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Special Issue "Innovations in Cyber-Physical Infrastructures and Systems for Energy Sustainability in Smart Cities"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mashrur (Ronnie) Chowdhury

Eugene Douglas Mays Professor, Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Department of Automotive Engineering and International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR), Director, Intelligent Transportation Systems Laboratory Co-Director, Complex Systems, Analytics and Visualization Institute (CSAVI), Lead, Roadway and Traffic Group, Connected Vehicle Technology Consortium, Clemson University 216 Lowry Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 864-656-3313
Fax: 864-656-2670
Interests: connected vehicle and autonomous vehicle ecosystem; cyber-physical systems for smart cities
Guest Editor
Dr. Kakan Dey

Postdoctoral Fellow, Connected Vehicle Technology, Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, 216 Lowry Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
E-Mail
Phone: 313-523-0865
Fax: 864-656-2670
Interests: smart cities; conneted vehicle technologies; autonomous vehicles; risk analysis; multiobjective analysis; data analytics; heterogeneous wireless networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cities prosper when their infrastructures, specifically, the transportation, energy grid, water, and building infrastructures, are connected seamlessly with their people and services. To promote this prosperity, future smart cities must be connected through the Internet of Things (IoT) to ensure an efficient, productive, and secure infrastructure. In addition, the rapid innovations in sensor technologies, wireless connectivity, energy management technologies, alternative fuel technologies, and data analytics are now being studied as an effective solution to the energy sustainability problems. Such innovations are expected to connect people, infrastructures, devices, services, and vehicles within cities in new ways to further improve the efficiency of using conventional energy sources, while serving as a bridge to increase the wider usage of green energy technologies.

The theme of this Special Issue of Energies details the consolidation of innovative energy efficient solutions enabled by a connected smart city ecosystem. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

• Multidisciplinary design and analysis frameworks for interdependent smart city cyber-physical infrastructures;

• Interdependency modeling and simulation tools for smart city infrastructures;

• Risk assessment and management modeling for smart city ecosystem;

• Sustainability, resiliency and connectivity assessment framework for interdependent smart city cyber-physical infrastructures;

• Modeling of smart city ecosystem impacts on populations and workforces;

• Energy efficient transportation infrastructure and services for smart city energy sustainability;

• Adaptability of smart city infrastructures and people under extreme events due to climate change;

• Innovations in communication technologies for smart city sustainability and resilience;

• Big data analytics (i.e., data collection, processing and dissemination technologies) for smart city infrastructures;

• Alternative fuel vehicle technologies for sustainable transportation system for smart city;

• Impact of transportation system electrification and smart grid in smart city energy sustainability;

• Performance measures and evaluation of smart city efficiency; and

• Policy analysis models for mass adoption of potential technologies and systems for smart cities.

We welcome original research articles from researchers in public and private sectors for possible publication in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Mashrur (Ronnie) Chowdhury
Dr. Kakan Dey
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart cities
  • data analytics
  • sustainability
  • resiliency
  • connectivity
  • sustainable instrsucture
  • cyber-physical systems
  • energy grid
  • adaptability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Cyber Physical Model Based on a Hybrid System for Flexible Load Control in an Active Distribution Network
Energies 2017, 10(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030267
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS). The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which [...] Read more.
To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS). The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN) is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Business Model Evaluation Tool for Smart Cities: Application to SmartSantander Use Cases
Energies 2017, 10(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030262
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New technologies open up the door to multiple business models applied to public services in smart cities. However, there is not a commonly adopted methodology for evaluating business models in smart cities that can help both practitioners and researchers to choose the best [...] Read more.
New technologies open up the door to multiple business models applied to public services in smart cities. However, there is not a commonly adopted methodology for evaluating business models in smart cities that can help both practitioners and researchers to choose the best option. This paper addresses this gap introducing the Business Model Evaluation Tool for Smart Cities. This methodology is a simple, organized, flexible and the transparent system that facilitates the work of the evaluators of potential business models. It is useful to compare two or more business models and take strategic decisions promptly. The method is part of a previous process of content analysis and it is based on the widely utilized Business Model Canvas. The evaluation method has been assessed by 11 experts and, subsequently it has been validated applying it to the case studies of Santander’s waste management and street lighting systems, which take advantage of innovative technologies commonly used in smart cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Vulnerability Analysis of Cyber-Physical Power Systems Considering Network Topology and Power Flow Properties
Energies 2017, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010087
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional power systems are developing into cyber-physical power systems (CPPS) with wide applications of communication, computer and control technologies. However, multiple practical cases show that the failure of cyber layers is a major factor leading to blackouts. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss [...] Read more.
Conventional power systems are developing into cyber-physical power systems (CPPS) with wide applications of communication, computer and control technologies. However, multiple practical cases show that the failure of cyber layers is a major factor leading to blackouts. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the cascading failure process considering cyber layer failures and analyze the vulnerability of CPPS. In this paper, a CPPS model, which consists of cyber layer, physical layer and cyber-physical interface, is presented using complex network theory. Considering power flow properties, the impacts of cyber node failures on the cascading failure propagation process are studied. Moreover, two vulnerability indices are established from the perspective of both network structure and power flow properties. A vulnerability analysis method is proposed, and the CPPS performance before and after cascading failures is analyzed by the proposed method to calculate vulnerability indices. In the case study, three typical scenarios are analyzed to illustrate the method, and vulnerabilities under different interface strategies and attack strategies are compared. Two thresholds are proposed to value the CPPS vulnerability roughly. The results show that CPPS is more vulnerable under malicious attacks and cyber nodes with high indices are vulnerable points which should be reinforced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System
Energies 2016, 9(8), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080630
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances) in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic [...] Read more.
The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances) in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff
Energies 2016, 9(7), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070558
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indirect load control (ILC) is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU) tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, [...] Read more.
Indirect load control (ILC) is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU) tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS). However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE) gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1) the social welfare increases and (2) the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3) the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost-Benefit Analysis for Energy Management in Public Buildings: Four Italian Case Studies
Energies 2016, 9(7), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070522
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improving energy efficiency in public buildings is one of the main challenges for a sustainable requalification of energy issues and a consequent reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper aims to provide preliminary information about economic costs and energy consumption reductions (benefits) [...] Read more.
Improving energy efficiency in public buildings is one of the main challenges for a sustainable requalification of energy issues and a consequent reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper aims to provide preliminary information about economic costs and energy consumption reductions (benefits) of some considered interventions in existing public buildings. Methods include an analysis of some feasible interventions in four selected public buildings. Energy efficiency improvements have been assessed for each feasible intervention. The difference of the building global energy performance index (EPgl) has been assessed before and after each intervention. Economic costs of each intervention have been estimated by averaging the amount demanded by different companies for the same intervention. Results obtained show economic costs and the EPgl percentage improvement for each intervention, highlighting and allowing for the comparison of energy consumption reduction and relative economic costs. The research results come from data gathered from four public buildings, and as such they could not be used to generically identify cost-beneficial energy efficiency interventions for every context or building type. However, the data reveals useful cost based considerations for selecting energy efficiency interventions in other public buildings. Full article
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Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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