E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claudia Kemfert

1. German Economic Research Institute (DIW Berlin), 10117 Berlin, Germany
2. Energy Economics and Sustainability, Hertie School of Governance, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: renewable energies; energy policy; environmental policy; energy economics; energy modeling; climate policy; energiewende; energy transition
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Christian Breyer

School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: photovoltaics; energy system modeling; renewable energies; sustainable energy systems; power-to-X (fuels, chemicals, material refining, clean water, heat, mobility, CO2 direct removal); net zero GHG emission energy systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Pao-Yu Oei

CoalExit Research Group, TU Berlin; 10623 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy transition; energy modeling; climate policy; coal phase-out; just transition; energy policy; renewable energies; fossil-fuel phase-out

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy markets are already undergoing considerable transitions to accommodate new (renewable) energy forms, new (decentral) energy players, and new system requirements, e.g. flexibility and resilience. Traditional energy markets for fossil fuels are therefore under pressure, while not-yet-mature (renewable) energy markets are emerging. As a consequence, investments in large-scale and capital intensive (traditional) energy production projects are surrounded by high uncertainty, and are difficult to hedge by private entities. Traditional energy production companies are transforming into energy service suppliers and companies aggregating numerous potential market players are emerging, while regulation and system management are playing an increasing role. To address these increasing uncertainties and complexities, economic analysis, forecasting, modeling and investment assessment require fresh approaches and views. Novel research is thus required to simulate multiple actor interplays and idiosyncratic behavior. The required approaches cannot deal only with energy supply, but need to include active demand and cover systemic aspects. Energy market transitions challenge policy-making. Market coordination failure, the removal of barriers hindering restructuring and the combination of market signals with command-and-control policy measures are some of the new aims of policies.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect research papers that address the above issues using novel methods from any adequate perspective, including economic analysis, modeling of systems, behavioral forecasting, and policy assessment.

The issue will include, but is not be limited to:

  • Local control schemes and algorithms for distributed generation systems
  • Centralized and decentralized sustainable energy management strategies
  • Communication architectures, protocols and properties of practical applications
  • Topologies of distributed generation systems improving flexibility, efficiency and power quality
  • Practical issues in the control design and implementation of distributed generation systems
  • Energy transition studies for optimized pathway options aiming for high levels of sustainability

Prof. Dr. Claudia Kemfert
Prof. Dr. Christian Breyer
Dr. Pao-Yu Oei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Transition to net zero GHG emission energy systems
  • Model-based assessment of global decarbonization and defossilisation pathways
  • Scenarios for 100% renewable energy systems
  • Integration of renewables into power systems
  • Managing multi-sectoral electrification

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sectoral Interactions as Carbon Dioxide Emissions Approach Zero in a Highly-Renewable European Energy System
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061032
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are often considered separately, in terms of electricity, heating, transport, and industry. This can lead to the measures being prioritised in the wrong sectors, and neglects interactions between the sectors. In addition, studies often focus on specific [...] Read more.
Measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are often considered separately, in terms of electricity, heating, transport, and industry. This can lead to the measures being prioritised in the wrong sectors, and neglects interactions between the sectors. In addition, studies often focus on specific greenhouse gas reduction targets, despite the uncertainty regarding what targets are desirable and when. In this paper, these issues are examined for the period after 2030 in an existing openly-available, hourly-resolved, per-country, and highly-renewable model of the European energy system, PyPSA-Eur-Sec-30, that includes electricity, land transport, and space and water heating. A parameter sweep of different reduction targets for direct carbon dioxide emissions is performed, ranging from no target down to zero direct emissions. The composition of system investments, the interactions between the energy sectors, shadow prices, and the market values of the system components are analysed as the carbon dioxide limit changes. Electricity and land transport are defossilised first, while the reduction of emissions in space and water heating is delayed by the expense of new components and the difficulty of supplying heat during cold spells with low wind and solar power generation. For deep carbon dioxide reduction, power-to-gas changes the system dynamics by reducing curtailment and increasing the market values of wind and solar power. Using this model setup, cost projections for 2030, and optimal cross-border transmission, the costs of a zero-direct-emission system in these sectors are marginally cheaper than today’s system, even before the health and environmental benefits are taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Energy Storage Implementation on Dynamically Positioned Vessels
Energies 2019, 12(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030444
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
PDF Full-text (3974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blackout prevention on dynamically positioned vessels during closed bus bar operation, which allows more efficient and eco-friendly operation of main diesel generators, is the subject of numerous studies. Developed solutions rely mostly on the ability of propulsion frequency converters to limit the power [...] Read more.
Blackout prevention on dynamically positioned vessels during closed bus bar operation, which allows more efficient and eco-friendly operation of main diesel generators, is the subject of numerous studies. Developed solutions rely mostly on the ability of propulsion frequency converters to limit the power flow from the grid to propulsion motors almost instantly, which reduces available torque until the power system is fully restored after failure. In this paper, a different approach is presented where large scale energy storage is used to take part of the load during the time interval from failure of one of the generators until the synchronization and loading of a stand-by generator. In order to analyze power system behavior during the worst case fault scenario and peak power situations, and to determine the required parameters of the energy storage system, a dynamic simulation model of a ship electrical power system is used. It is concluded that implementation of large scale energy storage can increase the stability and reliability of a vessel’s electrical power system without the need for the reduction of propulsion power during a fault. Based on parameters obtained from simulations, existing energy storage systems were evaluated, and the possibility of their implementation in the maritime transportation sector was considered. Finally, an evaluation model of energy storage implementation cost-effectiveness was presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Capacity Expansion Pathways for a Wind and Solar Based Power Supply and the Impact of Advanced Technology—A Case Study for Germany
Energies 2019, 12(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020324
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind and solar PV have become the lowest-cost renewable alternatives and are expected to dominate the power supply matrix in many countries worldwide. However, wind and solar are inherently variable renewable energy sources (vRES) and their characteristics pose new challenges for power systems [...] Read more.
Wind and solar PV have become the lowest-cost renewable alternatives and are expected to dominate the power supply matrix in many countries worldwide. However, wind and solar are inherently variable renewable energy sources (vRES) and their characteristics pose new challenges for power systems and for the transition to a renewable energy-based power supply. Using new options for the integration of high shares of vRES is therefore crucial. In order to assess these options, we model the expansion pathways of wind power and solar photovoltaics (solar PV) capacities and their impact on the renewable share in a case study for Germany. Therefore, a numerical optimization approach is applied on temporally resolved generation and consumption time series data to identify the most efficient and fastest capacity expansion pathways. In addition to conventional layouts of wind and solar PV, our model includes advanced, system-friendly technology layouts in combination with electric energy storage from existing pumped hydro storage as promising integration options. The results provide policy makers with useful insights for technology-specific capacity expansion as we identified potentials to reduce costs and infrastructural requirements in the form of power grids and electric energy storage, and to accelerate the transition to a fully renewable power sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resilient and Immune by Design Microgrids Using Solid State Transformers
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123377
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
PDF Full-text (5563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid State Transformers (SST) may become, in the near future, key technological enablers for decentralized energy supply systems. They have the potential to unleash new technologies and operation strategies of microgrids and prosumers to move faster towards a low carbon-based economy. This work [...] Read more.
Solid State Transformers (SST) may become, in the near future, key technological enablers for decentralized energy supply systems. They have the potential to unleash new technologies and operation strategies of microgrids and prosumers to move faster towards a low carbon-based economy. This work proposes a paradigm change in the hierarchically and distributed operated power systems where SSTs are used to asynchronously connect the many small low voltage (LV) distribution networks, such as clusters of prosumers or LV microgrids, to the bulk power system. The need for asynchronously coupled microgrids requires a design that allows the LV system to operate independently from the bulk grid and to rely on its own control systems. The purpose of this new approach is to achieve immune and resilient by design configurations that allow maximizing the integration of Local Renewable Energy Resources (L-RES). The paper analyses from the stability point of view, through simplified numerical simulations, the way in which SST-interconnected microgrids can become immune to disturbances that occur in the bulk power system and how sudden changes in the microgrid can damp out at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), thus achieving better reliability and predictability in both systems and enabling strong and healthy distributed energy storage systems (DESSs). Moreover, it is shown that in a fully inverter-based microgrid there is no need for mechanical or synthetic inertia to stabilize the microgrid during power unbalances. This happens because the electrostatic energy stored in the capacitors connected behind the SST inverter can be used for a brief time interval, until automation is activated to address the power unbalance for a longer term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exploring Energy Pathways for the Low-Carbon Transformation in India—A Model-Based Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113001
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With an increasing expected energy demand and current dominance of coal electrification, India plays a major role in global carbon policies and the future low-carbon transformation. This paper explores three energy pathways for India until 2050 by applying the linear, cost-minimizing, global energy [...] Read more.
With an increasing expected energy demand and current dominance of coal electrification, India plays a major role in global carbon policies and the future low-carbon transformation. This paper explores three energy pathways for India until 2050 by applying the linear, cost-minimizing, global energy system model (GENeSYS-MOD). The benchmark scenario “limited emissions only” (LEO) is based on ambitious targets set out by the Paris Agreement. A more conservative “business as usual” (BAU) scenario is sketched out along the lines of the New Policies scenario from the International Energy Agency (IEA). On the more ambitious side, we explore the potential implications of supplying the Indian economy entirely with renewable energies with the “100% renewable energy sources” (100% RES) scenario. Overall, our results suggest that a transformation process towards a low-carbon energy system in the power, heat, and transportation sectors until 2050 is technically feasible. Solar power is likely to establish itself as the key energy source by 2050 in all scenarios, given the model’s underlying emission limits and technical parameters. The paper concludes with an analysis of potential social, economic and political barriers to be overcome for the needed Indian low-carbon transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Building a Community of Users for Open Market Energy
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092330
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
PDF Full-text (3348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy markets are based on energy transactions with a central control entity, where the players are companies. In this research work, we propose an IoT (Internet of Things) system for the accounting of energy flows, as well as a blockchain approach to overcome [...] Read more.
Energy markets are based on energy transactions with a central control entity, where the players are companies. In this research work, we propose an IoT (Internet of Things) system for the accounting of energy flows, as well as a blockchain approach to overcome the need for a central control entity. This allows for the creation of local energy markets to handle distributed energy transactions without needing central control. In parallel, the system aggregates users into communities with target goals and creates new markets for players. These two approaches (blockchain and IoT) are brought together using a gamification approach, allowing for the creation and maintenance of a community for electricity market participation based on pre-defined goals. This community approach increases the number of market players and creates the possibility of traditional end users earning money through small coordinated efforts. We apply this approach to the aggregation of batteries from electrical vehicles so that they become a player in the spinning reserve market. It is also possible to apply this approach to local demand flexibility, associated with the demand response (DR) concept. DR is aggregated to allow greater flexibility in the regulation market based on an OpenADR approach that allows the turning on and off of predefined equipment to handle local microgeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of High V2G Participation in a 100% Renewable Åland Energy System
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092206
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 100% renewable energy (RE) scenario featuring high participation in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services was developed for the Åland islands for 2030 using the EnergyPLAN modelling tool. Hourly data was analysed to determine the roles of various energy storage solutions, notably V2G connections that [...] Read more.
A 100% renewable energy (RE) scenario featuring high participation in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services was developed for the Åland islands for 2030 using the EnergyPLAN modelling tool. Hourly data was analysed to determine the roles of various energy storage solutions, notably V2G connections that extended into electric boat batteries. Two weeks of interest (max/min RE) generation were studied in detail to determine the roles of energy storage solutions. Participation in V2G connections facilitated high shares of variable RE on a daily and weekly basis. In a Sustainable Mobility scenario, high participation in V2G (2750 MWhe) resulted in less gas storage (1200 MWhth), electrolyser capacity (6.1 MWe), methanation capacity (3.9 MWhgas), and offshore wind power capacity (55 MWe) than other scenarios that featured lower V2G participation. Consequently, total annualised costs were lower (225 M€/a). The influence of V2G connections on seasonal storage is an interesting result for a relatively cold, northern geographic area. A key point is that stored electricity need not only be considered as storage for future use by the grid, but V2G batteries can provide a buffer between generation of intermittent RE and its end-use. Direct consumption of intermittent RE further reduces the need for storage and generation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
Figures

Figure 1

Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top