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Special Issue "Energy Efficient Building Design 2016"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nyuk Hien Wong

Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +65 651 634 23
Interests: Urban Heat Island and the mitigation measures; Outdoor Thermal Comfort and Indoor Thermal Comfort for Naturally Ventilated spaces; Thermal Performance of Façade for Non Air conditioned buildings; Thermal Performance of Urban Greenery including Green Roofs and Vertical Green Walls; Climate Change and the impact on Built Environment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue serves to provide a platform for academia and industry practitioners to share their latest research and practices in the area of energy efficient building design. Though the focus is on buildings, it can also cover the urban and infrastructure environment with a specific interest in the interplay between the urban environment and buildings.

Submissions relating to any of the following topics are welcomed:

  • Advanced Green Building Systems
  • Passive Green Building Design
  • Zero Energy and Zero Carbon Building Design
  • Use of Renewable Energy sources for Building Design
  • Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Urban Planning and Cities
  • Sustainable Design and for Comfort, Health and Well-being

Prof. Dr. Nyuk Hien Wong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green buildings
  • zero energy or carbon buildings
  • renewable energy
  • smart and resilient design, comfort and health

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Energy Performance of Verandas in the Building Retrofit Process
Energies 2016, 9(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050365
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Passive solar elements for both direct and indirect gains, are systems used to maintain a comfortable living environment while saving energy, especially in the building energy retrofit and adaptation process. Sunspaces, thermal mass and glazing area and orientation have been often used in
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Passive solar elements for both direct and indirect gains, are systems used to maintain a comfortable living environment while saving energy, especially in the building energy retrofit and adaptation process. Sunspaces, thermal mass and glazing area and orientation have been often used in the past to guarantee adequate indoor conditions when mechanical devices were not available. After a period of neglect, nowadays they are again considered as appropriate systems to help face environmental issues in the building sector, and both international and national legislation takes into consideration the possibility of including them in the building planning tools, also providing economic incentives. Their proper design needs dynamic simulation, often difficult to perform and time consuming. Moreover, results generally suffer from several uncertainties, so quasi steady-state procedures are often used in everyday practice with good results, but some corrections are still needed. In this paper, a comparative analysis of different solutions for the construction of verandas in an existing building is presented, following the procedure provided by the slightly modified and improved Standard EN ISO 13790:2008. Advantages and disadvantages of different configurations considering thermal insulation, windows typology and mechanical ventilation systems are discussed and a general intervention strategy is proposed. The aim is to highlight the possibility of using sunspaces in order to increase the efficiency of the existing building stock, considering ease of construction and economic viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump Systems in Korea Using Coefficient of Performance
Energies 2016, 9(5), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050356
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Korean government is fostering a renewable energy industry as a means of handling the energy crisis. Among the renewable energy systems available, geothermal energy has been highlighted as highly efficient, safely operable and relatively unaffected by outdoors air conditions. Despite the increasing
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The Korean government is fostering a renewable energy industry as a means of handling the energy crisis. Among the renewable energy systems available, geothermal energy has been highlighted as highly efficient, safely operable and relatively unaffected by outdoors air conditions. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the devices using renewables may not be operating appropriately. This study examined current problems in the operation of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. The efficiency of a geothermal heat pump system to studied to maximize the operation plan. Our study modelled the target building and analyzed the energy using TRNSYS, which is a dynamic energy simulation tool, to apply the coefficient of performance (COP) and evaluate the operation method. As a result, the GHP total energy consumption from the COP control method was reduced by 46% compared to the current operation. The proposed control method was evaluated after applying the system to a building. The results showed that efficient operation of a geothermal heat pump system is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Heating System Use in Aged Public Buildings via Model Predictive Control
Energies 2016, 9(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040251
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the implementation of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme used to study the improvement of the thermal quality in aged residential buildings without any rehabilitation. The controller manages the heating system of an experimentally characterized model of a residential dwelling
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This work presents the implementation of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme used to study the improvement of the thermal quality in aged residential buildings without any rehabilitation. The controller manages the heating system of an experimentally characterized model of a residential dwelling in a social block built during the decade of the 1960s located in the neighborhood of Otxarkoaga (Bilbao, Spain), so as to obtain an optimal energy efficiency performance. Due to the characteristics of the construction in those days, this kind of buildings suffer problems related to the use of awkward building materials and inefficient heating systems. A comparison with traditionally used ON-OFF hysteresis control is presented in order to demonstrate the energetic improvement provided by the MPC scheme. Besides, the variation of different parameters of the MPC is also studied to determine its influence over the energy consumption and comfort conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Realistic Scheduling Mechanism for Smart Homes
Energies 2016, 9(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030202
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (3132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we propose a Realistic Scheduling Mechanism (RSM) to reduce user frustration and enhance appliance utility by classifying appliances with respective constraints and their time of use effectively. Algorithms are proposed regarding functioning of home appliances. A 24 hour time slot
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In this work, we propose a Realistic Scheduling Mechanism (RSM) to reduce user frustration and enhance appliance utility by classifying appliances with respective constraints and their time of use effectively. Algorithms are proposed regarding functioning of home appliances. A 24 hour time slot is divided into four logical sub-time slots, each composed of 360 min or 6 h. In these sub-time slots, only desired appliances (with respect to appliance classification) are scheduled to raise appliance utility, restricting power consumption by a dynamically modelled power usage limiter that does not only take the electricity consumer into account but also the electricity supplier. Once appliance, time and power usage limiter modelling is done, we use a nature-inspired heuristic algorithm, Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), optimally to form schedules with given constraints representing each sub-time slot. These schedules tend to achieve an equilibrium amongst appliance utility and cost effectiveness. For validation of the proposed RSM, we provide a comparative analysis amongst unscheduled electrical load usage, scheduled directly by BPSO and RSM, reflecting user comfort, which is based upon cost effectiveness and appliance utility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Actual Energy Cost Performance of Green Buildings: A Test of the Earned Value Management Approach
Energies 2016, 9(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030188
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduced energy consumption is a key aspect of the green building. Nonetheless, research indicates that there is a performance gap between the predicted and the actual energy performance once buildings are occupied, which implies a cost deviation from the anticipated energy cost performance.
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Reduced energy consumption is a key aspect of the green building. Nonetheless, research indicates that there is a performance gap between the predicted and the actual energy performance once buildings are occupied, which implies a cost deviation from the anticipated energy cost performance. However, the cost deviation also might result from lower or higher energy rates than expected. As an appropriate research methodology for existing theory testing, case study research strategy was adopted to empirically examine the earned value management (EVM) approach to measure the actual life cycle cost performance of energy in green buildings. With slight methodological and terminological adaptations, it is found that the EVM approach can be applied to conduct a holistic cost performance measurement of the actual energy consumption in green buildings. The strength of the earned value approach is that it allows for detecting whether the energy cost saving or overrun results from lower or higher energy consumption, or from actual energy rate variations. The earned value approach allows for quantifying each cost variance independently, which is a significant aspect of actual energy cost performance measurement in green buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Smart Control of Multiple Evaporator Systems with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Energies 2016, 9(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030142
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor
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This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN), a real-time kernel with an earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduler, periodic and aperiodic tasking models for the nodes, lightweight and flexible compensation-based control algorithms for WSAN that exhibit packet dropouts, an event-triggered sampling scheme and design methodologies. We address the control problem of the multi-evaporators with the presence of uncertainties, which was tackled through a wireless fuzzy control approach, showing the advantages of this concept where it can easily perform the optimization for a set of multiple evaporators controlled by the same smart controller, which should have an intelligent and flexible architecture based on multi-agent systems (MAS) that allows one to add or remove new evaporators online, without the need for reconfiguring, while maintaining temporal and functional restrictions in the system. We show clearly how we can get a greater scalability, the self-configuration of the network and the least overhead with a non-beacon or unslotted mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, as well as wireless communications and distributed architectures, which could be extremely helpful in the development process of networked control systems in large spatially-distributed plants, which involve many sensors and actuators. For this purpose, a fuzzy scheme is used to control a set of parallel evaporator air-conditioning systems, with temperature and relative humidity control as a multi-input and multi-output closed loop system; in addition, a general architecture is presented, which implements multiple control loops closed over a communication network, integrating the analysis and validation method for multi-loop control networks designed for multi-evaporator systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Single-Sided Ventilation with Overhang in Buildings
Energies 2016, 9(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030122
Received: 1 January 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (9744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enhancing the ventilation performance of energy-efficient buildings with single-sided openings is important because their ventilation performance is poor and strongly depends on the wind conditions. We considered an overhang as a potential building façade for improving the single-sided ventilation performance. We performed numerical
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Enhancing the ventilation performance of energy-efficient buildings with single-sided openings is important because their ventilation performance is poor and strongly depends on the wind conditions. We considered an overhang as a potential building façade for improving the single-sided ventilation performance. We performed numerical simulations of three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flows over an idealized building with an overhang in order to investigate the effect of the overhang on the ventilation performance. Parametric studies were systematically carried out where the overhang length, wind speed, and wind direction were varied. The numerical results showed that the overhang drastically enhanced the ventilation rate in the windward direction regardless of the wind speed. This is because, for windward cases, the overhang produces a vortex with strong flow separation near the tip of the overhang, which promotes a net airflow exchange at the entrance and increases the ventilation rate. However, the ventilation rates for the leeward and side cases are slightly decreased with the overhang. Using an overhang with single-sided ventilation greatly reduces the local mean age of air (LMA) in the windward direction but increases it in the leeward direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs
Energies 2016, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010032
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies
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Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies on both the studied building and surrounding ones; it also considers insulated vs. non-insulated buildings. Findings indicate that green walls have a direct effect on indoor comfort throughout the entire building, whereas the effect of green roofs is apparently primarily confined to the upper floor. Moreover, the indirect effect of a green wall is greater, mainly due to the drop in infrared emissions resulting from a lower surface temperature. It has also been proven that the indirect effects of green walls and surrounding lawns can help reduce the loads acting on a non-insulated building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Phase Change Materials-Assisted Heat Flux Reduction: Experiment and Numerical Analysis
Energies 2016, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010030
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phase change materials (PCM) in the construction industry became attractive because of several interesting attributes, such as thermo-physical parameters, open air atmospheric condition usage, cost and the duty structure requirement. Thermal performance optimization of PCMs in terms of proficient storage of a large
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Phase change materials (PCM) in the construction industry became attractive because of several interesting attributes, such as thermo-physical parameters, open air atmospheric condition usage, cost and the duty structure requirement. Thermal performance optimization of PCMs in terms of proficient storage of a large amount of heat or cold in a finite volume remains a challenging task. Implementation of PCMs in buildings to achieve thermal comfort for a specific climatic condition in Iraq is our main focus. From this standpoint, the present paper reports the experimental and numerical results on the lowering of heat flux inside a residential building using PCM, which is composed of oil (40%) and wax (60%). This PCM (paraffin), being plentiful and cost-effective, is extracted locally from waste petroleum products in Iraq. Experiments are performed with two rooms of identical internal dimensions in the presence and absence of PCM. A two-dimensional numerical transient heat transfer model is developed and solved using the finite difference method. A relatively simple geometry is chosen to initially verify the numerical solution procedure by incorporating in the computer program two-dimensional elliptic flows. It is demonstrated that the heat flux inside the room containing PCM is remarkably lower than the one devoid of PCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory
Energies 2016, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010024
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and
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In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A Simplified Simulation Model for Predicting Radiative Transfer in Long Street Canyons under High Solar Radiation Conditions
Energies 2015, 8(12), 13540-13558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81212383
Received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Modeling solar radiation in street canyons is crucial to understanding the solar availability of building façades. This article describes the implementation of a simulation routine, developed in the Matlab® computer language, which is aimed at predicting solar access for building façades located
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Modeling solar radiation in street canyons is crucial to understanding the solar availability of building façades. This article describes the implementation of a simulation routine, developed in the Matlab® computer language, which is aimed at predicting solar access for building façades located in dense urban conglomerates comprising deep long street canyons, under high solar radiation conditions, typical in southern countries of Europe. Methodology is primarily based on the configuration factor theory, also aided by computer simulation, which enables to assess the interplay between the surfaces that compose the so-called street canyon. The results of the theoretical model have been cross-checked and verified by on-site measurements in two real case studies, two streets in Cadiz and Seville. The simplified simulation reproduces the shape of the curve for on-site measured values and weighted errors for the whole model do not surpass 10%, with a maximum of 9.32% and a mean values of 6.31%. As a result, a simplified predictive model that takes into account direct, diffuse and reflected solar radiation from the surfaces that enclose the canyon, has been devised. The authors consider that this research provides further improvement, as well as a handy alternative approach, to usual methods used for the calculation of available solar radiation in urban canyons, such as the Sky View Factor or the ray tracing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon and Energy Footprints of Prefabricated Industrial Buildings: A Systematic Life Cycle Assessment Analysis
Energies 2015, 8(11), 12685-12701; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81112333
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A systematic analysis of green-house gases emission (carbon footprint) and primary energy consumption (energy footprint) of prefabricated industrial buildings during their entire life cycle is presented. The life cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed in a cradle-to grave approach: site-specific data from an
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A systematic analysis of green-house gases emission (carbon footprint) and primary energy consumption (energy footprint) of prefabricated industrial buildings during their entire life cycle is presented. The life cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed in a cradle-to grave approach: site-specific data from an Italian company, directly involved in all the phases from raw material manufacturing to in-situ assembly, were used to analyze the impacts as a function of different design choices. Four buildings were analyzed and results were used to setup a parameterized model that was used to study the impacts of industrial prefabricated buildings over the input parameter space. The model vs. data agreement is within 4% for both carbon and energy footprint. The functional unit is 1 m3 of prefabricated building, considering a 50-year lifetime. The results of the four buildings decrease from 144.6 kgCO2eq/m3 and 649.5 kWh/m3 down to 123.5 kgCO2eq/m3 and 556.8 kWh/m3 as the building floor area increases from 1048 m2 to 21,910 m2. The use phase accounts for the major impact (approximate 76%). It is found that the carbon footprint is proportional to the energy footprint, the proportional factor being 0.222 kgCO2eq/kWh within 0.5% accuracy. Finally, a systematic study of the sensitivity of input parameters (insulation, lifetime, foundation type) is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A First-Order Study of Reduced Energy Consumption via Increased Thermal Capacitance with Thermal Storage Management in a Micro-Building
Energies 2015, 8(10), 12266-12282; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81012266
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study uses a first-order approximation of a micro-building to investigate the major factors determining how increased thermal capacitance (ITC) with thermal storage management (TSM) can reduce energy consumption in locations with relatively mild weather conditions such as the southeastern part of the
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This study uses a first-order approximation of a micro-building to investigate the major factors determining how increased thermal capacitance (ITC) with thermal storage management (TSM) can reduce energy consumption in locations with relatively mild weather conditions such as the southeastern part of the United States of America. In this study, ITC is achieved through water circulation between a large storage tank and pipes embedded within the building envelope. Although ITC results in a larger dominant time constant for the thermal response of a building, an adaptive allocation and control of the added capacitance through TSM significantly improves the benefits of the extra capacitance. This paper compares two first-order models for a micro-building: a reference case model with a single lumped thermal capacitance associated with the building, and another model, with the building’s capacitance plus the capacitance of the water system. Results showed that the ITC/TSM system reduced the cost of conditioning the building by reducing the operating time of both the cooling and the heating systems. May through September, the air conditioning operating time was reduced by an average of 70%, and October through April, the operation of the heating system was reduced by an average of 25%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11916-11938; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011916
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 3 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension
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The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless network. The approach, by using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), introduces a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) in order to improve a Home Energy Management (HEM) scheme, addressing the power load of standby appliances and their loads in different hours of the day. Since the consumer is involved in the choice of switching on/off of home appliances, the approach introduced in this work proposes a fuzzy-based solution in order to manage the consumer feedbacks. Simulation results show that the proposed solution is efficient in terms of reducing peak load demand, electricity consumption charges with an increase comfort level of consumers. The performance of the proposed BLE-based wireless network scenario are validated in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, and jitter and are compared to IEEE 802.15.4 technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Indoor Thermal Environment of Temporary Mobile Energy Shelter Houses (MeSHs) in South Korea
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11139-11152; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011139
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temporary housing must be developed to support the long-term residence needs of disaster victims. The present study assesses a temporary housing unit, the so-called Mobile Energy Shelter House (MeSH), incorporating the “Korean Dwelling Insulation Standard” in order to reduce energy usage for cooling
[...] Read more.
Temporary housing must be developed to support the long-term residence needs of disaster victims. The present study assesses a temporary housing unit, the so-called Mobile Energy Shelter House (MeSH), incorporating the “Korean Dwelling Insulation Standard” in order to reduce energy usage for cooling and heating. To assess energy performance, the characteristics of the indoor thermal environment were measured during the winter and summer seasons. In summer, at maximum insolation, the outdoor temperature was 37.6 °C and the indoor temperature of the MeSH ranged from 18 to 24 °C when the cooling system was not used. Conversely, during winter, the average outdoor temperature was −11.3 °C and the indoor temperature ranged from 16.09 to 20.63 °C when a temperature-controlled floor-heating was installed. Furthermore, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) was adopted to determine whether the ISO 7730 comfort criterion (i.e., PMV range from −0.5 to +0.5) was achieved. Based on the calculations presented here, PMV in summer ranged from −1.21 to +1.07 and that in winter ranged from −0.08 to −0.85, suggesting that the thermal environment is not always comfortable for occupants in either summer or winter. Nevertheless, the ISO comfort criterion can be achieved through varying air velocity in summer and changing clothing characteristics in winter. A comparison between yearly energy demand of existing characteristic temporary housing (Shelter House) and the MeSH modules used in this study was performed. The simulation results show a 60% difference in energy demand between MeSH and existing temporary housing shelter houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11120-11138; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011120
Received: 23 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts
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This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV), with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP) and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage and fuel input depend strongly on the ability to make use of the renewable sources in real time to avoid battery bank conversion losses and dumping of excess electrical power, as well as to have sufficient battery storage capacity to minimize the need for operation of the motor/generator to meet electric loads which occur during periods when the renewable energy is not available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach
Energies 2015, 8(9), 10522-10536; https://doi.org/10.3390/en80910522
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation
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In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by introducing an unsupervised learning algorithm called k-means clustering. An intrinsic method known as silhouette coefficient was used to measure the classification quality. An identification process is also discussed in this paper to help users identify the operation mode each types of operation cycle stands for. A case study using a typical household refrigerator is presented to validate the proposed method. Results show that the proposed the classification and identification method can partition and identify different operation cycles adequately. Classification of operation cycles for such appliances is beneficial for Smart Grid as it provides a clear and convincing understanding of the operation modes for effective power management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids
Energies 2016, 9(5), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050348
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 7 May 2016
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (1022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances
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In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investigates technologies for smart homes. The technical descriptions of the systems are presented and point out advantages and disadvantages of each technology and product today available on the market. Barriers, challenges, benefits and future trends regarding the technologies and the role of users have also been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2016)
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