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Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017) | Viewed by 28861

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento Energia “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: integration of distributed resources in distribution systems; distribution system and microgrid optimization; power quality; multi-criteria decision making
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Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
Interests: power systems analysis; distribution system optimization; distributed generation; energy management; energy efficiency; power system reliability; microgrids optimization; cogeneration; multi-energy systems; distributed systems; energy systems, storage
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to introduce a Special Issue of Energies on "Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems" and to invite interested authors to upload original contributions on related topics. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect articles in which risk-related methods are formulated and applied to different contexts in the power and energy systems area.

In recent years, the methodologies used for analyzing various power and energy system problems have progressively evolved to include notions of uncertainty and risk. This evolution is bringing new ideas, or adapting concepts used in other technical and economic domains. The general mathematical notion of risk is well defined, however its application is strictly dependent on context. As such, the risk-related methods have to be customized to become fruitful in the specific domains. The application of advanced risk-based methods is also enriching the skills of researchers in adopting a multi-disciplinary view.

Extended phenomena, such as large blackouts or the effects of adverse events involving critical infrastructure, have raised awareness of a risk-based approach to security assessment, and also under dynamic conditions. The concept of risk is widely exploited in conjunction with notion of resilience in case of extreme events. Different types of analyses are carried out by following the traditional meaning of risk in financial terms, and are extended to the development of energy markets, to the procurement of reserve services, and to various applications needing some extent of decision-making. The formulation of risk-based approaches in energy planning is now quite common. However, further applications are emerging on the operational side, concerning the availability of renewable power resources, the inclusion of environmental aspects, and the operation of distribution systems and microgrids. A continuing redefinition of acceptable risk, depending on the evolution of technology and in the knowledge of potential hazards, are also in place in electrical safety applications and in the component and system design practices.

The main topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Risk-based power system security assessment
  • Risk of protection system failures
  • Critical events and system resilience
  • Risks of cascading outages
  • Risk aspects in power system economics
  • Risks in operational reserve procurement
  • Risk-based unit commitment and resource scheduling
  • Risk-based power and energy systems planning
  • Operational risks with renewable energy resources
  • Risk of islanding in distribution networks and microgrids
  • Advanced aspects considering risk in electrical safety applications
  • Environmental risks for power and energy systems
  • Risk-constrained decision making and optimization
  • Emergent applications of risk-related concepts to power and energy systems

We look forward to receiving valuable contributions.

Prof. Angela Russo
Prof. Gianfranco Chicco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

3964 KiB  
Article
A Risk-Based Methodology and Tool Combining Threat Analysis and Power System Security Assessment
by Emanuele Ciapessoni, Diego Cirio, Andrea Pitto, Pietro Marcacci, Matteo Lacavalla, Stefano Massucco, Federico Silvestro and Marino Sforna
Energies 2018, 11(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010083 - 30 Dec 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
A thorough investigation of power system security requires the analysis of the vulnerabilities to natural and man-related threats which potentially trigger multiple contingencies. In particular, extreme weather events are becoming more and more frequent due to climate changes and often cause large load [...] Read more.
A thorough investigation of power system security requires the analysis of the vulnerabilities to natural and man-related threats which potentially trigger multiple contingencies. In particular, extreme weather events are becoming more and more frequent due to climate changes and often cause large load disruptions on the system, thus the support for security enhancement gets tricky. Exploiting data coming from forecasting systems in a security assessment environment can help assess the risk of operating power systems subject to the disturbances provoked by the weather event itself. In this context, the paper proposes a security assessment methodology, based on an updated definition of risk suitable for power system risk evaluations. Big data analytics can be useful to get an accurate model for weather-related threats. The relevant software (SW) platform integrates the security assessment methodology with prediction systems which provide short term forecasts of the threats affecting the system. The application results on a real wet snow threat scenario in the Italian High Voltage grid demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to conventional security approaches, by complementing the conventional “N − 1” security criterion and exploiting big data to link the security assessment phase to the analysis of incumbent threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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1894 KiB  
Article
Estimation for Expected Energy Not Served of Power Systems Using the Screening Methodology of Cascading Outages in South Korea
by Bokyung Goo and Jin Hur
Energies 2018, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010081 - 29 Dec 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
The uncertainty of complex power systems increases the possibility of large blackouts due to the expectations of physical events, such as equipment failures, protection failures, control actions failure, operator error, and cyber-attacks. Cascading outage is a sequence of dependent failures of individual components [...] Read more.
The uncertainty of complex power systems increases the possibility of large blackouts due to the expectations of physical events, such as equipment failures, protection failures, control actions failure, operator error, and cyber-attacks. Cascading outage is a sequence of dependent failures of individual components that successively weaken the power system. A procedure to identify and evaluate the initiating events and perform sequential cascading analysis is needed. In this paper, we propose a new screening methodology based on sequential contingency simulation of cascading outages, including probabilistic analysis and visualization model. Performance of a detail cascading analysis using practical power systems is suggested and discussed. The proposed screening methodology will play a key role in identifying the uncontrolled successive loss of system elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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2777 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Complementarity between Variable Generation Resources and Load on the Flexibility of the Korean Power System
by Chang-Gi Min and Mun-Kyeom Kim
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111719 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
This study examines the effect of the complementarity between the variable generation resources (VGRs) and the load on the flexibility of the power system. The complementarity may change the ramping capability requirement, and thereby, the flexibility. This effect is quantified using a flexibility [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of the complementarity between the variable generation resources (VGRs) and the load on the flexibility of the power system. The complementarity may change the ramping capability requirement, and thereby, the flexibility. This effect is quantified using a flexibility index called the ramping capability shortage expectation (RSE). The flexibility is evaluated for different VGR mix scenarios under the same VGR penetration level, and an optimal VGR mix (i.e., one that maximizes flexibility) is obtained. The effect of the complementarity of the wind and PV outputs on the flexibility is investigated for the peak-load day of 2016 for the Korean power system. The result shows that the RSE value for the optimal VGR mix scenario is 6.95% larger than that for the original mix scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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2238 KiB  
Article
Risk-Based Bi-Level Model for Simultaneous Profit Maximization of a Smart Distribution Company and Electric Vehicle Parking Lot Owner
by S. Muhammad Bagher Sadati, Jamal Moshtagh, Miadreza Shafie-khah and João P. S. Catalão
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111714 - 26 Oct 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3705
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of renewable energy resources (RERs), demand response (DR) programs and electric vehicles (EVs) is evaluated on the optimal operation of a smart distribution company (SDISCO) in the form of a new bi-level model. According to the existence of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of renewable energy resources (RERs), demand response (DR) programs and electric vehicles (EVs) is evaluated on the optimal operation of a smart distribution company (SDISCO) in the form of a new bi-level model. According to the existence of private electric vehicle parking lots (PLs) in the network, the aim of both levels is to maximize the profits of SDISCO and the PL owners. Furthermore, due to the uncertainty of RERs and EVs, the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) method is applied in order to limit the risk of expected profit. The model is transformed into a linear single-level model by the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions and tested on the IEEE 33-bus distribution system over a 24-h period. The results show that by using a proper charging/discharging schedule, as well as a time of use program, SDISCO gains more profit. Furthermore, by increasing the risk aversion parameter, this profit is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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3853 KiB  
Article
Flexibility-Based Reserve Scheduling of Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage in Korea
by Chang-Gi Min and Mun-Kyeom Kim
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101478 - 24 Sep 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3882
Abstract
The high penetration of renewable energy resources has made it harder to secure a flexible power system. Accordingly, this has become an issue in operating power systems. As a possible solution, pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) has received much attention because of its [...] Read more.
The high penetration of renewable energy resources has made it harder to secure a flexible power system. Accordingly, this has become an issue in operating power systems. As a possible solution, pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) has received much attention because of its fast start-up and ramp characteristics. This study proposes a flexibility-based reserve scheduling method for PHES. In this method, the reserve scheduling of PHES was conducted to improve flexibility; the associated risk index was termed the ramping capability shortage expectation (RSE). The peak-load days in 2016 and 2029 were selected to examine the applicability and performance of the proposed method. Results indicate that the proposed method can improve the flexibility by 4.45% for 2016 and 0.9% for 2029, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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5687 KiB  
Article
Global Gust Climate Evaluation and Its Influence on Wind Turbines
by Christopher Jung, Dirk Schindler, Alexander Buchholz and Jessica Laible
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101474 - 23 Sep 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4953
Abstract
Strong gusts negatively affect wind turbines in many ways. They (1) harm their structural safety; (2) reduce their wind energy output; and (3) lead to a shorter wind turbine rotor blade fatigue life. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a [...] Read more.
Strong gusts negatively affect wind turbines in many ways. They (1) harm their structural safety; (2) reduce their wind energy output; and (3) lead to a shorter wind turbine rotor blade fatigue life. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a global assessment of the gust climate, considering its influence on wind turbines. The gust characteristics analyzed were: (1) the gust speed return values for 30, 50 and 100 years; (2) the share of gust speed exceedances of cut-out speed; and (3) the gust factor. In order to consider the seasonal variation of gust speed, gust characteristics were evaluated on a monthly basis. The global monthly wind power density was simulated and geographical restrictions were applied to highlight gust characteristics in areas that are generally suitable for wind turbine installation. Gust characteristics were computed based on ERA-interim data on a 1° × 1° spatial resolution grid. After comprehensive goodness-of-fit evaluation of 12 theoretical distributions, Wakeby distribution was used to compute gust speed return values. Finally, the gust characteristics were integrated into the newly developed wind turbine gust index. It was found that the Northeastern United States and Southeast Canada, Newfoundland, the southern tip of South America, and Northwestern Europe are most negatively affected by the impacts of gusts. In regions where trade winds dominate, such as eastern Brazil, the Sahara, southern parts of Somalia, and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the gust climate is well suitable for wind turbine installation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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2244 KiB  
Article
Net Load Carrying Capability of Generating Units in Power Systems
by Chang-Gi Min and Mun-Kyeom Kim
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081221 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4776
Abstract
This paper proposes an index called net load carrying capability (NLCC) to evaluate the contribution of a generating unit to the flexibility of a power system. NLCC is defined as the amount by which the load can be increased when a generating unit [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an index called net load carrying capability (NLCC) to evaluate the contribution of a generating unit to the flexibility of a power system. NLCC is defined as the amount by which the load can be increased when a generating unit is added to the system, while still maintaining the flexibility of the system. This index is based on the flexibility index termed ramping capability shortage expectation (RSE), which has been used to quantify the risk associated with system flexibility. This paper argues that NLCC is more effective than effective load carrying capability (ELCC) in quantifying the contribution of the generating unit to flexibility. This is explained using an illustrative example. A case study has been performed with a modified IEEE-RTS-96 to confirm the applicability of the NLCC index. The simulation results demonstrate the effect of operating conditions such as operating point and ramp rate on NLCC, and show which kind of unit is more helpful in terms of flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Based Methods Applied to Power and Energy Systems)
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