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Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 13737

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester, C9 Ferranti Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: electrical energy and power systems; electric power distribution systems; electrical machines

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Guest Editor
MCAST Energy Research Group, Institute of Engineering and Transport, Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST), Corradino Hill, Paola, Malta
Interests: operational research; systems optimisation; energy economics; electrical power; electric mobility; photovoltaics integration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I trust you are well and staying safe. As The Guest Editor for the upcoming Special Issue of Energies on the subject of "Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems", I am inviting submissions in the area of emerging PV technologies and systems. The last two decades have witnessed dramatic developments in PV technologies and their uptake. Prices have come down, the products are more robust, and PV technology is now mainstream. Research and development nevertheless continue apace, with new materials such as perovskites being discovered and techniques to improve the efficiency of existing PV technologies also being pursued.

This Special Issue will focus on emerging PV technologies and systems for application in diverse areas ranging from building-integrated systems to grid-scale PV (mini, micro, and utility). Submissions on techno-economic aspects, technical readiness level, as well as the sustainability of the technologies will be particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Joseph Mutale
Dr. Brian Azzopardi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Photovoltaic systems
  • Self-consumption
  • Prosumers
  • Emerging PV technologies
  • Conversion efficiency
  • Lifetime
  • Sustainability
  • Levelized and life-cycle costs

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3781 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Photovoltaics in Low-Voltage Distribution Networks: A Case Study in Malta
by Yesbol Gabdullin and Brian Azzopardi
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186731 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Photovoltaic systems (PVs) are promising low-carbon technologies playing a major role in the electricity business. In terms of voltage variation and feeder usage capacity, high PV penetration levels have significant technical implications for grid stability, particularly in Low Voltage (LV) networks. This paper [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic systems (PVs) are promising low-carbon technologies playing a major role in the electricity business. In terms of voltage variation and feeder usage capacity, high PV penetration levels have significant technical implications for grid stability, particularly in Low Voltage (LV) networks. This paper presents a comprehensive PV integration analysis on real-life residential LV networks in Malta using recorded smart metering data. The methodology framework and tools developed are highlighted through step-by-step results on their usefulness. First, at the substation level, an LV network with seven LV feeders is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations and OpenDSS. Then, Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) are extracted to establish the likelihood of LV network challenges. Afterwards, 95 multi-feeder analyses assess the impact assessment on the first occurrence of LV network challenges and predominant issues. Finally, a Regression Analysis Tool, considering the regression’s standard error, is built for seven feeder characteristics to predict the impacts. The stochastic processes reveal strong relationships with feeder characteristics that are helpful for network planning and operations. However, the Maltese grid currently has less than 20% PV penetration at any LV feeder. Hence, significant technological hurdles are absent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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21 pages, 8602 KiB  
Article
A Novel TSA-PSO Based Hybrid Algorithm for GMPP Tracking under Partial Shading Conditions
by Abhishek Sharma, Abhinav Sharma, Vibhu Jately, Moshe Averbukh, Shailendra Rajput and Brian Azzopardi
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093164 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
In this paper, a new hybrid TSA-PSO algorithm is proposed that combines tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for efficient maximum power extraction from a photovoltaic (PV) system subjected to partial shading conditions (PSCs). The performance of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new hybrid TSA-PSO algorithm is proposed that combines tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for efficient maximum power extraction from a photovoltaic (PV) system subjected to partial shading conditions (PSCs). The performance of the proposed algorithm was enhanced by incorporating the PSO algorithm, which improves the exploitation capability of TSA. The response of the proposed TSA-PSO-based MPPT was investigated by performing a detailed comparative study with other recently published MPPT algorithms, such as tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), grey wolf optimization (GWO), flower pollination algorithm (FPA), and perturb and observe (P&O). A quantitative and qualitative analysis was carried out based on three distinct partial shading conditions. It was observed that the proposed TSA-PSO technique had remarkable success in locating the maximum power point and had quick convergence at the global maximum power point. The presented TSA-PSO MPPT algorithm achieved a PV tracking efficiency of 97.64%. Furthermore, two nonparametric tests, Friedman ranking and Wilcoxon rank-sum, were also employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed TSA-PSO MPPT method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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21 pages, 4094 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Generation Scheduling of Insular Grids with High Penetration of Photovoltaic and Battery Energy Storage Systems: South Andaman Island Case Study
by Leena Heistrene, Brian Azzopardi, Amit Vilas Sant and Poonam Mishra
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072612 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Insular grids are fragile owing to lower inertia and the absence of interconnection with other grids. With the increasing penetration of non-dispatchable renewable energy sources, the vulnerability of such insular grids increases further. The government of India has proposed several projects to improve [...] Read more.
Insular grids are fragile owing to lower inertia and the absence of interconnection with other grids. With the increasing penetration of non-dispatchable renewable energy sources, the vulnerability of such insular grids increases further. The government of India has proposed several projects to improve the photovoltaic systems (PV) penetration in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands’ grid. This paper investigates joint stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve generation for insular grids fed from diesel and gas-based generators, PV, and battery energy storage systems (BESS). The proposed stochastic scheduling model considers a wide range of probabilistic forecast scenarios instead of a deterministic model that assumes a single-point forecast. Hence, it provides an optimal solution that is technically feasible for a wide range of PV power forecast scenarios. The striking feature of the model developed in this work is the inclusion of stochastic constraints that represent (i) the coordination between PV and BESS, (ii) reserve constraints, (iii) battery charging/discharging limit constraints, and (iv) non-anticipatory constraints that ensure technical viability of scheduling decisions. The proposed model is validated on the dataset for South Andaman Island. Results reveal the applicability and feasibility of the proposed stochastic dispatch model for different generation mix scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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19 pages, 3395 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Protection Scheme Based Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination Strategy for RE Integrated Power Distribution Grid
by Aayush Shrivastava, Abhishek Sharma, Manjaree Pandit, Vibhu Jately and Brian Azzopardi
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7192; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217192 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
A directional overcurrent relay is commonly used to protect the power distribution networks of a distributed system. The selection of the appropriate settings for the relays is an important component of the protection strategies used to isolate the faulty parts of the system. [...] Read more.
A directional overcurrent relay is commonly used to protect the power distribution networks of a distributed system. The selection of the appropriate settings for the relays is an important component of the protection strategies used to isolate the faulty parts of the system. The rapid growth of distributed generation (DG) systems present new challenges to these protection schemes. The effect of solar photovoltaic power plants on relay coordination is studied initially in this research work. A protection strategy was formulated to guarantee that the increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) plants does not affect the relay coordination time. This paper addresses these issues associated with a high penetration of DG through the use of a hybrid protection scheme. The protection strategy is divided into two parts. The first part is based on an optimal fault current limiter value estimated with respect to constraints and the optimal time multiplier setting, and then the coordination time interval is estimated with respect to constraint in Part II. The results of these analyses show that a hybrid protection scheme can effectively handle the complexity of distributed generation (DG) and dynamic relay coordination problems. In this research, three optimization algorithms have been used for calculating the estimated value of impedance fault current limiter (Zfcl) and time multiplier setting (TMS). The response time of hybrid protection schemes is very important. If the computational time of their proposed algorithms is less than their actual computational time, then their response time to address the issue is also less. The performance in all algorithms was identified to arrive at a conclusion that the grey wolf optimized algorithm (GWO) algorithm can substantially reduce the computational time needed to implement hybrid protection algorithms. The GWO algorithm takes a computational time of 0.946 s, achieving its feasible solution in less than 1 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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32 pages, 14342 KiB  
Article
Design and Performance Investigation of a Pilot Micro-Grid in the Mediterranean: MCAST Case Study
by Vibhu Jately, Balaji Venkateswaran V., Stefan Azzopardi and Brian Azzopardi
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6846; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206846 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2555
Abstract
This paper discusses the simulation framework developed for an in-campus pilot micro-grid at MCAST, Malta, to enhance its efficiency and reliability. One year of real-time metered data were used to arrive at the load curves, categorize the loads as essential and non-essential ones, [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the simulation framework developed for an in-campus pilot micro-grid at MCAST, Malta, to enhance its efficiency and reliability. One year of real-time metered data were used to arrive at the load curves, categorize the loads as essential and non-essential ones, and decide the micro-grid domain within MCAST. The potential scenarios were modeled to observe the behavior of the present status of the micro-grid, with an increased photovoltaic (PV) generation capacity, by using an optimum battery storage system with a diesel generator of suitable capacity and finally integrating electric vehicles (EVs) to discuss the potential of vehicle to grid (V2G) operation modes. The existing building management system (BMS) of MCAST was interfaced within the micro-grid to introduce the geographic information system (GIS) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) for developing an intelligent 3D model of the micro-grid. The results of the simulation framework for various potential case scenarios were obtained in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to assess the performance of the micro-grid. Previously formulated key performance indices (KPIs) that describe the financial aspects of micro-grid operation and ecological benefits of the investigated micro-grid were evaluated. A sensitivity analysis of these KPIs shows encouraging results with the potential of cost-competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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19 pages, 16155 KiB  
Article
High-Power Closed-Loop SMPC-Based Photovoltaic System Characterization under Varying Ambient Conditions
by Pallavi Bharadwaj and Vinod John
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5296; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175296 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Photovoltaic energy generation potential can be tapped with maximum efficacy by characterizing the source behaviour. Characterization refers to the systematic terminal measurement-based PV modeling which can further facilitate output prediction and fault detection. Most of the existing PV characterization methods fail for high-power [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic energy generation potential can be tapped with maximum efficacy by characterizing the source behaviour. Characterization refers to the systematic terminal measurement-based PV modeling which can further facilitate output prediction and fault detection. Most of the existing PV characterization methods fail for high-power PV array due to increased thermal losses in electronic components. Here, we propose a switched-mode power converter-based PV characterization setup which is designed with input filter to limit switching ripple entering into PV array under test, thereby enhancing system life and efficiency. The high resonant frequency input filter ensures its compactness with high-speed characterization capability. To further enhance the system performance, a closed-loop current control of the system is designed for high bandwidth and stable phase margins. Variation of the controller parameters under varying ambient conditions of 200–1000 W/m2 irradiation and 25–70 °C temperature is documented and an adaptive PI controller is proposed. Experimental and simulation results validate the high performance of the closed loop operation of the PV characterization at 1.2 kW range power level in real-time field conditions. Compared to the open loop operation, the closed-loop operation eliminates the waveform ringing by 100% during characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Integration of Photovoltaic Systems)
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