems. The success of the most advanced smart grid functionalities depends on the availability and [...] Read more.
Transition towards a smart grid requires network modernization based on the deployment of information and communication technologies for managing network operation and coordinating distributed energy resources in distribution systems. The success of the most advanced smart grid functionalities depends on the availability and quality of communication systems. Amongst the most demanding functionalities, those related to fault isolation, location and system restoration (FLISR) to obtain a self-healing smart grid are critical and require low latency communication systems, particularly in case of application to weakly-meshed operated networks. Simulation tools capable of capturing the interaction between communication and electrical systems are of outmost utility to check proper functioning of FLISR under different utilization conditions, to assess the expected improvements of Quality of Service, and to define minimum requirements of the communication system. In this context, this paper investigates the use of public mobile telecommunication system 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) for FLISR applications in both radially and weakly-meshed medium voltage (MV) distribution networks. This study makes use of a co-simulation software platform capable to consider power system dynamics. The results demonstrate that LTE can be used as communication medium for advanced fault location, extinction, and network reconfiguration in distribution networks. Furthermore, this paper shows that the reduction of performances with mobile background usage does not affect the system and does not cause delays higher than 100 ms, which is the maximum allowable for power system protections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Validation of Peer-to-Peer Distributed Voltage Control System
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051304 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper presents experimental validation of a distributed optimization-based voltage control system. The dual-decomposition method is used in this paper to solve the voltage optimization problem in a fully distributed way. Device-to-device communication is implemented to enable peer-to-peer data exchange between agents of [...] Read more.
This paper presents experimental validation of a distributed optimization-based voltage control system. The dual-decomposition method is used in this paper to solve the voltage optimization problem in a fully distributed way. Device-to-device communication is implemented to enable peer-to-peer data exchange between agents of the proposed voltage control system. The paper presents the design, development and hardware setup of a laboratory-based testbed used to validate the performance of the proposed dual-decomposition-based peer-to-peer voltage control. The architecture of the setup consists of four layers: microgrid, control, communication, and monitoring. The key question motivating this research was whether distributed voltage control systems are a technically effective alternative to centralized ones. The results discussed in this paper show that distributed voltage control systems can indeed provide satisfactory regulation of the voltage profiles. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Initialization and Synchronization of Power Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulations: A Great Britain Network Case Study
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051087 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The hardware under test (HUT) in a power hardware in the loop (PHIL) implementation can have a significant effect on overall system stability. In some cases, the system under investigation will be unstable unless the HUT is already connected and operating. Accordingly, initialization [...] Read more.
The hardware under test (HUT) in a power hardware in the loop (PHIL) implementation can have a significant effect on overall system stability. In some cases, the system under investigation will be unstable unless the HUT is already connected and operating. Accordingly, initialization of the real-time simulation can be difficult, and may lead to abnormal parameters of frequency and voltage. Therefore, a method to initialize the simulation appropriately without the HUT is proposed in this contribution. Once the initialization is accomplished a synchronization process is also proposed. The synchronization process depends on the selected method for initialization and therefore both methods need to be compatible. In this contribution, a recommended practice for the initialization of PHIL simulations for synchronous power systems is presented. Experimental validation of the proposed method for a Great Britain network case study demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed for Distribution Synchrophasor Applications
Energies 2018, 11(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040876 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
With the advent of Distribution Phasor Measurement Units (D-PMUs) and Micro-Synchrophasors (Micro-PMUs), the situational awareness in power distribution systems is going to the next level using time-synchronization. However, designing, analyzing, and testing of such accurate measurement devices are still challenging. Due to the [...] Read more.
With the advent of Distribution Phasor Measurement Units (D-PMUs) and Micro-Synchrophasors (Micro-PMUs), the situational awareness in power distribution systems is going to the next level using time-synchronization. However, designing, analyzing, and testing of such accurate measurement devices are still challenging. Due to the lack of available knowledge and sufficient history for synchrophasors’ applications at the power distribution level, the realistic simulation, and validation environments are essential for D-PMU development and deployment. This paper presents a vendor agnostic PMU real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-Loop (PMU-RTS-HIL) testbed, which helps in multiple PMUs validation and studies. The network of real and virtual PMUs was built in a full time-synchronized environment for PMU applications’ validation. The proposed testbed also includes an emulated communication network (CNS) layer to replicate bandwidth, packet loss and collisions conditions inherent to the PMUs data streams’ issues. Experimental results demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the developed PMU-RTS-HIL testbed by producing large amounts of measurements under typical normal and abnormal distribution grid operation conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economically Efficient Design of Market for System Services under the Web-of-Cells Architecture
Energies 2018, 11(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040729 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Significant power sector developments beyond 2020 will require changing our approach towards electricity balancing paradigms and architectures. Presently, new electricity balancing concepts are being developed. Implementation of these in practice will depend on their timeliness, consistency and adaptability to the market. With the [...] Read more.
Significant power sector developments beyond 2020 will require changing our approach towards electricity balancing paradigms and architectures. Presently, new electricity balancing concepts are being developed. Implementation of these in practice will depend on their timeliness, consistency and adaptability to the market. With the purpose of tailoring the concepts to practice, the development of a balancing market is of crucial importance. This article deals with this issue. It aims at developing of a high-level economically efficient market design for the procurement of system balancing products within the Web-of-Cells architecture. Literature and comparative analysis methods are applied to implement the aim. The analysis results show that a more efficient balancing capacity allocation process should be carried out in a competitive way with closer allocation time to real-time, especially with increased penetration of renewable energy sources. Bid time units, the timing of the market, procurement and remuneration schemes as well pricing mechanisms are the most decisive elements of the market. Their respective advantages and disadvantages are analyzed in the article, as well as their analysis is done against the selected assessment criteria. The results of the analysis show that seeking to improve the operational efficiency of the market, the sequential approach to the market organization should be selected and short-term market time units should be chosen. It is expected that price efficiency could be improved by establishing an organized market where standardized system balancing products should be traded. The balance service providers, who own capital expenditures (CAPEX) sensitive production units, should be remunerated both for the availability of balancing capacities and for their utilization. Uniform pricing rule and cascading procurement principal should be applied to improve the utilization efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Network Flow Model for Price-Responsive Control of Deferrable Load Profiles
Energies 2018, 11(3), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030613 - 09 Mar 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper describes a minimum cost network flow model for the aggregated control of deferrable load profiles. The load aggregator responds to indicative energy price information and uses this model to formulate and submit a flexibility bid to a high-resolution real-time balancing market, [...] Read more.
This paper describes a minimum cost network flow model for the aggregated control of deferrable load profiles. The load aggregator responds to indicative energy price information and uses this model to formulate and submit a flexibility bid to a high-resolution real-time balancing market, as proposed by the SmartNet project. This bid represents the possibility of the cluster of deferrable loads to deviate from the scheduled consumption, in case the bid is accepted. When formulating this bid, the model is able to take into account the discretized power profiles of the individual loads. The solution of this type of aggregation problems is necessary for the participation of small loads in demand response programs, but scalability can be an issue. The minimum cost network flow problem belongs to a restricted class of discrete optimization problems for which efficient and scalable algorithms exist. Thanks to its scalability, this technique can be useful in the control of a large number of smart appliances in future real-time balancing markets. The technique is efficient enough to be employed by an aggregation module with limited computational resources. Alternatively, when indicative price information is not made available by the system operator, the technique can be combined with an external forecast in order to minimize possible imbalance costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Multiple-Cell Based Power System
Energies 2018, 11(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020381 - 07 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper applies a robust optimization technique for coordinating reserve allocations in multiple-cell based power systems. The linear decision rules (LDR)-based policies were implemented to achieve the reserve robustness, and consist of a nominal power schedule with a series of linear modifications. The [...] Read more.
This paper applies a robust optimization technique for coordinating reserve allocations in multiple-cell based power systems. The linear decision rules (LDR)-based policies were implemented to achieve the reserve robustness, and consist of a nominal power schedule with a series of linear modifications. The LDR method can effectively adapt the participation factors of reserve providers to respond to system imbalance signals. The policies considered the covariance of historic system imbalance signals to reduce the overall reserve cost. When applying this method to the cell-based power system for a certain horizon, the influence of different time resolutions on policy-making is also investigated, which presents guidance for its practical application. The main results illustrate that: (a) the LDR-based method shows better performance, by producing smaller reserve costs compared to the costs given by a reference method; and (b) the cost index decreases with increased time intervals, however, longer intervals might result in insufficient reserves, due to low time resolution. On the other hand, shorter time intervals require heavy computational time. Thus, it is important to choose a proper time interval in real time operation to make a trade off. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Conceptual Structuration and Coupling Methods of Co-Simulation Frameworks in Cyber-Physical Energy System Validation
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121977 - 29 Nov 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Co-simulation is an emerging method for cyber-physical energy system (CPES) assessment and validation. Combining simulators of different domains into a joint experiment, co-simulation provides a holistic framework to consider the whole CPES at system level. In this paper, we present a systematic structuration [...] Read more.
Co-simulation is an emerging method for cyber-physical energy system (CPES) assessment and validation. Combining simulators of different domains into a joint experiment, co-simulation provides a holistic framework to consider the whole CPES at system level. In this paper, we present a systematic structuration of co-simulation based on a conceptual point of view. A co-simulation framework is then considered in its conceptual, semantic, syntactic, dynamic and technical layers. Coupling methods are investigated and classified according to these layers. This paper would serve as a solid theoretical base for specification of future applications of co-simulation and selection of coupling methods in CPES assessment and validation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Combined Approach Effectively Enhancing Traffic Performance for HSR Protocol in Smart Grids
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091356 - 08 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a very effectively filtering approach (EFA) to enhance network traffic performance for high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol in smart grids. The EFA combines a novel filtering technique for QuadBox rings (FQR) with two existing filtering techniques, including quick [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a very effectively filtering approach (EFA) to enhance network traffic performance for high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol in smart grids. The EFA combines a novel filtering technique for QuadBox rings (FQR) with two existing filtering techniques, including quick removing (QR) and port locking (PL), to effectively reduce redundant unicast traffic within HSR networks. The EFA filters unicast traffic for both unused terminal rings by using the PL technique and unused QuadBox rings based on the newly-proposed FQR technique. In addition, by using the QR technique, the EFA prevents the unicast frames from being duplicated and circulated in rings; the EFA thus significantly reduces redundant unicast traffic in HSR networks compared with the standard HSR protocol and existing traffic filtering techniques. The EFA also reduces control overhead compared with the filtering HSR traffic (FHT) technique. In this study, the performance of EFA was analyzed, evaluated, and compared to that of the standard HSR protocol and existing techniques, and various simulations were conducted to validate the performance analysis. The analytical and simulation results showed that for the sample networks, the proposed EFA reduced network unicast traffic by 80% compared with the standard HSR protocol and by 26–62% compared with existing techniques. The proposed EFA also reduced control overhead by up to 90% compared with the FHT, thus decreasing control overhead, freeing up network bandwidth, and improving network traffic performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Power-Frequency Characteristic Regulation in High-RES Power Systems
Energies 2017, 10(7), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070982 - 12 Jul 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Future power systems control will require large-scale activation of reserves at distribution level. Despite their high potential, distributed energy resources (DER) used for frequency control pose challenges due to unpredictability, grid bottlenecks, etc. To deal with these issues, this study presents a novel [...] Read more.
Future power systems control will require large-scale activation of reserves at distribution level. Despite their high potential, distributed energy resources (DER) used for frequency control pose challenges due to unpredictability, grid bottlenecks, etc. To deal with these issues, this study presents a novel strategy of power frequency characteristic dynamic adjustment based on the imbalance state. This way, the concerned operators become aware of the imbalance location but also a more accurate redistribution of responsibilities in terms of reserves activations is achieved. The proposed control is based on the concept of “cells” which are power systems with operating capabilities and responsibilities similar to control areas (CAs), but fostering the use of resources at all voltage levels, particularly distribution grids. Control autonomy of cells allows increased RES hosting. In this study, the power frequency characteristic of a cell is adjusted in real time by means of a fuzzy controller, which curtails part of the reserves, in order to avoid unnecessary deployment throughout a synchronous area, leading to a more localised activation and reducing losses, congestions and reserves exhaustion. Simulation tests in a four-cell reference power system prove that the controller significantly reduces the use of reserves without compromising the overall stability. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective
Energies 2019, 12(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
The continuously increasing complexity of modern and sustainable power and energy systems leads to a wide range of solutions developed by industry and academia. To manage such complex system-of-systems, proper engineering and validation approaches, methods, concepts, and corresponding tools are necessary. The Smart [...] Read more.
The continuously increasing complexity of modern and sustainable power and energy systems leads to a wide range of solutions developed by industry and academia. To manage such complex system-of-systems, proper engineering and validation approaches, methods, concepts, and corresponding tools are necessary. The Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM), an approach that has been developed during the last couple of years, provides a very good and structured basis for the design, development, and validation of new solutions and technologies. This review therefore provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and related work for the theory, distribution, and use of the aforementioned architectural concept. The article itself provides an overview of the overall method and introduces the theoretical fundamentals behind this approach. Its usage is demonstrated in several European and national research and development projects. Finally, an outlook about future trends, potential adaptations, and extensions is provided as well. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Operational Range of Several Interface Algorithms for Different Power Hardware-In-The-Loop Setups
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10121946 - 23 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
The importance of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) experiments is rising more and more over the last decade in the field of power system and components testing. Due to the bidirectional exchange between virtual and physical systems, a true-to-reality interface is essential; however, linking several [...] Read more.
The importance of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) experiments is rising more and more over the last decade in the field of power system and components testing. Due to the bidirectional exchange between virtual and physical systems, a true-to-reality interface is essential; however, linking several dynamic systems, stability issues can challenge the experiments, the components under test, and the individuals performing the experiments. Over the time, several interface algorithms (IA) have been developed and analyzed, each having different advantages and disadvantages in view of combining virtual simulations with physical power systems. Finally, IA are very specific to the kind of PHIL experiment. This paper investigates the operational range of several IA for specific PHIL setups by calculations, simulations, and measurements. Therefore, a selection of the mainly used respectively optimized IA is mathematically described. The operational range is verified in a PHIL system testing environment. Furthermore, in order to study the influence of different PHIL setups, according to software and hardware impedance, different tests using linear and switching amplifiers are performed. Full article
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