Special Issue "Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Lionel Limousy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Université de Haute-Alsace, Université de Strasbourg, IS2M, CNRS, UMR7361, 3b rue Alfred Werner, F68100 Mulhouse, France
Interests: Biomass conversion and valorization; carbon materials; biological and physicochemical wastewater treatments; adsorption of pollutants; chemical engineering and process; batch and continuous reactors; design synthesis and characterization of carbon adsorbents (chars, activated carbons, composite materials)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

“Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III” is a continuation of the previous and successful Special Issue “Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications”.

Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is the most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received an increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursor, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors.

This Special Issue provides an overview for biomass chars production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), the characterization techniques (Scanning Electronic Microscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence, Nitrogen adsorption, Raman Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature Programmed Desorption and Mass Spectrometry, etc.), their properties and their suitable recovery processes.  

Prof. Mejdi Jeguirim
Prof. Lionel Limousy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biomass
  • thermochemical conversion
  • chars
  • morphological, textural and structural properties
  • surface chemistry
  • gasification
  • soil amendment
  • reactivity

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Characteristic Analysis of Torrefied Pellets: Determining Optimal Torrefaction Conditions for Agri-Byproduct
Energies 2020, 13(2), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020423 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study considers the possibility of utilizing agri-byproducts as energy sources via pelletization and torrefaction. Pellets were placed in a capsule and torrefied in an electrical furnace. Subsequently, they were cooled for 30 min, and their mass loss was measured. To investigate the [...] Read more.
This study considers the possibility of utilizing agri-byproducts as energy sources via pelletization and torrefaction. Pellets were placed in a capsule and torrefied in an electrical furnace. Subsequently, they were cooled for 30 min, and their mass loss was measured. To investigate the resulting changes in fuel characteristics, ultimate and proximate analyses were performed, and calorific values were measured. To estimate the water absorption of the pellets, hygroscopicity evaluations were conducted. Based on the experimental results, the energy yield, lower heating value, and exergy were calculated to determine the optimum conditions for torrefaction. The calculation was performed by utilizing the useful exergy and standards applied to biomass power plants. We determined that torrefaction for agro-pellets should be conducted under low-to-intermediate temperatures (210–250 °C) within a period of 50 min. Under these conditions, 7–55% mass reductions were observed, the higher heating value increased from 4110 to 6880 kcal kg−1, and the lower heating value changed from 3780 to 6520 kcal kg−1 owing to reduced hygroscopicity. So, Agro-byproducts can contribute to the practical application by improving the heating value through torrefaction as an alternative to wood pellets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III)
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical and Experimental Analysis on Co-Gasification of Sewage Sludge with Energetic Crops
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091750 - 09 May 2019
Abstract
As known, dried sewage sludge, is a by-product produced from waste water treatment, contains significant amounts of organic content, and makes up to 60% with overall calorific value from 9 to 12 MJ/kg. Hence, it can be considered as material for thermal processing [...] Read more.
As known, dried sewage sludge, is a by-product produced from waste water treatment, contains significant amounts of organic content, and makes up to 60% with overall calorific value from 9 to 12 MJ/kg. Hence, it can be considered as material for thermal processing focusing on heat and power production. Among thermal conversion technologies, gasification is seen as the effective one because it can be easily combined with heat and power cogeneration units. On the other hand, due to high mineral content (40–50%) in the sludge, it is difficult to be gasified and obtain syngas with calorific value satisfactory enough for fueling the internal combustion engine. The dried sludge can be subjected to be gasified at temperature above 850 °C. However, large amounts of mineral content do not provide favorable conditions to obtain this required temperature. Thus, it is proposed to enrich the sewage sludge with biomass characterized with significantly higher calorific value. In the article, co-gasification of sewage sludge and Virginia Mallow—energetic crops was investigated. Results from experimental and numerical investigation have been presented. The dried sewage sludge enriched with Virginia Mallow at a mass ratio of 0/100%, 50/50% and 100/0% in tests and in the range from 0 to 100% for theoretical analysis was applied in order to achieve effective gasification process. As observed, lignocellulosic biomass like Virginia Mallow contains low amounts of mineral content below 2%, which makes it appropriate for thermal processing. It contributes to more stable and efficient gasification process. Additionally, Virginia Mallow caused that the process temperature possible to achieve, was 950 °C. Thus, sewage sludge was mixed with this high-energy component in order to improve the gasification parameters and obtain syngas with higher calorific value. A zero-dimensional, two-zone model was developed with aid of the POLIMI kinetics mechanism developed by CRECK Modeling Group to simulate gasification of low calorific substances enriched with high calorific biomass. Obtained results showed that sewage sludge can be completely gasified at presence of Virginia Mallow. Syngas calorific value of approximately 5 MJ/Nm3 was produced from this gasification process. The maximal percentage of Virginia Mallow in the mixture with the sewage sludge was set at 50% due to economic aspects of the technology. It was found, that satisfactory conditions for effective gasification were achieved at this 50/50% percentage of sewage sludge and Virginia Mallow. Potential intensity of gasification was predicted from this 0-D 2-zones model, which calculates area of reduction zone to area of combustion zone. This reduction-to-combustion area ratio for the sewage sludge-Virginia Mallow mixture was estimated at value of 2. Finally, the model was successfully verified with results from tests, hence it was proposed as a tool for preliminary investigation on poor fuels gasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III)
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Open AccessArticle
Fundamental Characteristics and Kinetic Analysis of Lignocellulosic Woody and Herbaceous Biomass Fuels
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061008 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Biomass fuels are increasingly being viewed as viable alternatives for energy production in biomass-fired power plants and coal-fired power plants, which aim to employ co-firing technologies to achieve CO2 emission reductions. In this study, wood pellets (woody biomass) and kenaf (herbaceous biomass) [...] Read more.
Biomass fuels are increasingly being viewed as viable alternatives for energy production in biomass-fired power plants and coal-fired power plants, which aim to employ co-firing technologies to achieve CO2 emission reductions. In this study, wood pellets (woody biomass) and kenaf (herbaceous biomass) were fully characterized in terms of their elemental compositions, pyrolysis, and char oxidation kinetics. Kinetic parameters were obtained through the application of the multi-Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and Kissinger equation. Analyses of the ash indicated that, unlike coal, the biomass fuel is mostly composed of metal oxide ash. The calorific values of wood pellets were slightly higher than those of kenaf. Detailed kinetic analyses are presented so that steps can be taken to combust the biomass fuels in power plants. The kinetic data suggested that the mechanism for the char oxidation of wood pellets may be more complex than that for kenaf. In summary, these torrefied and pyrolyzed materials were found to represent potentially useful biomass fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hydrothermal Carbonization Kinetics of Lignocellulosic Agro-Wastes: Experimental Data and Modeling
Energies 2019, 12(3), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030516 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Olive trimmings (OT) were used as feedstock for an in-depth experimental study on the reaction kinetics controlling hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). OT were hydrothermally carbonized for a residence time τ of up to 8 h at temperatures between 180 and 250 °C to systematically [...] Read more.
Olive trimmings (OT) were used as feedstock for an in-depth experimental study on the reaction kinetics controlling hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). OT were hydrothermally carbonized for a residence time τ of up to 8 h at temperatures between 180 and 250 °C to systematically investigate the chemical and energy properties changes of hydrochars during HTC. Additional experiments at 120 and 150 °C at τ = 0 h were carried out to analyze the heat-up transient phase required to reach the HTC set-point temperature. Furthermore, an original HTC reaction kinetics model was developed. The HTC reaction pathway was described through a lumped model, in which biomass is converted into solid (distinguished between primary and secondary char), liquid, and gaseous products. The kinetics model, written in MATLABTM, was used in best fitting routines with HTC experimental data obtained using OT and two other agro-wastes previously tested: grape marc and Opuntia Ficus Indica. The HTC kinetics model effectively predicts carbon distribution among HTC products versus time with the thermal transient phase included; it represents an effective tool for R&D in the HTC field. Importantly, both modeling and experimental data suggest that already during the heat-up phase, biomass greatly carbonizes, in particular at the highest temperature tested of 250 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III)
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Open AccessArticle
Stabilization of High-Organic-Content Water Treatment Sludge by Pyrolysis
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3292; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123292 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Water treatment sludge from algal blooms were analyzed and compared with general water treatment sludge as the pyrolysis temperature was varied from 300 °C to 900° C. Elemental analysis showed that the water treatment sludge in the eutrophication region has ~12% carbon content, [...] Read more.
Water treatment sludge from algal blooms were analyzed and compared with general water treatment sludge as the pyrolysis temperature was varied from 300 °C to 900° C. Elemental analysis showed that the water treatment sludge in the eutrophication region has ~12% carbon content, higher than that (8.75%) of general water treatment sludge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both types of sludge showed that amorphous silica changed to quartz and weak crystalline structures like kaolinite or montmorillonite were decomposed and changed into stronger crystalline forms like albite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks of humic/fulvic acid that indicated the affinity to combine with heavy metals disappeared above 700 °C. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), conducted to determine the heavy metal leaching amount of pyrolyzed water treatment sludge, showed the lowest value of 5.7 mg/kg at 500 °C when the humic acid was not decomposed. At 500 °C, the heavy metal leaching ratio to the heavy metal content of high organic content water treatment sludge and low organic content water treatment sludge were 1.87% and 3.19%, respectively, and the water treatment sludge of higher organic content was more stable. In other words, pyrolysis of water treatment sludge with high organic content at 500 °C increases the inorganic matter crystallinity and heavy metal leaching stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications III)
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