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Topical Collection "Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection"

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles; machines and drives; renewable and clean energies; power electronics

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a world where energy conservation, environmental protection and sustainable development are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) technologies has taken on an accelerated pace. This collection entitled “Electric and Hybrid Vehicles” invites articles that address the state-of-the-art technologies and new developments for EVs and HEVs, including but not limited to energy sources, electric powertrains, hybrid powertrains, energy management systems, energy refueling systems, regenerative braking systems, system integration, system optimization and infrastructure. Articles which deal with the latest hot topics for EVs and HEVs are particularly encouraged such as advanced lithium-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, energy-efficient motor drives, bidirectional power converters, integrated-starter-generator systems, electric variable transmission systems, on-board renewable energy, inductive or wireless charging technology, and vehicle-to-grid technology. As the impact of the use of EVs and HEVs on our daily lives is utmost important, articles which deal with the relationships between the use of EVs or HEVs and the energy, environment and economy would be of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (156 papers)

2018

Jump to: 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Quasi-Resonant ZVZCS Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge Converter with an Active Clamp in the Secondary Side
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112868
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
A novel Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) quasi-resonant active-clamp phase-shifted full-bridge converter is presented and analyzed in this paper. In the proposed topology, an active-clamp switch and a clamp capacitor that resonates with the leakage inductance of transformer are employed at the secondary side. The active-clamp
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A novel Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) quasi-resonant active-clamp phase-shifted full-bridge converter is presented and analyzed in this paper. In the proposed topology, an active-clamp switch and a clamp capacitor that resonates with the leakage inductance of transformer are employed at the secondary side. The active-clamp circuit helps all of the primary switches in achieving both zero-voltage switching (ZVS) turn-on and nearly zero-current switching (ZCS) turn-off over the entire load range, and resets the primary current during the freewheeling interval. The operation of the active-clamp circuit eliminates voltage ringing across the rectifier. In addition, the secondary diodes can achieve ZCS turn-off, which removes the reverse recovery problem of diodes, and the active-clamp switch can achieve ZCS turn-on. A 3.5-kW prototype was built to verify the performance of the proposed converter. A maximum efficiency of 97.6% was achieved under a 2-kW load, and an efficiency of more than 96% was achieved even under a light load. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Comparison of Vernier Permanent-Magnet Motors with Interior Permanent-Magnet Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102546
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, three Vernier permanent-magnet (VPM) motor, namely the inner-rotor VPM (IR-VPM) motor, the outer-rotor VPM (OR-VPM) motor and the OR consequent-pole VPM (OR-CP-VPM) motor are proposed for the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Owing to employment of toroidal-winding arrangement, the OR-VPM
[...] Read more.
In this paper, three Vernier permanent-magnet (VPM) motor, namely the inner-rotor VPM (IR-VPM) motor, the outer-rotor VPM (OR-VPM) motor and the OR consequent-pole VPM (OR-CP-VPM) motor are proposed for the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Owing to employment of toroidal-winding arrangement, the OR-VPM and the OR-CP-VPM motors can enjoy better material utilization and easier manufacturing process than its IR-VPM counterpart. Meanwhile the OR-CP-VPM motor can utilize the consequent-pole topology to minimize flux leakage that exists in conventional design. With the support of finite element method (FEM), the motor performances among the VPM motors and the profound interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motor can be compared quantitatively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) Inside the Cathode Catalyst Layer (CCL) of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using the Kinetic Monte Carlo Method
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102529
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a numerical model of the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed to study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) that occurs inside the cathode catalyst layer (CCL). Firstly, a 3-D model of the CCL that consists of Pt and
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In this paper, a numerical model of the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed to study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) that occurs inside the cathode catalyst layer (CCL). Firstly, a 3-D model of the CCL that consists of Pt and carbon spheres is built using the sphere packing method; secondly, an efficient procedure of the proton-oxygen reaction process is developed and simulated. In the proton-oxygen reaction process, all of the continuous movements of protons and oxygen are considered. The maximum reaction distance is determined to be 8 Å. The input pressures of protons and oxygen are represented by the number of spheres of the species. The value of the current density is calculated based on the amount of reaction during the interval time. Indications are that the results of the present model match reasonably well with the published results. A new way to apply the KMC method in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) research field is developed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Steering Stability Control for a Four Hub-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle with Varying Adhesion Coefficient
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092438
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
In order to enhance the steering stability of a four hub-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV) on a road with varying adhesion coefficient, for example on a joint road, this paper proposes a hierarchical steering stability control strategy adapted to the road adhesion. The
[...] Read more.
In order to enhance the steering stability of a four hub-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV) on a road with varying adhesion coefficient, for example on a joint road, this paper proposes a hierarchical steering stability control strategy adapted to the road adhesion. The upper control level of the proposed strategy realizes the integrated control of the sideslip angle and yaw rate in the direct yaw moment control (DYC), where the influences of the road adhesion and sideslip angle are both studied by the fuzzy control. The lower control level employs a weight-based optimal torque distribution algorithm in which weight factors for each motor torque are designed to accommodate different adhesion of each wheel. The proposed stability control strategy was validated in a co-simulation of the Carsim and Matlab/Simulink platforms. The results of double-lane-change maneuver simulations under different conditions indicate that the proposed strategy can effectively achieve robustness to changes in the adhesion coefficient and improve the steering stability of the 4MIDEV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Calculation of Armature Reaction Field of the Interior Permanent Magnet Motor
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092375
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
The energy crisis and environmental concerns worldwide have helped usher in the age of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs). The interior permanent magnet motors (IPMMs) are widely used in these vehicles. The analysis of the armature reaction field is the most
[...] Read more.
The energy crisis and environmental concerns worldwide have helped usher in the age of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs). The interior permanent magnet motors (IPMMs) are widely used in these vehicles. The analysis of the armature reaction field is the most critical issue in the study of IPMMs since it determines the characters of torque, efficiency, vibration, and the radiated acoustic noise. This paper provides a calculation method of the armature reaction magnetic field (ARMF) of an IPMM. First, the formulas of ARMF without magnetic barrier are derived. Second, the relative permeance function of an IPMM is calculated. Third, the analytical solution of the ARMF of an IPMM is derived by applying the armature reaction magnetic field with unsaturated rotor multiplied by relative permeance function. Finally, several results of comparisons between the calculation method proposed in this paper and the finite element method are presented. Based on the calculation method proposed in this paper, the magnetic barrier’s influence on the ARMF is studied. The spatial harmonic orders and time harmonic orders of the ARMF of IPMM are revealed respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Digital Control of an Interleaving Operated Buck-Boost Synchronous Converter Used in a Low-Cost Testing System for an Automotive Powertrain
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092290
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Based on the standardization in the automotive industry, systems require extensive testing, which represents significant costs regarding personnel and equipment. The testing systems must be built in such a way that a bidirectional power flow is possible between the power source and the
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Based on the standardization in the automotive industry, systems require extensive testing, which represents significant costs regarding personnel and equipment. The testing systems must be built in such a way that a bidirectional power flow is possible between the power source and the tested system. Additionally, applied testing systems have to possess high disturbance immunity. Classical current programmed control performed using an analogue approach suffers from low disturbance rejection during switching operation. The digital control of DC–DC converter can solve this problem with the use of digital integration in a measurement chain. The integrals of values are obtained by using a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) and appropriate counters. Digital control of an interleaving operated bidirectional buck-boost synchronous converter can be applied in the testing system for automotive powertrains. The voltage and current measurements with the application of an integral-measurement principle act as low-pass filters, which remove the disturbances from the measured values. The digital implementation of a compensation ramp (current mode control) and method for choice of control parameters are described. All the tasks for measurements, as well as current and voltage control, were implemented within the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The presented converter can operate as a close to ideal voltage or current source, and satisfies the requirements of testing electric motor drive-trains with bidirectional DC–AC converters that are applied in automotive applications. The proposed system was verified by simulation and experiments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle In Operando Neutron Radiography Analysis of a High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on a Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Using the Hydrogen-Deuterium Contrast Method
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092214
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
In order to characterize high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEFCs) in operando, neutron radiography imaging, in combination with the deuterium contrast method, was used to analyze the hydrogen distribution and proton exchange processes in operando. These measurements were then combined with the
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In order to characterize high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEFCs) in operando, neutron radiography imaging, in combination with the deuterium contrast method, was used to analyze the hydrogen distribution and proton exchange processes in operando. These measurements were then combined with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The cell was operated under different current densities and stoichiometries. Neutron images of the active area of the cell were captured in order to study the changeover times when the fuel supply was switched between hydrogen and deuterium, as well as to analyze the cell during steady state conditions. This work demonstrates that the changeover from proton to deuteron (and vice versa) leads to local varying media distributions in the electrolyte, independent of the overall exchange dynamics. A faster proton-to-deuteron exchange was re-discovered when switching the gas supply from H2 to D2 than that from D2 to H2. Furthermore, the D2 uptake and discharge were faster at a higher current density. Specifically, the changeover from H to D takes 5–6 min at 200 mA cm−2, 2–3 min at 400 mA cm−2 and 1–2 min at 600 mA cm−2. An effect on the transmittance changes is apparent when the stoichiometry changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Sizing and Energy Management for Four-Wheel-Independently-Actuated Electric Vehicles Considering Realistic Constructed Driving Cycles
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071768
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an integrated optimization framework of sizing and energy management for four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicles. The optimization framework consists of an inner and an outer layer that are responsible for energy management, i.e., torque allocation, and powertrain parameter optimizations. The optimal torque
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an integrated optimization framework of sizing and energy management for four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicles. The optimization framework consists of an inner and an outer layer that are responsible for energy management, i.e., torque allocation, and powertrain parameter optimizations. The optimal torque allocation in the inner layer is achieved via the dynamic programming (DP) method while the desirable powertrain parameters in the outer layer are pursued based on the exhaustive method. In order to verify the proposed optimization framework, two driving cycles are constructed to represent the comprehensive and realistic driving conditions. One cycle is built by combining six typical driving cycles, which cover urban, high-way and rural driving styles to enhance representativeness. The other one is synthesized using the Markov chain method based on a vast quantity of real-time operating data of electric vehicles in Beijing. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy decreases the power consumption by 15.1% and 13.3%, respectively, in the two driving cycles, compared to the non-optimal, even-torque-allocation strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV) Traction Considering Driving Cycles
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061385
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs). Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed
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This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs). Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gear Ratio Optimization of a Multi-Speed Transmission for Electric Dump Truck Operating on the Structure Route
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061324
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Research demonstrated that the application of a multi-speed transmission could improve the dynamic and economic performance of electric vehicles. This paper deals with a novel multi-speed transmission for the electric dump truck (EDT) operating on the structure route (SR), which has a definite
[...] Read more.
Research demonstrated that the application of a multi-speed transmission could improve the dynamic and economic performance of electric vehicles. This paper deals with a novel multi-speed transmission for the electric dump truck (EDT) operating on the structure route (SR), which has a definite starting point and end point without complex traffic conditions. To optimize the gear ratio and shift schedule to reduce energy consumption in such conditions, the mathematical model of the transmission and the dynamic model of the EDT are initially required. Following this, the shift schedule is presented according to the motor efficiency map. After that, the gear ratio optimization is carried out by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Moreover, the proposed EDT is compared with an EDT with a single-speed transmission. The simulation results show that the energy consumption is reduced by 6.1%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Data-Driven Parameter Identification and State of Charge Estimation for a Li-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Model
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051033
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
It is well known that accurate identification of the key state parameters and State of Charge (SOC) estimation method for a Li-ion battery cell is of great significance for advanced battery management system (BMS) of electric vehicles (EVs), which further facilitates the commercialization
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It is well known that accurate identification of the key state parameters and State of Charge (SOC) estimation method for a Li-ion battery cell is of great significance for advanced battery management system (BMS) of electric vehicles (EVs), which further facilitates the commercialization of EVs. This study proposed a systematic experimental data-driven parameter identification scheme and an adaptive extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SOC estimation algorithm for a Li-Ion battery equivalent circuit model in EV applications. The key state parameters of Li-ion battery cell were identified based on the second-order resistor capacitor (RC) equivalent circuit model and the experimental battery test data using genetic algorithm (GA). Meanwhile, the proposed parameter identification procedure was validated by carrying out a comparative study of the simulated and experimental output voltage under the same input current profile. Then, SOC estimation was performed based on the AEKF algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed SOC estimator was verified by loading different operating profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Enhanced Hybrid Switching-Frequency Modulation Strategy for Fuel Cell Vehicle Three-Level DC-DC Converters with Quasi-Z Source
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051026
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel cell stack has a soft output characteristic whereby the output voltage drops quickly with the increasing output current. In order to interface the dynamic low voltage of the fuel cell stack with the required constant high voltage
[...] Read more.
For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel cell stack has a soft output characteristic whereby the output voltage drops quickly with the increasing output current. In order to interface the dynamic low voltage of the fuel cell stack with the required constant high voltage (400 V) of the inverter DC link bus for fuel cell vehicles, an enhanced hybrid switching-frequency modulation strategy that can improve the voltage-gain range is proposed in this paper for the boost three-level DC-DC converter with a quasi-Z source (BTL-qZ) employed in fuel-cell vehicles. The proposed modulation strategy retains the same advantages of the original modulation strategy with more suitable duty cycles [1/3, 2/3) which avoids extreme duty cycles. Finally, the experimental results validate the feasibility of the proposed modulation strategy and the correctness of its operating principles. Therefore, the BTL-qZ converter is beneficial to interface the fuel cell stack and the DC bus for fuel cell vehicles by using the proposed modulation strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Potential of Camber Control to Improve Vehicles’ Energy Efficiency during Cornering
Energies 2018, 11(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040724
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Actively controlling the camber angle to improve energy efficiency has recently gained interest due to the importance of reducing energy consumption and the driveline electrification trend that makes cost-efficient implementation of actuators possible. To analyse how much energy that can be saved with
[...] Read more.
Actively controlling the camber angle to improve energy efficiency has recently gained interest due to the importance of reducing energy consumption and the driveline electrification trend that makes cost-efficient implementation of actuators possible. To analyse how much energy that can be saved with camber control, the effect of changing the camber angles on the forces and moments of the tyre under different driving conditions should be considered. In this paper, Magic Formula tyre models for combined slip and camber are used for simulation of energy analysis. The components of power loss during cornering are formulated and used to explain the influence that camber angles have on the power loss. For the studied driving paths and the assumed driver model, the simulation results show that active camber control can have considerable influence on power loss during cornering. Different combinations of camber angles are simulated, and a camber control algorithm is proposed and verified in simulation. The results show that the camber controller has very promising application prospects for energy-efficient cornering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Characteristics of an Oscillating Heat Pipe Cooling System for Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2018, 11(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030655
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has
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The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has been adopted for Li-ion battery cooling. Due to the limited space in EVs, the cooling channel is installed on the bottom of the battery module. In the bottom cooling method with an OHP, generated heat can be dissipated easily and conveniently. However, most studies on heat pipes have used bottom heating and top or side cooling methods, so we investigate the various effects of parameters with a top heating/bottom cooling mode with the OHP, i.e., the inclination angle of the system, amount of working fluid charged, the heating amount, and the cold plate temperature with ethanol as a working fluid. The experimental results show that the thermal resistance (0.6 °C/W) and uneven pulsating features influence the heat transfer performance. A heater used as a simulated battery was sustained under 60 °C under 10 W and 14 W heating conditions. This indicates that the proposed cooling system with the bottom cooling is feasible for use as an EV’s battery cooling system. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Towards Optimal Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Real-Time: A Review on Methods, Challenges, and State-Of-The-Art Solutions
Energies 2018, 11(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030476
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In light of increasing alerts about limited energy sources and environment degradation, it has become essential to search for alternatives to thermal engine-based vehicles which are a major source of air pollution and fossil fuel depletion. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), encompassing multiple energy
[...] Read more.
In light of increasing alerts about limited energy sources and environment degradation, it has become essential to search for alternatives to thermal engine-based vehicles which are a major source of air pollution and fossil fuel depletion. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), encompassing multiple energy sources, are a short-term solution that meets the performance requirements and contributes to fuel saving and emission reduction aims. Power management methods such as regulating efficient energy flow to the vehicle propulsion, are core technologies of HEVs. Intelligent power management methods, capable of acquiring optimal power handling, accommodating system inaccuracies, and suiting real-time applications can significantly improve the powertrain efficiency at different operating conditions. Rule-based methods are simply structured and easily implementable in real-time; however, a limited optimality in power handling decisions can be achieved. Optimization-based methods are more capable of achieving this optimality at the price of augmented computational load. In the last few years, these optimization-based methods have been under development to suit real-time application using more predictive, recognitive, and artificial intelligence tools. This paper presents a review-based discussion about these new trends in real-time optimal power management methods. More focus is given to the adaptation tools used to boost methods optimality in real-time. The contribution of this work can be identified in two points: First, to provide researchers and scholars with an overview of different power management methods. Second, to point out the state-of-the-art trends in real-time optimal methods and to highlight promising approaches for future development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Continuous Steering Stability Control Based on an Energy-Saving Torque Distribution Algorithm for a Four in-Wheel-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle
Energies 2018, 11(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020350
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV) to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as
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In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV) to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as a hierarchical structure, including the reference model level, the upper-level controller, and the lower-level controller. The upper-level controller adopts the direct yaw moment control (DYC), which is designed to work continuously during the steering maneuver to better ensure steering stability in extreme situations, rather than working only after the vehicle is judged to be unstable. An adaptive two-hierarchy energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is developed in the lower-level controller with the friction ellipse constraint as a basis for judging whether the algorithm needs to be switched, so as to achieve a more stable and energy-efficient steering operation. The proposed stability controller was validated in a co-simulation of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different steering maneuvers indicate that the proposed controller, compared with the conventional servo controller and the ordinary continuous controller, can reduce energy consumption up to 23.68% and improve the vehicle steering stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Energy Conversion Process in the Electro-Hydrostatic Drive of a Vehicle
Energies 2018, 11(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020348
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the paper, we describe a study of an electro-hydrostatic hybrid drive of a utility van intended for city traffic. In this hybrid drive, the electric drive is periodically accompanied by hydrostatic drive, especially during acceleration and regenerative braking of the vehicle. We
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In the paper, we describe a study of an electro-hydrostatic hybrid drive of a utility van intended for city traffic. In this hybrid drive, the electric drive is periodically accompanied by hydrostatic drive, especially during acceleration and regenerative braking of the vehicle. We present a mathematical model of the hybrid drive as a set of dynamics and regulation equations of the van traveling at a given speed. On this basis, we construct a computer program which we use to simulate the processes of energy conversion in the electro-hydrostatic drive. The main goal of the numerical simulation is to assess the possibility of reducing energy intensity of the electric drive through such a support of the hydrostatic drive. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to reduce the load on elements of the electric system and, therefore, improve energy conversion. Full article
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2017

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Open AccessArticle Magnet Shape Optimization of Two-Layer Spoke-Type Axial Flux Interior Permanent Magnet Machines
Energies 2018, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010015
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the two-layer spoke-type (TLST) axial flux interior permanent magnet (AFIPM) machine is proposed. Simple flux barriers are added to optimize the air gap flux density, in which way there is no need to change the surface of the rotor. The
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the two-layer spoke-type (TLST) axial flux interior permanent magnet (AFIPM) machine is proposed. Simple flux barriers are added to optimize the air gap flux density, in which way there is no need to change the surface of the rotor. The optimization principle is revealed and the advantages of the TLST AFIPM machine compared with the spoke-type (ST) AFIPM machine are clarified. An optimization design process based on magnetic equivalent circuit combined with idealized and improved air gap flux density waveform is proposed, in which way the calculation time is saved by avoiding an excess of finite element method (FEM) simulations. Finally, 3D FEM simulation is adopted to verify the optimization results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Different Driving Cycles and Operating Conditions on CO2 Emissions and Energy Management Strategies of a Euro-6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101590
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS) and on its capability to maximize the efficiency
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Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS) and on its capability to maximize the efficiency of the powertrain in real life as well as during Type Approval (TA) tests. Attempting to close the gap between TA and real world CO2 emissions, the European Commission has decided to introduce from September 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP), replacing the previous procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The aim of this work is the analysis of the impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and on energy management strategies of a Euro-6 HEV through the limited number of information available from the chassis dyno tests. The vehicle was tested considering different initial battery State of Charge (SOC), ranging from 40% to 65%, and engine coolant temperatures, from −7 °C to 70 °C. The change of test conditions from NEDC to WLTP was shown to lead to a significant reduction of the electric drive and to about a 30% increase of CO2 emissions. However, since the specific energy demand of WLTP is about 50% higher than that of NEDC, these results demonstrate that the EMS strategies of the tested vehicle can achieve, in test conditions closer to real life, even higher efficiency levels than those that are currently evaluated on the NEDC, and prove the effectiveness of HEV technology to reduce CO2 emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High-Frequency Isolation (HFI) Charging DC Port Combining a Front-End Three-Level Converter with a Back-End LLC Resonant Converter
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101462
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
The high-frequency isolation (HFI) charging DC port can serve as the interface between unipolar/bipolar DC buses and electric vehicles (EVs) through the two-power-stage system structure that combines the front-end three-level converter with the back-end logical link control (LLC) resonant converter. The DC output
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The high-frequency isolation (HFI) charging DC port can serve as the interface between unipolar/bipolar DC buses and electric vehicles (EVs) through the two-power-stage system structure that combines the front-end three-level converter with the back-end logical link control (LLC) resonant converter. The DC output voltage can be maintained within the desired voltage range by the front-end converter. The electrical isolation can be realized by the back-end LLC converter, which has the bus converter function. According to the three-level topology, the low-voltage rating power devices can be adapted for half-voltage stress of the total DC grid, and the PWM phase-shift control can double the equivalent switching frequency to greatly reduce the filter volume. LLC resonant converters have advance characteristics of inverter-side zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and rectifier-side zero-current switching (ZCS). In particular, it can achieve better performance under quasi-resonant frequency mode. Additionally, the magnetizing current can be modified following different DC output voltages, which have the self-adaptation ZVS condition for decreasing the circulating current. Here, the principles of the proposed topology are analyzed in detail, and the design conditions of the three-level output filter and high-frequency isolation transformer are explored. Finally, a 20 kW prototype with the 760 V input and 200–500 V output are designed and tested. The experimental results are demonstrated to verify the validity and performance of this charging DC port system structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Adaptive Square Root Unscented Kalman Filter Approach for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091345
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
An accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation is of great importance for the battery management systems of electric vehicles. To improve the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimation, lithium-ion battery SOC is estimated using an adaptive square root unscented Kalman filter (ASRUKF) method.
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An accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation is of great importance for the battery management systems of electric vehicles. To improve the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimation, lithium-ion battery SOC is estimated using an adaptive square root unscented Kalman filter (ASRUKF) method. The square roots of the variance matrices of the SOC and noise can be calculated directly by the ASRUKF algorithm, which ensures the symmetry and nonnegative definiteness of the matrices. The process values and measurement noise covariance can be adaptively adjusted, which greatly improves the accuracy, stability, and self-adaptability of the filter. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified through experiments under different operating conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) , which indicates that the ASRUKF method provides better accuracy, robustness and convergence in the estimation of battery SOC for electric vehicles. The proposed method has a mean SOC estimation error of 0.5% and a maximum SOC estimation error of 0.8%. These errors are lower than those of other methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Online Lithium-Ion Battery Internal Resistance Measurement Application in State-of-Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091284
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
The lithium-ion battery is a viable power source for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and, more recently, electric vehicles (EVs). Its performance, especially in terms of state of charge (SOC), plays a significant role in the energy management of these vehicles. The extended Kalman
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The lithium-ion battery is a viable power source for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and, more recently, electric vehicles (EVs). Its performance, especially in terms of state of charge (SOC), plays a significant role in the energy management of these vehicles. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is widely used to estimate online SOC as an efficient estimation algorithm. However, conventional EKF algorithms cannot accurately estimate the difference between individual batteries, which should not be ignored. However, the internal resistance of a battery can represent this difference. Therefore, this work proposes using an EKF with internal resistance measurement based on the conventional algorithm. Lithium-ion battery real-time resistances can help the Kalman filter overcome defects from simplistic battery models. In addition, experimental results show that it is useful to introduce online internal resistance to the estimation of SOC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Vibrations in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Considering Air-Gap Deformation
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091259
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper studies the non-uniform air-gap caused by stator and rotor deformations, together with its effects on the spatial and temporal spectrum of the radial magnetic force density in an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). According to the mathematical model of the
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This paper studies the non-uniform air-gap caused by stator and rotor deformations, together with its effects on the spatial and temporal spectrum of the radial magnetic force density in an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). According to the mathematical model of the deformed air-gap length, the superposition method is adopted to derive the air-gap permeance. Then, the formulas of the magnetic flux field and radial force density of the IPMSM considering air-gap deformation are obtained. Considering the stator oval deformation and the rotor centrifugal distortion in the electromagnetic finite element models (FEMs), the finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments of the investigated IPMSM are carried out to verify the results obtained by the theoretical analysis at different operations. Finally, the mathematical correlation between air-gap deformation and electromagnetic vibration is obtained. The result is helpful in solving problems of mutual influence between electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics during the optimization design of IPMSM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Cooling Effectiveness and Temperature Uniformity in a Battery Pack for Cylindrical Batteries
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081157
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, techniques to improve cooling and temperature uniformity in a simple battery pack are examined. Four battery pack configurations are developed. In the first configuration, an inlet plenum is added to a simple battery pack. In the second configuration, jet inlets
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In this paper, techniques to improve cooling and temperature uniformity in a simple battery pack are examined. Four battery pack configurations are developed. In the first configuration, an inlet plenum is added to a simple battery pack. In the second configuration, jet inlets are incorporated along with the inlet plenum, and in the third configuration, multiple vortex generators are added in addition to the inlet plenum. Finally, in the fourth configuration, an inlet plenum, jet inlets, and multiple vortex generators are incorporated into the battery pack. The results conclude that by adding inlet plenum, multiple vortex generators, and jet inlets in the same configuration, significant improvements are observed. The results also show that the maximum temperature of the battery pack is reduced by ~5%, and the temperature difference between the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature exhibited by the battery pack is reduced by 21.5%. Moreover, there is a ~16% improvement in the temperature uniformity of a single cell. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of On-Board Photovoltaics for a Battery Electric Bus and Their Impact on Battery Lifespan
Energies 2017, 10(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070943
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
PDF Full-text (924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the
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Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the battery with on-board photovoltaic modules. In this paper, a bus model is created to analyze the impact of on-board photovoltaics on electric bus range and battery lifespan. Photovoltaic systems that cover the bus roof and bus sides are considered. The bus model is simulated on a suburban bus drive cycle on a bus route in Davis, CA, USA for a representative sample of yearly weather conditions. Roof-mounted panels increased vehicle driving range by 4.7% on average annually, while roof and side modules together increased driving range by 8.9%. However, variations in weather conditions meant that this additional range was not reliably available. For constant vehicle range, rooftop photovoltaic modules extended battery cycle life by up to 10% while modules on both the roof and sides extended battery cycle life by up to 19%. Although side-mounted photovoltaics increased cycle life and range, they were less weight- and cost-effective compared to the roof-mounted panels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Li-Ion Batteries Based on Multi-Objective Optimization
Energies 2017, 10(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050709
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Charging performance affects the commercial application of electric vehicles (EVs) significantly. This paper presents an optimal charging strategy for Li-ion batteries based on the voltage-based multistage constant current (VMCC) charging strategy. In order to satisfy the different charging demands of the EV users
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Charging performance affects the commercial application of electric vehicles (EVs) significantly. This paper presents an optimal charging strategy for Li-ion batteries based on the voltage-based multistage constant current (VMCC) charging strategy. In order to satisfy the different charging demands of the EV users for charging time, charged capacity and energy loss, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is employed and the influences of charging stage number, charging cut-off voltage and weight factors of different charging goals are analyzed. Comparison experiments of the proposed charging strategy and the traditional normal and fast charging strategies are carried out. The experimental results demonstrate that the traditional normal and fast charging strategies can only satisfy a small range of EV users’ charging demand well while the proposed charging strategy can satisfy the whole range of the charging demand well. The relative increase in charging performance of the proposed charging strategy can reach more than 80% when compared to the normal and fast charging dependently. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fast-Acting Diagnostic Algorithm of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Open Circuit Faults for Power Inverters in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2017, 10(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10040552
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
To improve the diagnostic detection speed in electric vehicles, a novel diagnostic algorithm of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) open circuit faults for power inverters is proposed in this paper. The average of the difference between the actual three-phase current and referential three-phase
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To improve the diagnostic detection speed in electric vehicles, a novel diagnostic algorithm of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) open circuit faults for power inverters is proposed in this paper. The average of the difference between the actual three-phase current and referential three-phase current values over one electrical period is used as the diagnostic variable. The normalization method based on the amplitude of the d-q axis referential current is applied to the diagnostic variables to improve the response speed of diagnosis, and to avoid the noise and the delay caused by signal acquisition. In the parameter discretization process, the variable parameter moving average method (VPMAM) is adopted to solve the variation of the average value over a period with the speed of the motor; hence, the diagnostic reliability of the system is improved. This algorithm is robust, independent of load variations, and has a high resistivity against false alarms. Since only the three-phase current of the motor is utilized for calculations in the time domain, a fast diagnostic detection speed can be achieved, which is significantly essential for real-time control in electric vehicles. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by both simulation and experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Calculation of Magnetic Field Distribution and Stator Iron Losses for Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines
Energies 2017, 10(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030320
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are widely used in electric vehicles owing to many advantages, such as high power density, high efficiency, etc. Iron losses can account for a significant component of the total loss in permanent-magnet (PM) machines. Consequently, these losses should be
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Permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are widely used in electric vehicles owing to many advantages, such as high power density, high efficiency, etc. Iron losses can account for a significant component of the total loss in permanent-magnet (PM) machines. Consequently, these losses should be carefully considered during the PMSM design. In this paper, an analytical calculation method has been proposed to predict the magnetic field distribution and stator iron losses in the surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines. The method introduces the notion of complex relative air-gap permeance to take into account the effect of slotting. The imaginary part of the relative air-gap permeance is neglected to simplify the calculation of the magnetic field distribution in the slotted air gap for the surface-mounted permanent-magnet (SPM) machine. Based on the armature reaction magnetic field analysis, the stator iron losses can be estimated by the modified Steinmetz equation. The stator iron losses under load conditions are calculated according to the varying d-q-axis currents of different control methods. In order to verify the analysis method, finite element simulation results are compared with analytical calculations. The comparisons show good performance of the proposed analytical method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison Study of Two Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications and Their Experimental Validation
Energies 2017, 10(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030279
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC) and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To
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Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC) and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To explore in depth the characteristics and applicability of the two kinds of HESS, an analysis and comparison study is proposed in this paper. Based on the data collected from public transit hybrid electric bus (PTHEB) with battery-only on-board energy storage, the range and distribution probability of electric power/energy demand is comprehensively statistically analyzed with the decomposing and normalizing methods. Accordingly, the performance of each topology under different parameter matching conditions but same mass, volume and cost values with battery-only energy storage, are presented and compared quantitatively. The results show that both HESS configurations can meet the electric power demand of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) through reasonable design. In particular, the SC/battery can make better use of the SC features resulting in high efficiency and long life cycles compared with the battery/SC. Equally, it proves that the SC/battery topology is a better choice for the HEV. Finally, an experimental validation of a real HEV is carried out, which indicated that a 7% fuel economy improvement can be achieved by a SC/battery system compared with battery-only topology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures
Energies 2017, 10(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020243
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. In low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulting from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because
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This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. In low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulting from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as the temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating the battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then, given a certain ambient temperature, a target preheating temperature is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with decreasing ambient temperature, however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save on total vehicle operation costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid System Modeling and Full Cycle Operation Analysis of a Two-Stroke Free-Piston Linear Generator
Energies 2017, 10(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020213
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 29 January 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
Free-piston linear generators (FPLGs) have attractive application prospects for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) owing to their high-efficiency, low-emissions and multi-fuel flexibility. In order to achieve long-term stable operation, the hybrid system design and full-cycle operation strategy are essential factors that should be considered.
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Free-piston linear generators (FPLGs) have attractive application prospects for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) owing to their high-efficiency, low-emissions and multi-fuel flexibility. In order to achieve long-term stable operation, the hybrid system design and full-cycle operation strategy are essential factors that should be considered. A 25 kW FPLG consisting of an internal combustion engine (ICE), a linear electric machine (LEM) and a gas spring (GS) is designed. To improve the power density and generating efficiency, the LEM is assembled with two modular flat-type double-sided PM LEM units, which sandwich a common moving-magnet plate supported by a middle keel beam and bilateral slide guide rails to enhance the stiffness of the moving plate. For the convenience of operation processes analysis, the coupling hybrid system is modeled mathematically and a full cycle simulation model is established. Top-level systemic control strategies including the starting, stable operating, fault recovering and stopping strategies are analyzed and discussed. The analysis results validate that the system can run stably and robustly with the proposed full cycle operation strategy. The effective electric output power can reach 26.36 kW with an overall system efficiency of 36.32%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle State of Charge and State of Health Estimation of AGM VRLA Batteries by Employing a Dual Extended Kalman Filter and an ARX Model for Online Parameter Estimation
Energies 2017, 10(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010137
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
State of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) are key issues for the application of batteries, especially the absorbent glass mat valve regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA) type batteries used in the idle stop start systems (ISSs) that are popularly integrated into conventional
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State of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) are key issues for the application of batteries, especially the absorbent glass mat valve regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA) type batteries used in the idle stop start systems (ISSs) that are popularly integrated into conventional engine-based vehicles. This is due to the fact that SOC and SOH estimation accuracy is crucial for optimizing battery energy utilization, ensuring safety and extending battery life cycles. The dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF), which provides an elegant and powerful solution, is widely applied in SOC and SOH estimation based on a battery parameter model. However, the battery parameters are strongly dependent on operation conditions such as the SOC, current rate and temperature. In addition, battery parameters change significantly over the life cycle of a battery. As a result, many experimental pretests investigating the effects of the internal and external conditions of a battery on its parameters are required, since the accuracy of state estimation depends on the quality of the information regarding battery parameter changes. In this paper, a novel method for SOC and SOH estimation that combines a DEKF algorithm, which considers hysteresis and diffusion effects, and an auto regressive exogenous (ARX) model for online parameters estimation is proposed. The DEKF provides precise information concerning the battery open circuit voltage (OCV) to the ARX model. Meanwhile, the ARX model continues monitoring parameter variations and supplies information on them to the DEKF. In this way, the estimation accuracy can be maintained despite the changing parameters of a battery. Moreover, online parameter estimation from the ARX model can save the time and effort used for parameter pretests. The validation of the proposed algorithm is given by simulation and experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability
Energies 2017, 10(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010126
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by
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This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Identifiability of Equivalent Circuit Models for Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2017, 10(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010090
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 31 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Structural identifiability is a critical aspect of modelling that has been overlooked in the vast majority of Li-ion battery modelling studies. It considers whether it is possible to obtain a unique solution for the unknown model parameters from experimental data. This is a
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Structural identifiability is a critical aspect of modelling that has been overlooked in the vast majority of Li-ion battery modelling studies. It considers whether it is possible to obtain a unique solution for the unknown model parameters from experimental data. This is a fundamental prerequisite of the modelling process, especially when the parameters represent physical battery attributes and the proposed model is utilised to estimate them. Numerical estimates for unidentifiable parameters are effectively meaningless since unidentifiable parameters have an infinite number of possible numerical solutions. It is demonstrated that the physical phenomena assignment to a two-RC (resistor–capacitor) network equivalent circuit model (ECM) is not possible without additional information. Established methods to ascertain structural identifiability are applied to 12 ECMs covering the majority of model templates used previously. Seven ECMs are shown not to be uniquely identifiable, reducing the confidence in the accuracy of the parameter values obtained and highlighting the relevance of structural identifiability even for relatively simple models. Suggestions are proposed to make the models identifiable and, therefore, more valuable in battery management system applications. The detailed analyses illustrate the importance of structural identifiability prior to performing parameter estimation experiments, and the algebraic complications encountered even for simple models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs
Energies 2017, 10(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010081
Received: 5 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a three dimensional (3D) modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the
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In this study, a three dimensional (3D) modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Internal Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Battery Using Model-Based Switching Model Method
Energies 2017, 10(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010076
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (11424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early detection of an internal short circuit (ISCr) in a Li-ion battery can prevent it from undergoing thermal runaway, and thereby ensure battery safety. In this paper, a model-based switching model method (SMM) is proposed to detect the ISCr in the Li-ion battery.
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Early detection of an internal short circuit (ISCr) in a Li-ion battery can prevent it from undergoing thermal runaway, and thereby ensure battery safety. In this paper, a model-based switching model method (SMM) is proposed to detect the ISCr in the Li-ion battery. The SMM updates the model of the Li-ion battery with ISCr to improve the accuracy of ISCr resistance R I S C f estimates. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and the state of charge (SOC) are estimated by applying the equivalent circuit model, and by using the recursive least squares algorithm and the relation between OCV and SOC. As a fault index, the R I S C f is estimated from the estimated OCVs and SOCs to detect the ISCr, and used to update the model; this process yields accurate estimates of OCV and R I S C f . Then the next R I S C f is estimated and used to update the model iteratively. Simulation data from a MATLAB/Simulink model and experimental data verify that this algorithm shows high accuracy of R I S C f estimates to detect the ISCr, thereby helping the battery management system to fulfill early detection of the ISCr. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Velocity Optimization to Minimize Energy Use in Passenger Vehicles
Energies 2017, 10(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010030
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy use in internal combustion engine passenger vehicles contributes directly to CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, as well as producing a number of air pollutants. Optimizing the vehicle velocity by utilising upcoming road information is an opportunity to minimize vehicle energy use
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Energy use in internal combustion engine passenger vehicles contributes directly to CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption, as well as producing a number of air pollutants. Optimizing the vehicle velocity by utilising upcoming road information is an opportunity to minimize vehicle energy use without requiring mechanical design changes. Dynamic programming is capable of such an optimization task and is shown in simulation to produce fuel savings, on average 12%, compared to real driving data; however, in this paper it is also applied in real time on a Raspberry Pi, a low cost miniature computer, in situ in a vehicle. A test drive was undertaken with driver feedback being provided by a dynamic programming algorithm, and the results are compared to a simulated intelligent cruise control system that can follow the algorithm results precisely. An 8% reduction in fuel with no loss in time is reported compared to the test driver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121067
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system
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This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
Energies 2016, 9(12), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9120952
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are
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The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( E 1 ) and third ( E 3 ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coil Design for High Misalignment Tolerant Inductive Power Transfer System for EV Charging
Energies 2016, 9(11), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110937
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract
The inductive power transfer (IPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground) and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis), has been a
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The inductive power transfer (IPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground) and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis), has been a challenge and fundamental interest in the future market of EVs. This paper proposes a new coil design QDQ (Quad D Quadrature) that maintains the high coupling coefficient and efficient power transfer during reasonable misalignment. The QDQ design makes the use of four adjacent circular coils and one square coil, for both charging and pick-up side, to capture the maximum flux at any position. The coil design has been modeled in JMAG software for calculation of inductive parameters using the finite element method (FEM), and its hardware has been tested experimentally at various misaligned positions. The QDQ coils are shown to be capable of achieving good coupling coefficient and high efficiency of the system until the misalignment displacement reaches 50% of the employed coil size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Modeling of Static Eccentricities in Axial Flux Permanent-Magnet Machines with Concentrated Windings
Energies 2016, 9(11), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110892
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to calculate the static eccentricity (SE) of a double rotor axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machine by using a general analytical model. The flux density in the air gap under healthy conditions is calculated firstly, where the
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The aim of this paper is to calculate the static eccentricity (SE) of a double rotor axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machine by using a general analytical model. The flux density in the air gap under healthy conditions is calculated firstly, where the axial and circumferential magnetic flux densities are obtained using a coupled solution of Maxwell’s equations and Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) mapping. The magnetic flux densities under SE conditions are calculated afterwards using a novel bilinear mapping. Some important electromagnetic parameters, e.g., back electromotive force (EMF), cogging torque and electromagnetic (EM) torque, are calculated for both SE and healthy conditions, and compared with the finite element (FE) model. As for the double rotor AFPM, SE does not contribute much effect on the back EMF and EM torque, while the cogging torque is increased. At each calculated section, FE models were built to validate the analytical model. The results show that the analytical predictions agree well with the FE results. Finally, the results of analytical model are verified via experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics
Energies 2016, 9(11), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110879
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
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Abstract
Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are
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Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA) method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle State-of-Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Power Batteries Based on a Tuning Free Observer
Energies 2016, 9(9), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090675
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
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Abstract
A battery’s state-of-charge (SOC) can be used to estimate the mileage an electric vehicle (EV) can travel. It is desirable to make such an estimation not only accurate, but also economical in computation, so that the battery management system (BMS) can
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A battery’s state-of-charge (SOC) can be used to estimate the mileage an electric vehicle (EV) can travel. It is desirable to make such an estimation not only accurate, but also economical in computation, so that the battery management system (BMS) can be cost-effective in its implementation. Existing computationally-efficient SOC estimation algorithms, such as the Luenberger observer, suffer from low accuracy and require tuning of the feedback gain by trial-and-error. In this study, an algorithm named lazy-extended Kalman filter (LEKF) is proposed, to allow the Luenberger observer to learn periodically from the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and solve the problems, while maintaining computational efficiency. We demonstrated the effectiveness and high performance of LEKF by both numerical simulation and experiments under different load conditions. The results show that LEKF can have 50% less computational complexity than the conventional EKF and a near-optimal estimation error of less than 2%. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Juan, A.A.; Mendez, C.A.; Faulin, J.; de Armas, J.; Grasman, S.E. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges. Energies 2016, 9, 86
Energies 2016, 9(7), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070546
Received: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following changes to the published paper [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2016, 9(6), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9060472
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
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Abstract
In the field of state of charge (SOC) estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence
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In the field of state of charge (SOC) estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV) correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R). In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification) and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model), a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2016, 9(6), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9060419
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract
Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The
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Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor) and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) phase node and chassis) at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and responsible elements were determined by the calculation through the equivalent circuits. A combination of mitigation strategies including adding common-mode (CM) ferrite chokes through the Y-caps and the AC bus bar was designed to mitigate the resonances at 6 MHz, 11 MHz, and 26 MHz related to the CM conducted emission by IGBT switching and the radiated emission of the AC cable. The values of Z11 decreased respectively by 15 dB at 6 MHz, 0.4 dB at 11 MHz, and 11.5 dB at 26 MHz and the values of S21 decreased respectively by 8.6 dB at 6 MHz, 7 dB at 11 MHz, and 6.3 dB at 26 MHz. An equivalent model of the power inverter system for real-time simulation in time domain was built to validate the mitigation strategy in simulation software PSPICE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply
Energies 2016, 9(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030171
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
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Abstract
Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs) such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from
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Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs) such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H). In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2016, 9(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030141
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 24 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 27 February 2016
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Abstract
In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG) sets with adding
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In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG) sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT) can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission) architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain. Full article
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