energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Aviation and Maritime Sustainable Fuels

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "I1: Fuel".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2021) | Viewed by 11083

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
DENERG-Department of Energy “Galileo Ferraris”, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy
Interests: hydrothermal carbonization and liquefaction; pyrolysis; biocrude upgrading; biochar and biochar-derived product characterization and use; bio- and thermochemical process integration; biofuels and bioproducts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
Interests: new thermochemical conversion concepts and the use of their products for fuels, materials and chemical production; special interest in bio-oil and biochar chemistry and uses, jet fuels, hydrotreatment and biorefinery synthesis analysis

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
Interests: hydrothermal liquefaction; sustainable aviation fuel; developing new catalysts and processes for conversion of a variety of low-cost feedstocks to fuels and chemicals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
Interests: sustainable aviation fuel; marine fuel; developing heterogeneous catalysts for producing renewable fuels and chemicals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstræde 111, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: biofuels; thermochemical processes; hydrothermal liquefaction; catalytic upgrading; circular use of resources; sector-coupling technologies; green carbon pathways
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aviation and marine industries have committed to carbon-neutral growth. Unlike light-duty vehicles, the low energy density of even the best batteries severely limits opportunities for the electrification of the airline and marine sectors. While many are working on electrification, in the near- to mid-term period, the aviation and marine sectors will have no alternative but to use sustainable aviation and marine fuel to operate in a GHG-emission-constrained future. 

Aviation and maritime, key components of the transport fuel area, will thus be pillars of future sustainable energy scenarios and thus prioritized in policymaking, being the most difficult sectors to electrify. These applications, however, present very peculiar and different technological and economical challenges, and often involve additional processes such as product separation, mixing and/or upgrading.

A variety of technologies and processes are currently under development for producing sustainable aviation, marine and heavy-duty transportation fuels, and one of the promising technologies is the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass and/or low-cost wet waste and residual feedstocks.

Institutions across the globe are conducting research and development on HTL technology at scales varying from the laboratory to demonstration. The identification of more advanced and sustainable solutions to maximize the final fuel yield while targeting cost parity with conventional fuels is the major focus in developing HTL technology.

In addition to fuel, the HTL process produces an aqueous phase containing oxygenates such as ethanol at very dilute concentrations, a solid phase containing residual oil and nutrients such as phosphorous, and a gas phase containing concentrated carbon dioxide. Thus, the successful development of HTL technology requires a fundamental and applied-level understanding of utilizing all the phases of the products for improving the sustainability and overall economics of this process, in a full biorefining approach.

This Special Issue aims at investigating HTL technologies and processes, as well as the economic aspects of these sustainable fuel value chains. The submission of research work on new insights into, ideas for, case studies of and assessments of HTL is welcome, to provide an updated view on this process.

Prof. Dr. David Chiaramonti
Prof. Dr. Manuel Garcia-Pérez
Dr. Jonhathan Holladay
Dr. Karthikeyan K. Ramasamy
Prof. Dr. Lasse Rosendahl
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrothermal liquefaction
  • sustainable aviation fuel
  • sustainable marine fuels
  • biocrudes
  • upgrading and refining
  • catalysts and catalytic processes for HTL biocrudes
  • technoeconomic assessments
  • LCA studies of HTL value chains

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

17 pages, 2204 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Aviation Fuel from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wet Wastes
by Dylan J. Cronin, Senthil Subramaniam, Casper Brady, Alan Cooper, Zhibin Yang, Joshua Heyne, Corinne Drennan, Karthikeyan K. Ramasamy and Michael R. Thorson
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041306 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4859
Abstract
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses heat and pressure to liquefy the organic matter in biomass/waste feedstocks to produce biocrude. When hydrotreated the biocrude is converted into transportation fuels including sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Further, by liquifying the organic matter in wet wastes such as [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses heat and pressure to liquefy the organic matter in biomass/waste feedstocks to produce biocrude. When hydrotreated the biocrude is converted into transportation fuels including sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Further, by liquifying the organic matter in wet wastes such as sewage sludge, manure, and food waste, HTL can prevent landfilling or other disposal methods such as anerobic digestion, or incineration. A significant roadblock to the development of a new route for SAF is the strict approval process, and the large volumes required (>400 L) for testing. Tier α and β testing can predict some of the properties required for ASTM testing with <400 mL samples. The current study is the first to investigate the potential for utilizing wet-waste HTL biocrude (WWHTLB) as an SAF feedstock. Herein, several WWHTLB samples were produced from food waste, sewage sludge, and fats, oils, and grease, and subsequently hydrotreated and distilled to produce SAF samples. The fuels (both undistilled and distilled samples) were analyzed via elemental and 2D-GC-MS. Herein, we report the Tier α and β analysis of an SAF sample derived originally from a WWHTLB. The results of this work indicate that the upgraded WWHTLB material exhibits key fuel properties, including carbon number distribution, distillation profile, surface tension, density, viscosity, heat of combustion, and flash point, which all fall within the required range for aviation fuel. WWHTLB has therefore been shown to be a promising candidate feedstock for the production of SAF. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 5190 KiB  
Article
Blending of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude with Residual Marine Fuel: An Experimental Assessment
by Andrea Maria Rizzo and David Chiaramonti
Energies 2022, 15(2), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020450 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
As with all transport modes, the maritime sector is undergoing a drastic transition towards net zero, similar to the path in which Aviation is already engaged through global decarbonization programs such as CORSIA for the International Civil Aviation Organization, or the Emission trading [...] Read more.
As with all transport modes, the maritime sector is undergoing a drastic transition towards net zero, similar to the path in which Aviation is already engaged through global decarbonization programs such as CORSIA for the International Civil Aviation Organization, or the Emission trading Scheme of the European Union). Maritime indeed shares with Aviation a common element: the difficulty of shifting to electric in the short to medium term. Therefore, the use of sustainable fuels represents the main and only relevant option in this timeframe. As sustainable biofuels will be used as blend components in the case of large-scale deployment, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of bio- and fossil-based fuels when mixed in various percentages, in particular for low quality products such as HTL (HydroThermal Liquefaction) and fast pyrolysis oils from lignocellulosic biomass and waste. Biocrude from subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of undigested sewage sludge, produced at reaction conditions of 350 °C and 200 bar in a continuous HTL pilot scale unit, was manually mixed at 70 °C with residual marine fuel (low-sulphur type F-RMG-380 per ISO 8217) at two different nominal biocrude shares, respectively 10 wt.% and 20 wt.% in the mixture. While the former blend resulted in the technically complete dissolution of biocrude in the fossil component, the latter sample formed biocrude agglomerates and only partial dissolution of the biocrude aliquot in marine fuel could be achieved (calculated between 14–16 wt.%). The blend with 10 wt.% of SS biocrude in the mixture resulted in compliance with limits of total acid number (TAN), inorganics (in particular vanadium, sodium, silicon and aluminum) and sulphur content, while only the ash content was slightly above the limit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 12654 KiB  
Article
Bio-Crude Production from Protein-Extracted Grass Residue through Hydrothermal Liquefaction
by Saqib Sohail Toor, Ayaz Ali Shah, Kamaldeep Sharma, Tahir Hussain Seehar, Thomas Helmer Pedersen and Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl
Energies 2022, 15(1), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010364 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
In the present study, the protein-extracted grass residue (press cake) was processed through hydrothermal liquefaction under sub and supercritical temperatures (300, 350 and 400 °C) with and without using a potassium carbonate catalyst. The results revealed that bio-crude yield was influenced by both [...] Read more.
In the present study, the protein-extracted grass residue (press cake) was processed through hydrothermal liquefaction under sub and supercritical temperatures (300, 350 and 400 °C) with and without using a potassium carbonate catalyst. The results revealed that bio-crude yield was influenced by both temperature and the catalyst. The catalyst was found to be effective at 350 °C (350 Cat) for enhancing the bio-crude yield, whereas supercritical state in both catalytic and non-catalytic conditions improved the quality of bio-crude with reasonable HHVs (33 to 36 MJ/kg). The thermal behaviour of bio-crude was analysed and higher volatile contents (more than 50% under the range of 350 °C) were found at supercritical conditions. The overall TOC values in the residual aqueous phase varied from 22 to 38 g/L. Higher carbon loss was noticed in the aqueous phase in supercritical conditions. Furthermore, GCMS analysis showed ketones, acids and ester, aromatics and hydrocarbon with negligible nitrogen-containing compounds in bio-crude. In conclusion, the catalytic conversion of grass residue under subcritical conditions (350 Cat) is favourable in terms of high bio-crude yield, however, supercritical conditions promote the deoxygenation of oxygen-containing compounds in biomass and thus improve HHVs of bio-crude. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop