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Special Issue "Control of Energy Storage"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. William Holderbaum

1. School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK
2. Biomedical Engineering, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY, UK
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: power management systems; control theory; hybrid dynamical systems; optimal control; Hamiltonian systems under Lie group; control and management of storage; wireless power transfer; remote monitoring and sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage can provide numerous beneficial services and cost savings within the electricity grid, especially when facing future challenges like renewable and electric vehicle (EV) integration. Public bodies, private companies and individuals are deploying storage facilities for several purposes, including arbitrage, grid support, renewable generation, and demand-side management. Storage deployment can therefore yield benefits like reduced frequency fluctuation, better asset utilisation and more predictable power profiles. Such uses of energy storage can reduce the cost of energy, reduce the strain on the grid, reduce the environmental impact of energy use, and prepare the network for future challenges.

This Special Issue of Energies will explore the latest developments in the control of energy storage in support of the wider energy network, and will be focused on the control of storage rather than the storage technology itself. Specifically, this issue will encompass:

•           Control of energy storage (e.g., for flywheels, batteries or supercapacitors)

•           Energy storage systems for transport (e.g., for automotive, shipping and aircraft)

•           Energy storage systems for grid support including use with ancillary services

•           Intelligent coordination of storage elements in the grid both at micro (i.e., low voltage) and macro (i.e., high voltage) scales

•           Monitoring, modelling and other performance assessment methodologies for the control of storage

•           Explorations of the future of energy storage systems and associated control problems

We welcome papers based on primary leading research, as well as cutting-edge exemplars from industrial practice that can be used to encourage sustainable development and performance of control of energy storage systems.

Prof. Dr. William Holderbaum
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • power management and control
  • distribution network and transmission network
  • storage in interconnected grid systems
  • smart grid and optimal control for demand-side management

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Control of Energy Storage
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10071010
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 16 July 2017
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Abstract
In the attempt to tackle the issue of climate change, governments across the world have agreed to set global carbon reduction targets. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Integrated Equivalent Circuit and Thermal Model for Simulation of Temperature-Dependent LiFePO4 Battery in Actual Embedded Application
Energies 2017, 10(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010085
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (13827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working [...] Read more.
A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working in a real environment. A cell balancing strategy applied to the proposed temperature-dependent battery model balanced the SOC of each cell to increase the lifespan of the battery. The simulation outputs are validated by a set of independent experimental data at a different temperature to ensure the model validity and reliability. The results show a root mean square (RMS) error of 1.5609 × 10−5 for the terminal voltage and the comparison between the simulation and experiment at various temperatures (from 5 °C to 45 °C) shows a maximum RMS error of 7.2078 × 10−5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Scheduling and Real-Time State-of-Charge Management of Energy Storage System for Frequency Regulation
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121010
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An energy storage system (ESS) in a power system facilitates tasks such as renewable integration, peak shaving, and the use of ancillary services. Among the various functions of an ESS, this study focused on frequency regulation (or secondary reserve). This paper presents an [...] Read more.
An energy storage system (ESS) in a power system facilitates tasks such as renewable integration, peak shaving, and the use of ancillary services. Among the various functions of an ESS, this study focused on frequency regulation (or secondary reserve). This paper presents an optimal scheduling algorithm for frequency regulation by an ESS. This algorithm determines the bidding capacity and base point of an ESS in each operational period to achieve the maximum profit within a stable state-of-charge (SOC) range. However, the charging/discharging efficiency of an ESS causes SOC errors whenever the ESS performs frequency regulation. With an increase in SOC errors, the ESS cannot respond to an automatic generation control (AGC) signal. This situation results in low ESS performance scores, and finally, the ESS is disqualified from performing frequency regulation. This paper also presents a real-time SOC management algorithm aimed at solving the SOC error problem in real-time operations. This algorithm compensates for SOC errors by changing the base point of the ESS. The optimal scheduling algorithm is implemented in MATLAB by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. In addition, changes in the SOC when the ESS performs frequency regulation in a real-time operation are confirmed using the PSCAD/EMTDC tool. The simulation results show that the optimal scheduling algorithm manages the SOC more efficiently than a commonly employed planning method. In addition, the proposed real-time SOC management algorithm is confirmed to be capable of performing SOC recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System
Energies 2016, 9(11), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110955
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV), which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the [...] Read more.
Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV), which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the balancing of the power system. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been proposed and investigated in the past, including storage, backup power, reinforcement of the transmission grid, and demand side management (DSM). In this paper, we investigate the potential of DSM to balance a simplified, fully renewable European power system. For this purpose, we use ten years of weather and historical load data, a power-flow model and the implementation of demand side management as a storage equivalent, to investigate the impact of DSM on the need for backup energy. We show that DSM has the potential to reduce the need for backup energy in Europe by up to one third and can cover the need for backup up to a renewable share of 67%. Finally, it is demonstrated that the optimal mix of wind and PV is shifted by the utilisation of DSM towards a higher share of PV, from 19% to 36%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results
Energies 2016, 9(11), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110887
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (7281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO). BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO). BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates) was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Energy Link Optimization in a Wireless Power Transfer Grid under Energy Autonomy Based on the Improved Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2016, 9(9), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090682
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 31 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an optimization method is proposed for the energy link in a wireless power transfer grid, which is a regional smart microgrid comprised of distributed devices equipped with wireless power transfer technology in a certain area. The relevant optimization model of [...] Read more.
In this paper, an optimization method is proposed for the energy link in a wireless power transfer grid, which is a regional smart microgrid comprised of distributed devices equipped with wireless power transfer technology in a certain area. The relevant optimization model of the energy link is established by considering the wireless power transfer characteristics and the grid characteristics brought in by the device repeaters. Then, a concentration adaptive genetic algorithm (CAGA) is proposed to optimize the energy link. The algorithm avoided the unification trend by introducing the concentration mechanism and a new crossover method named forward order crossover, as well as the adaptive parameter mechanism, which are utilized together to keep the diversity of the optimization solution groups. The results show that CAGA is feasible and competitive for the energy link optimization in different situations. This proposed algorithm performs better than its counterparts in the global convergence ability and the algorithm robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Energy Storage Control for Dynamic Load Impact Mitigation
Energies 2016, 9(8), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080647
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The future uptake of electric vehicles (EV) in low-voltage distribution networks can cause increased voltage violations and thermal overloading of network assets, especially in networks with limited headroom at times of high or peak demand. To address this problem, this paper proposes a [...] Read more.
The future uptake of electric vehicles (EV) in low-voltage distribution networks can cause increased voltage violations and thermal overloading of network assets, especially in networks with limited headroom at times of high or peak demand. To address this problem, this paper proposes a distributed battery energy storage solution, controlled using an additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD) algorithm. The improved algorithm (AIMD+) uses local bus voltage measurements and a reference voltage threshold to determine the additive increase parameter and to control the charging, as well as discharging rate of the battery. The used voltage threshold is dependent on the network topology and is calculated using power flow analysis tools, with peak demand equally allocated amongst all loads. Simulations were performed on the IEEE LV European Test feeder and a number of real U.K. suburban power distribution network models, together with European demand data and a realistic electric vehicle charging model. The performance of the standard AIMD algorithm with a fixed voltage threshold and the proposed AIMD+ algorithm with the reference voltage profile are compared. Results show that, compared to the standard AIMD case, the proposed AIMD+ algorithm further improves the network’s voltage profiles, reduces thermal overload occurrences and ensures a more equal battery utilisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Power-Saving Transmission Scheme for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems
Energies 2016, 9(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040265
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As mobile data traffic levels have increased exponentially, resulting in rising energy costs in recent years, the demand for and development of green communication technologies has resulted in various energy-saving designs for cellular systems. At the same time, recent technological advances have allowed [...] Read more.
As mobile data traffic levels have increased exponentially, resulting in rising energy costs in recent years, the demand for and development of green communication technologies has resulted in various energy-saving designs for cellular systems. At the same time, recent technological advances have allowed multiple component carriers (CCs) to be simultaneously utilized in a base station (BS), a development that has made the energy consumption of BSs a matter of increasing concern. To help address this concern, herein we propose a novel scheme aimed at efficiently minimizing the power consumption of BS transceivers during transmission, while still ensuring good service quality and fairness for users. Specifically, the scheme utilizes the dynamic activation/deactivation of CCs during data transmission to increase power usage efficiency. To test its effectiveness, the proposed scheme was applied to a model consisting of a BS with orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based CCs in a downlink transmission environment. The results indicated that, given periods of relatively light traffic loads, the total power consumption of the proposed scheme is significantly lower than that of schemes in which all the CCs of a BS are constantly activated, suggesting the scheme’s potential for reducing both energy costs and carbon dioxide emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS) Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells
Energies 2016, 9(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040255
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO) were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles of European and North American customer operation. This paper presents a study which defines the effect that the change in electrical properties of vibration aged 18650 NMC cells can have on the control strategy employed by the battery management system (BMS) of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). It also proposes various cell balancing strategies to manage these changes in electrical properties. Subsequently this study recommends that EV manufacturers conduct vibration testing as part of their cell selection and development activities so that electrical ageing characteristics associated with road induced vibration phenomena are incorporated to ensure effective BMS and RESS performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Control Strategies with Dynamic Threshold Adjustment for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Considering the Train and Substation Characteristics in Urban Rail Transit
Energies 2016, 9(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040257
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (10184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recuperation of braking energy offers great potential for reducing energy consumption in urban rail transit systems. The present paper develops a new control strategy with variable threshold for wayside energy storage systems (ESSs), which uses the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. First, [...] Read more.
Recuperation of braking energy offers great potential for reducing energy consumption in urban rail transit systems. The present paper develops a new control strategy with variable threshold for wayside energy storage systems (ESSs), which uses the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. First, the paper analyzes the braking curve of the train and the V-I characteristics of the substation. Then, the current-voltage dual-loop control method is used for ESSs. Next, in order to achieve the best energy-saving effect, the paper discusses the selection principle of the charge and discharge threshold. This paper proposes a control strategy for wayside supercapacitors integrated with dynamic threshold adjustment control on the basis of avoiding the onboard braking chopper’s operation. The proposed control strategy is very useful for obtaining good performance, while not wasting any energy in the braking resistor. Therefore, the control strategy has been verified through simulations, and experimental tests, have been implemented on the Batong Line of Beijing subway using the 200 kW wayside supercapacitor energy storage prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed control is capable of saving energy and considerably reducing energy consumption in the braking resistor during train braking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads
Energies 2016, 9(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030175
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary [...] Read more.
In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG) crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Energy Storage Using Residential Hot Water Heaters
Energies 2016, 9(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030127
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes and analyses a new demand response technique for renewable energy regulation using smart hot water heaters that forecast water consumption at an individual dwelling level. Distributed thermal energy storage has many advantages, including high overall efficiency, use of existing infrastructure [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and analyses a new demand response technique for renewable energy regulation using smart hot water heaters that forecast water consumption at an individual dwelling level. Distributed thermal energy storage has many advantages, including high overall efficiency, use of existing infrastructure and a distributed nature. In addition, the use of a smart thermostatic controller enables the prediction of required water amounts and keeps temperatures at a level that minimises user discomfort while reacting to variations in the electricity network. Three cases are compared in this paper, normal operation, operation with demand response and operation following the proposed demand response mechanism that uses consumption forecasts. The results show that this technique can produce both up and down regulation, as well as increase water heater efficiency. When controlling water heaters without consumption forecast, the users experience discomfort in the form of hot water shortage, but after the full technique is applied, the shortage level drops to nearly the starting point. The amount of regulation power from a single dwelling is also discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs
Energies 2016, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010012
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, [...] Read more.
Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer) under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion) and sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11618-11640; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011618
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the [...] Read more.
The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration
Energies 2015, 8(10), 10718-10735; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81010718
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, [...] Read more.
With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs) is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS) has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs) considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Development of an Optimal Power Control Scheme for Wave-Offshore Hybrid Generation Systems
Energies 2015, 8(9), 9009-9028; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099009
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integration technology of various distribution systems for improving renewable energy utilization has been receiving attention in the power system industry. The wave-offshore hybrid generation system (HGS), which has a capacity of over 10 MW, was recently developed by adopting several voltage source converters [...] Read more.
Integration technology of various distribution systems for improving renewable energy utilization has been receiving attention in the power system industry. The wave-offshore hybrid generation system (HGS), which has a capacity of over 10 MW, was recently developed by adopting several voltage source converters (VSC), while a control method for adopted power conversion systems has not yet been configured in spite of the unique system characteristics of the designated structure. This paper deals with a reactive power assignment method for the developed hybrid system to improve the power transfer efficiency of the entire system. Through the development and application processes for an optimization algorithm utilizing the real-time active power profiles of each generator, a feasibility confirmation of power transmission loss reduction was implemented. To find the practical effect of the proposed control scheme, the real system information regarding the demonstration process was applied from case studies. Also, an evaluation for the loss of the improvement rate was calculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Application of Model Predictive Control to BESS for Microgrid Control
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8798-8813; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088798
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been widely used for microgrid control. Generally, BESS control systems are based on proportional-integral (PI) control techniques with the outer and inner control loops based on PI regulators. Recently, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted attention for [...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been widely used for microgrid control. Generally, BESS control systems are based on proportional-integral (PI) control techniques with the outer and inner control loops based on PI regulators. Recently, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted attention for application to future energy processing and control systems because it can easily deal with multivariable cases, system constraints, and nonlinearities. This study considers the application of MPC-based BESSs to microgrid control. Two types of MPC are presented in this study: MPC based on predictive power control (PPC) and MPC based on PI control in the outer and predictive current control (PCC) in the inner control loops. In particular, the effective application of MPC for microgrids with multiple BESSs should be considered because of the differences in their control performance. In this study, microgrids with two BESSs based on two MPC techniques are considered as an example. The control performance of the MPC used for the control microgrid is compared to that of the PI control. The proposed control strategy is investigated through simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the response time, power and voltage ripples, and frequency spectrum could be improved significantly by using MPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Design and Field Tests of an Inverted Based Remote MicroGrid on a Korean Island
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8193-8210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088193
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, we present the results of an economic feasibility study and propose a system structure to test and maintain electrical stability. In addition, we present real operation results after constructing a remote microgrid on an island in South Korea. To perform [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the results of an economic feasibility study and propose a system structure to test and maintain electrical stability. In addition, we present real operation results after constructing a remote microgrid on an island in South Korea. To perform the economic feasibility study, a commercial tool called HOMER was used. The developed remote microgrid consists of a 400 kW wind turbine (WT) generator, 314 kW photovoltaic (PV) generator, 500 kVA × 2 grid forming inverter, 3 MWh lithium ion battery, and an energy management system (EMS). The predicted renewable energy fraction was 91% and real operation result was 82%. The frequency maintaining rate of the diesel power plants was 57% but the remote microgrid was 100%. To improve the operating efficiency of the remote microgrid, we investigated the output range of a diesel generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Distributed Control Strategy for Frequency Regulation in Smart Grids Based on the Consensus Protocol
Energies 2015, 8(8), 7930-7944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8087930
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the problem of distributed frequency regulation based on the consensus control protocol in smart grids. In this problem, each system component is coordinated to collectively provide active power for the provision of ancillary frequency regulation service. Firstly, an approximate model [...] Read more.
This paper considers the problem of distributed frequency regulation based on the consensus control protocol in smart grids. In this problem, each system component is coordinated to collectively provide active power for the provision of ancillary frequency regulation service. Firstly, an approximate model is proposed for the frequency dynamic process. A distributed control algorithm is investigated, while each agent exchanges information with neighboring agents and performs behaviors based on communication interactions. The objective of each agent is to converge to a common state considering different dynamic load characteristics, and distributed frequency control strategy is developed to enable the agents to provide active power support. Then, the distributed proportional integral controllers with the state feedback are designed considering the consensus protocol with topology . The theory of distributed consensus protocol isfurther developed to prove the stability of the proposed control algorithm. Whenproperly controlled, the controllers can provide grid support services in a distributed manner that turn out the grid balanced globally. Finally, simulations of the proposed distributed control algorithm are tested to validate the availability of the proposed approach and the performance in the electrical networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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