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Special Issue "Development of Unconventional Reservoirs"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Geo-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Reza Rezaee

WA School of Mines: Minerals, Energy and Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: formation evaluation; petrophysics; unconventional gas (tight gas sand and shale gas); reservoir characterization and modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need for energy is increasing, and at the same time production from conventional reservoirs is declining quickly. This requires an economically and technically feasible source of energy for the coming years. Among some alternative future energy solutions, the most approachable source is from unconventional reservoirs. As the name “unconventional” implies it requires a different and challenging approach to characterize and to develop such a resource. This Special Issue will attempt to cover the most pressing technical challenges for developing unconventional energy sources from shale gas, shale oil, tight gas sand, coalbed methane, and gas hydrates.

Topics of interest for publication in this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Reservoir characterization of unconventional plays;
  • Petrophysical and well–log interpretation challenges of unconventional reservoirs;
  • Geomechanical and drilling aspects of unconventional reservoirs;
  • Hydraulic fracturing challenges;
  • Rock physics analysis of unconventional reservoirs;
  • Completion, reservoir management, and surveillance of unconventional reservoirs;
  • Unconventional reservoirs’ environmental issues and challenges.

Prof. Reza Rezaee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • unconventional reservoirs
  • shale gas and oil
  • tight gas sand
  • coal bed methane
  • gas hydrates

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Porosity and Pore Structure Assessment in Shales: Measurement Techniques, Influencing Factors and Implications for Reservoir Characterization
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112094
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Porosity and pore size distribution (PSD) are essential petrophysical parameters controlling permeability and storage capacity in shale gas reservoirs. Various techniques to assess pore structure have been introduced; nevertheless, discrepancies and inconsistencies exist between each of them. This study compares the porosity and [...] Read more.
Porosity and pore size distribution (PSD) are essential petrophysical parameters controlling permeability and storage capacity in shale gas reservoirs. Various techniques to assess pore structure have been introduced; nevertheless, discrepancies and inconsistencies exist between each of them. This study compares the porosity and PSD in two different shale formations, i.e., the clay-rich Permian Carynginia Formation in the Perth Basin, Western Australia, and the clay-poor Monterey Formation in San Joaquin Basin, USA. Porosity and PSD have been interpreted based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), low-pressure N2 gas adsorption (LP-N2-GA), mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) and helium expansion porosimetry. The results highlight NMR with the advantage of detecting the full-scaled size of pores that are not accessible by MICP, and the ineffective/closed pores occupied by clay bound water (CBW) that are not approachable by other penetration techniques (e.g., helium expansion, low-pressure gas adsorption and MICP). The NMR porosity is largely discrepant with the helium porosity and the MICP porosity in clay-rich Carynginia shales, but a high consistency is displayed in clay-poor Monterey shales, implying the impact of clay contents on the distinction of shale pore structure interpretations between different measurements. Further, the CBW, which is calculated by subtracting the measured effective porosity from total porosity, presents a good linear correlation with the clay content (R2 = 0.76), implying that our correlated equation is adaptable to estimate the CBW in shale formations with the dominant clay type of illite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Volumetric Measurements of Methane-Coal Adsorption and Desorption Isotherms—Effects of Equations of State and Implication for Initial Gas Reserves
Energies 2019, 12(10), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102022
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
This study presents the effects of equations of state (EOSs) on methane adsorption capacity, sorption hysteresis and initial gas reserves of a medium volatile bituminous coal. The sorption experiments were performed, at temperatures of 25 °C and 40 °C and up to 7MPa [...] Read more.
This study presents the effects of equations of state (EOSs) on methane adsorption capacity, sorption hysteresis and initial gas reserves of a medium volatile bituminous coal. The sorption experiments were performed, at temperatures of 25 °C and 40 °C and up to 7MPa pressure, using a high-pressure volumetric analyzer (HPVA-II). The measured isotherms were parameterized with the modified (three-parameter) Langmuir model. Gas compressibility factors were calculated using six popular equations of state and the results were compared with those obtained using gas compressibility factors from NIST-Refprop® (which implies McCarty and Arp’s EOS for Z-factor of helium and Setzmann and Wagner’s EOS for that of methane). Significant variations were observed in the resulting isotherms and associated model parameters with EOS. Negligible hysteresis was observed with NIST-refprop at both experimental temperatures, with the desorption isotherm being slightly lower than the adsorption isotherm at 25 °C. Compared to NIST-refprop, it was observed that equations of state that gave lower values of Z-factor for methane resulted in “positive hysteresis”, (one in which the desorption isotherm is above the corresponding adsorption curve) and the more negatively deviated the Z-factors are, the bigger the observed hysteresis loop. Conversely, equations of state that gave positively deviated Z-factors of methane relatively produced “negative hysteresis” loops where the desorption isotherms are lower than the corresponding adsorption isotherms. Adsorbed gas accounted for over 90% of the calculated original gas in place (OGIP) and the larger the Langmuir volume, the larger the proportion of OGIP that was adsorbed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Evaluation of a Surfactant–Mixed Metal Hydroxide-Based Drilling Fluid for Maintaining Wellbore Stability in Coal Measure Strata
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101862
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Co-exploitation of coal measure gases (coalbed gas, shale gas, and tight sandstone gas) puts a higher requirement on drilling fluids. Conventional drilling fluids have disadvantages, such as causing problems of borehole collapse, formation damage, and water blockage. This paper proposes a set of [...] Read more.
Co-exploitation of coal measure gases (coalbed gas, shale gas, and tight sandstone gas) puts a higher requirement on drilling fluids. Conventional drilling fluids have disadvantages, such as causing problems of borehole collapse, formation damage, and water blockage. This paper proposes a set of high inhibitive and low-damage drilling fluids that function by electrical inhibition and neutral wetting. Zeta potential results showed that the negative electrical property of Longtan coal in Bijie, Guizhou, can be reversed by organic mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) and the cationic surfactant alkyl trimethylammonium bromide (CS-5) from −3.63 mV to 19.75 mV and 47.25 mV, respectively. Based on the contact angle and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) results, it can be concluded that chemical adsorption dominates between the Longmaxi shale and surfactants, and physical adsorption between the Longtan coal and surfactants. A compound surfactant formula (0.001 wt% CS-4 + 0.001 wt% CS-1 + 0.001 wt% CS-3), which could balance the wettability of the Longmaxi shale and the Longtan coal, making them both appear weakly hydrophilic simultaneously, was optimized. After being treated by the compound surfactants, the contact angles of the Longmaxi shale and the Longtan coal were 89° and 86°, respectively. Pressure transmission tests showed that the optimized combination of compound surfactants and inorganic MMH (MMH-1) could effectively reduce permeability of the Longmaxi shale and the Longtan coal, thus retarding pore pressure transmission in coal measure strata. Then, the proposed water-based drilling fluid (WBDF) system (4 wt% sodium bentonite + 1.5 wt% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose + 2 wt% lignite resin + 5 wt% potassium chloride + 3 wt%MMH-1 + 0.001 wt% CS-4 + 0.001 wt% CS-1 + 0.001 wt% CS-3) was evaluated based on parameters including rheology, American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration, electrical property, wettability, inhibition capability, reservoir protection characteristics, and anti-pollution performance. It had an API filtration of 7 mL, reservoir damage rate of 10%, moderate and acceptable viscosity, strong inhibition capability to coal measure strata rocks, good tolerance to inorganic pollutants and drilling cuttings, and environmentally friendly properties. It could meet wellbore stability and reservoir protection requirements in the co-exploitation of coal measure gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Experimental Study on Gradation Optimization of Two-Stage Gravel Packing Operation in Unconventional Reservoirs
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081519
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
During the development of unconventional reservoirs with high sand production rate and fine silt content such as heavy oil and hydrate reservoirs, silt sand blockage problem is a serious issue. A two-stage gravel-packing sand control technique is applied to solve the silt sand [...] Read more.
During the development of unconventional reservoirs with high sand production rate and fine silt content such as heavy oil and hydrate reservoirs, silt sand blockage problem is a serious issue. A two-stage gravel-packing sand control technique is applied to solve the silt sand blockage now. However, traditional experiments on this technique could not obtain the dynamic distribution law of intrusive sand in the gravel pack. In this study, a new visualization experiment based on hydrodynamic similarity criterion for studying particle blockage in gravel packs was conducted. Real-time monitoring of sand particle migration in the gravel pack could be achieved. Also, the stable penetration depth and the distributing disciplinarian of invaded particles could be determined. The results show that when the gravel-to-sand median size ratio of gravel bed I is less than five, the sand bridge can be formed at the front end of the gravel pack. This could prevent sand from further intruding. As the grain size of gravel bed II is increased, the flow velocity is reduced. Thus, the sand invading into gravel bed II tends to settle at the interface. A large amount of sand intrusion can happen to gravel pack II when the pore filling front breaks through the gravel bed I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Its Impact on Pore Characteristics: A Case Study from the Niutitang Formation Shales in Northern Guizhou
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081480
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
This study analyzes samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northern Guizhou Province to enable a better understanding of total organic carbon (TOC) enrichment and its impact on the pore characteristics of over-mature marine shale. Organic geochemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron [...] Read more.
This study analyzes samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northern Guizhou Province to enable a better understanding of total organic carbon (TOC) enrichment and its impact on the pore characteristics of over-mature marine shale. Organic geochemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, helium porosity, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments were conducted on shale samples. Their original TOC (TOCo) content and organic porosity were estimated by theoretical calculation, and fractal dimension D was computed with the fractal Frenkel–Halsey–Hill model. The results were then used to consider which factors control TOC enrichment and pore characteristics. The samples are shown to be dominated by type-I kerogen with a TOC content of 0.29–9.36% and an equivalent vitrinite reflectance value of 1.72–2.72%. The TOCo content varies between 0.64% and 18.17%, and the overall recovery coefficient for the Niutitang Formation was 2.16. Total porosity of the samples ranged between 0.36% and 6.93%. TOC content directly controls porosity when TOC content lies in the range 1.0% to 6.0%. For samples with TOC < 1.0% and TOC > 6.0%, inorganic pores are the main contributors to porosity. Additionally, pore structure parameters show no obvious trends with TOC, quartz, and clay mineral content. The fractal dimension D1 is between 2.619 and 2.716, and D2 is between 2.680 and 2.854, illustrating significant pore surface roughness and structural heterogeneity. No single constituent had a dominant effect on the fractal characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation of Petrophysical Properties and Adsorption Capacity in Different Rank Coals: An Experimental Study of Coals from the Junggar, Ordos and Qinshui Basins in China
Energies 2019, 12(6), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060986
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
The petrophysical properties of coal will vary during coalification, and thus affect the methane adsorption capacity. In order to clarify the variation rule and its controlling effect on methane adsorption, various petrophysical tests including proximate analysis, moisture measurement, methane isothermal adsorption, mercury injection, [...] Read more.
The petrophysical properties of coal will vary during coalification, and thus affect the methane adsorption capacity. In order to clarify the variation rule and its controlling effect on methane adsorption, various petrophysical tests including proximate analysis, moisture measurement, methane isothermal adsorption, mercury injection, etc. were carried out on 60 coal samples collected from the Junggar, Ordos and Qinshui basins in China. In this work, the boundary values of maximum vitrinite reflectance (Ro,m) for dividing low rank, medium rank and high rank coals are set as 0.65% and 2.0%. The results show that vitrinite is the most abundant maceral, but the maceral contents are controlled by sedimentation without any relation to coal rank. Both the moisture content and porosity results show higher values in the low ranks and stabilized with Ro,m beyond 1%. Ro,m and VL (daf) show quadratic correlation with the peak located in Ro,m = 4.5–5%, with the coefficient (R2) reaching 0.86. PL decrease rapidly before Ro,m = 1.5%, then increase slowly. DAP is established to quantify the inhibitory effect of moisture on methane adsorption capacity, which shows periodic relationship with Ro,m: the inhibitory effect in lignite is the weakest and increases during coalification, then remains constant at Ro,m = 1.8% to 3.5%, and finally increases again. In the high metamorphic stage, clay minerals are more moisture-absorbent than coal, and the inherent moisture negatively correlates with the ratio of vitrinite to inertinite (V/I). During coalification, micro gas pores gradually become dominant, fractures tends to be well oriented and extended, and clay filling becomes more common. These findings can help us better understand the variation of petrophysical properties and adsorption capacity in different rank coals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
A Prediction Model for Methane Adsorption Capacity in Shale Gas Reservoirs
Energies 2019, 12(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020280
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Estimation of methane adsorption capacity is crucial for the characterization of shale gas reservoirs. The methane adsorption capacity in shales is measured using high-pressure methane adsorption to obtain the adsorption isotherms, which can be fitted by Langmuir model. The determined Langmuir parameters can [...] Read more.
Estimation of methane adsorption capacity is crucial for the characterization of shale gas reservoirs. The methane adsorption capacity in shales is measured using high-pressure methane adsorption to obtain the adsorption isotherms, which can be fitted by Langmuir model. The determined Langmuir parameters can provide the methane adsorption capacity under actual reservoir conditions. In this study, a prediction model for the methane adsorption in shales was constructed based on 66 samples from 6 basins in China and Western Australia. The model was established in four steps: a model of Langmuir volume at experimental temperature, the temperature dependence of Langmuir volume, a model of Langmuir pressure, the temperature dependence of Langmuir pressure. In the model of Langmuir volume at experimental temperature, total organic carbon (TOC) and clay content (Vsh) were considered. A positive relationship was observed between the TOC and the temperature effect on the Langmuir volume. As the Langmuir pressure is sensitive to various factors, the Langmuir pressure at experimental temperature shows no trend with the TOC, clay content and thermal maturity, but a positive trend with the Langmuir volume. The results of this study can help log analysts to quantify adsorbed gas from well-log data since TOC and Vsh, which are the measure inputs of the introduced models, can be obtained from well-log data as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Transient Pressure Behaviors with Shale Gas MFHWs Interference
Energies 2019, 12(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020262
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
After the large-scale horizontal well pattern development in shale gas fields, the problem of fast pressure drop and gas well abandonment caused by well interference becomes more serious. It is urgent to understand the downhole transient pressure and flow characteristics of multi-stage fracturing [...] Read more.
After the large-scale horizontal well pattern development in shale gas fields, the problem of fast pressure drop and gas well abandonment caused by well interference becomes more serious. It is urgent to understand the downhole transient pressure and flow characteristics of multi-stage fracturing horizontal well (MFHW) with interference. Therefore, the reservoir around the MFHW is divided into three regions: fracturing fracture, Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV), and unmodified matrix. Then, multi-region coupled flow model is established according to reservoir physical property and flow mechanism of each part. The model is numerically solved using the perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids and the finite volume method. The accuracy of the model is verified by analyzing the measured pressure recovery data of one practical shale gas well and fitting the monitoring data of the later production pressure. Finally, this model is used to analyze the effects of factors, such as hydraulic fractures’ connectivity, well distance, the number of neighboring wells and well pattern arrangement, on the transient pressure and seepage characteristics of the well. The study shows that the pressure recovery double logarithmic curves fall in later part when the well is disturbed by a neighboring production well. The earlier and more severe the interference, the sooner the curve falls off and the larger the amplitude shows. If the well distance is closer, and if there are more neighboring wells and interconnected corresponding fracturing segments, the more severe interference appears among the wells. Moreover, the well interference may still exist even without interlinked fractures or SRV. Especially, severe interference will affect production when the hydraulic fractures are connected directly, and the interference is weaker when only SRV induced fracture network combined between wells, which is beneficial to production sometimes. When severe well interference occurs, periodic well shut-in is needed to help restore the reservoir pressure and output capacity. In the meanwhile, the daily output should be controlled reasonably to prolong the stable production time. This research will help to understand the impact of well interference to gas production, and to optimize the well spacing and achieve satisfied performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Stress-Dependent Permeability of Fractures in Tight Reservoirs
Energies 2019, 12(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010117
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
Permeability is one of the key factors involved in the optimization of oil and gas production in fractured porous media. Understanding the loss in permeability influenced by the fracture system due to the increasing effective stress aids to improve recovery in tight reservoirs. [...] Read more.
Permeability is one of the key factors involved in the optimization of oil and gas production in fractured porous media. Understanding the loss in permeability influenced by the fracture system due to the increasing effective stress aids to improve recovery in tight reservoirs. Specifically, the impacts on permeability loss caused by different fracture parameters are not yet clearly understood. The principal aim of this paper is to develop a reasonable and meaningful quantitative model that manifests the controls on the permeability of fracture systems with different extents of fracture penetration. The stress-dependent permeability of a fracture system was studied through physical tests and numerical simulation with the finite element method (FEM). In addition, to extend capability beyond the existing model, a theoretical stress-dependent permeability model is proposed with fracture penetration extent as an influencing factor. The results presented include (1) a friendly agreement between the predicted permeability reduction under different stress conditions and the practical experimental data; (2) rock permeability of cores with fractures first reduces dramatically due to the closure of the fractures, then the permeability decreases gradually with the increase in effective stress; and (3) fracture penetration extent is one of the main factors in permeability stress sensitivity. The sensitivity is more influenced by fracture systems with a larger fracture penetration extent, whereas matrix compaction is the leading influencing factor in permeability stress sensitivity for fracture systems with smaller fracture penetration extents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of CO2 Huff-n-Puff Gas Injection in Shale Gas Condensate Reservoirs
Energies 2019, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010042
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
When the reservoir pressure is decreased lower than the dew point pressure in shale gas condensate reservoirs, condensate would be formed in the formation. Condensate accumulation severely reduces the commercial production of shale gas condensate reservoirs. Seeking ways to mitigate condensate in the [...] Read more.
When the reservoir pressure is decreased lower than the dew point pressure in shale gas condensate reservoirs, condensate would be formed in the formation. Condensate accumulation severely reduces the commercial production of shale gas condensate reservoirs. Seeking ways to mitigate condensate in the formation and enhance both condensate and gas recovery in shale reservoirs has important significance. Very few related studies have been done. In this paper, both experimental and numerical studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of CO2 huff-n-puff to enhance the condensate recovery in shale reservoirs. Experimentally, CO2 huff-n-puff tests on shale core were conducted. A theoretical field scale simulation model was constructed. The effects of injection pressure, injection time, and soaking time on the efficiency of CO2 huff-n-puff were examined. Experimental results indicate that condensate recovery was enhanced to 30.36% after 5 cycles of CO2 huff-n-puff. In addition, simulation results indicate that the injection period and injection pressure should be optimized to ensure that the pressure of the main condensate region remains higher than the dew point pressure. The soaking process should be determined based on the injection pressure. This work may shed light on a better understanding of the CO2 huff-n-puff- enhanced oil recovery (EOR) strategy in shale gas condensate reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Unconventional Reservoirs)
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