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100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2021) | Viewed by 48457

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Transportation, Environment, DIW Berlin, Mohrenstraße 58, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Interests: energy policy; energy economics and sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Energy Systems, LUT University, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
Interests: 100% renewable energy systems; energy scenarios; solar economy; renewable energy technologies; energy storage; renewable energy business cases.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
CoalExit Research Group, TU Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Interests: energy transition; energy modeling; climate policy; coal phase-out; just transition; energy policy; renewable energies; fossil-fuel phase-out; defossilization; decarbonization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Energy markets are already undergoing considerable transitions to accommodate new (renewable) energy forms, new (decentral) energy players, and new system requirements, e.g., flexibility and resilience. Traditional energy markets for fossil fuels are therefore under pressure, while not yet mature (renewable) energy markets emerge. As a consequence, investments in large-scale and capital intensive (traditional) energy production projects are surrounded by high uncertainty, difficultly hedged by private entities. Traditional energy production companies transform into energy service suppliers, companies aggregating numerous potential market players emerge, while regulation and system management play an increasing role. To address these increasing uncertainties and complexities, economic analysis, forecasting, modeling, and investment assessment require fresh approaches and views. Novel research is thus required to simulate multiple actor interplays and idiosyncratic behaviors. The required approaches cannot deal only with energy supply but need to include active demand and cover systemic aspects. Energy markets transitions challenge policy making. Market coordination failure, removal of barriers hindering restructuring, and combination of market signals with command-and-control policies measures are some of the new aims of policies.

The aim of the Special Issue is to collect research papers that address the above issues using novel methods from any adequate perspective, including economic analysis, modeling of systems, behavioral forecasting, and policy assessment. Paper shall consider the 100% renewable target in their respective analyses.

The issue will include but is not be limited to:

  • Local control schemes and algorithms for distributed generation systems;
  • Centralized and decentralized sustainable energy management strategies;
  • Communication architectures, protocols, and properties of practical applications;
  • Topologies of distributed generation systems improving flexibility, efficiency, and power quality;
  • Practical issues in control design and implementation of distributed generation systems;
  • Energy transition studies for optimized pathway options aiming for high levels of sustainability;
  • Analyzing the interplay of renewable energy potential, regulatory framing, and policy considerations;
  • Research showing the supportive function of very high renewables for ambitious climate targets;
  • Positive side effects of 100% renewable pathways on other emissions, water aspects, and other SDGs;
  • Linking of various models which can enhance a more detailed description of transition aspects.

Prof. Dr. Claudia Kemfert
Prof. Dr. Christian Breyer
Dr. Pao-Yu Oei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Transition to net zero GHG emission energy systems
  • Model-based assessment of global defossilization pathways
  • Scenarios for 100% renewable energy systems
  • Integration of renewables in power systems
  • Managing multisectoral electrification
  • Policy and regulation aspects for 100% renewables pathways

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 6148 KiB  
Article
Decarbonizing Russia: Leapfrogging from Fossil Fuel to Hydrogen
by Vladimir Potashnikov, Alexander Golub, Michael Brody and Oleg Lugovoy
Energies 2022, 15(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030683 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
We examine a different approach to complete the decarbonization of the Russian economy in a world where climate policy increasingly requires the radical reduction of emissions wherever possible. We propose an energy system that can supply solar and wind-generated electricity to fulfill demand [...] Read more.
We examine a different approach to complete the decarbonization of the Russian economy in a world where climate policy increasingly requires the radical reduction of emissions wherever possible. We propose an energy system that can supply solar and wind-generated electricity to fulfill demand and which accounts for intermittency problems. This is instead of the common approach of planning for expensive carbon capture and storage, and a massive increase in energy efficiency and, therefore, a drastic reduction in energy use per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Coupled with this massive increase in alternative energy, we also propose using excess electricity to generate green hydrogen. Hydrogen technology can function as storage for future electricity needs or for potential fuel use. Importantly, green hydrogen can potentially be used as a replacement export for Russia’s current fossil fuel exports. The analysis was carried out using the highly detailed modeling framework, the High-Resolution Renewable Energy System for Russia (HIRES-RUS) representative energy system. The modeling showed that there are a number of feasible combinations of wind and solar power generation coupled with green hydrogen production to achieve 100% decarbonization of the Russian economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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18 pages, 4040 KiB  
Article
Towards a Systemic Assessment of Gendered Energy Transition in Urban Households
by Josephine Kaviti Musango and Andrea M. Bassi
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217251 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Assessment of gendered energy transition at an urban scale has emerged as a challenging issue for researchers, policy makers and practitioners. With municipalities becoming players in the energy markets, their involvement raises policy issues that need to be better assessed in supporting gendered [...] Read more.
Assessment of gendered energy transition at an urban scale has emerged as a challenging issue for researchers, policy makers and practitioners. With municipalities becoming players in the energy markets, their involvement raises policy issues that need to be better assessed in supporting gendered energy transition. This paper, therefore, contributes to gendered energy transition assessments at urban household level from a policy maker perspective. We developed a system dynamics model to assess the effects of urban energy policy interventions on household energy consumption and gendered measures using Drakenstein Municipality as a case study. The study used secondary data from various sources for the model parameters. We tested three hypothetical policy scenarios: the business-as-usual, the energy subsidy policy and the energy efficiency policy. The results show that understanding the changes in urban household energy consumption and gendered measures due to energy transition interventions is essential for urban policy planning. The energy subsidy policy scenario was observed to increase total energy consumption but also resulted in socio-environmental impacts that might increase inequality and impair human health. Urban household energy transition interventions need to consider a systems approach to develop decision support tools that capture the cross-sector impacts and inform the development of interventions that promote gendered household energy transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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57 pages, 35230 KiB  
Article
Towards a Zero-Carbon Electricity System for India in 2050: IDEEA Model-Based Scenarios Integrating Wind and Solar Complementarity and Geospatial Endowments
by Oleg Lugovoy, Varun Jyothiprakash, Sourish Chatterjee, Samridh Sharma, Arijit Mukherjee, Abhishek Das, Shreya Some, Disha L. Dinesha, Nandini Das, Parthaa Bosu, Shyamasree Dasgupta, Lavanya Padhi, Biswanath Roy, Biswajit Thakur, Anupam Debsarkar, Balachandra Patil and Joyashree Roy
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7063; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217063 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4235
Abstract
This study evaluated a potential transition of India’s power sector to 100% wind and solar energy sources. Applying a macro-energy IDEEA (Indian Zero Carbon Energy Pathways) model to 32 regions and 114 locations of potential installation of wind energy and 60 locations of [...] Read more.
This study evaluated a potential transition of India’s power sector to 100% wind and solar energy sources. Applying a macro-energy IDEEA (Indian Zero Carbon Energy Pathways) model to 32 regions and 114 locations of potential installation of wind energy and 60 locations of solar energy, we evaluated a 100% renewable power system in India as a concept. We considered 153 scenarios with varying sets of generating and balancing technologies to evaluate each intermittent energy source separately and their complementarity. Our analysis confirms the potential technical feasibility and long-term reliability of a 100% renewable system for India, even with solar and wind energy only. Such a dual energy source system can potentially deliver fivefold the annual demand of 2019. The robust, reliable supply can be achieved in the long term, as verified by 41 years of weather data. The required expansion of energy storage and the grid will depend on the wind and solar energy structure and the types of generating technologies. Solar energy mostly requires intraday balancing that can be achieved through storage or demand-side flexibility. Wind energy is more seasonal and spatially scattered, and benefits from the long-distance grid expansion for balancing. The complementarity of the two resources on a spatial scale reduces requirements for energy storage. The demand-side flexibility is the key in developing low-cost supply with minimum curtailments. This can be potentially achieved with the proposed two-level electricity market where electricity prices reflect variability of the supply. A modelled experiment with price signals demonstrates how balancing capacity depends on the price levels of guaranteed and flexible types of loads, and therefore, can be defined by the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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17 pages, 860 KiB  
Article
An Economically Viable 100% Renewable Energy System for All Energy Sectors of Germany in 2030
by Thure Traber, Franziska Simone Hegner and Hans-Josef Fell
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175230 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 10557
Abstract
To be able to fulfil the Paris Climate Agreement and keep global warming with reasonable confidence at a maximum of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, Germany must set an end to all greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. At the core of this task [...] Read more.
To be able to fulfil the Paris Climate Agreement and keep global warming with reasonable confidence at a maximum of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, Germany must set an end to all greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. At the core of this task is the switch to 100% renewables across all sectors on the same time horizon. Conventional technologies fueled by fossil and nuclear energies are, according to the vast majority of current cost calculations, energetically inefficient, too expensive, and too slow in expansion to be able to deliver a substantial contribution to rapid climate protection. We present the first comprehensive energy scenario that shows the way to 100% renewable energy for all energy sectors by 2030. The result of the calculations is a cost-effective energy system that is compatible with the German share of necessary greenhouse gas reduction. This study shows a target system of generation, conversion, and storage technologies that can achieve the transformation to 100% renewable energy in all energy sectors—electricity, heat, and mobility—in time and at competitive costs below the costs of the current system. Moreover, we demonstrate the huge cost effect that arises if southern Germany renounces its onshore wind resources and find that this would substantially increase the need for high-voltage direct-current transmission capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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21 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Persistence, Non-Acceptance and Sufficiency in Long-Term Energy Scenarios for Germany
by Christoph Kost, Julian Brandes, Charlotte Senkpiel, Philip Sterchele, Daniel Wrede and Hans-Martin Henning
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4484; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154484 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Long-term transition pathways to a low-carbon energy system are analysed by applying the energy system model REMod. All in all, the paper contributes to the current research through an innovative scenario approach, using assumptions for societal trends and quantitative results for scenarios, analysing [...] Read more.
Long-term transition pathways to a low-carbon energy system are analysed by applying the energy system model REMod. All in all, the paper contributes to the current research through an innovative scenario approach, using assumptions for societal trends and quantitative results for scenarios, analysing the paths towards climate neutrality and defossilization in 2050. In the case study of Germany, these trends and drivers influence the results and the technology composition in each consumption sector (buildings, transport, and industry). Across all scenarios, it can be observed that the electrification of all sectors is important for the defossilization of the energy system, as the direct use of electricity from renewable energy is more efficient than the consumption of carbon-neutral synthetic energy carriers. However, different consumer behavior (e.g., non-acceptance or resistance against specific technologies) influences not only the efficient use of (green) electricity, it also changes the optimal pathways of the transition to paths with greater efforts. One potential societal trend—sufficiency—could be an important cornerstone for reaching the targets, as the required expansion and exchange of technologies are lower and thus facilitate the transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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41 pages, 16570 KiB  
Article
Impact of Internal Carbon Prices on the Energy System of an Organisation’s Facilities in Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom Compared to Potential External Carbon Prices
by Oliver Gregor Gorbach, Noha Saad Hussein and Jessica Thomsen
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4094; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144094 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Organisations attempt to contribute their share towards fighting the climate crisis by trying to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases effectively towards net zero. An instrument to guide their reduction efforts is internal carbon pricing. Next to choosing the right pricing tool, defining [...] Read more.
Organisations attempt to contribute their share towards fighting the climate crisis by trying to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases effectively towards net zero. An instrument to guide their reduction efforts is internal carbon pricing. Next to choosing the right pricing tool, defining the exact value of an internal carbon price, especially against the background of potential regulatory external carbon prices, and assessing its impact on business units’ energy systems poses a challenge for organisations. The academic literature has so far not examined the impact differences of an internal carbon price across different countries, which this paper addresses by using an optimisation model. First, it analyses the energy system cost increase of a real-world facility based on an internal carbon price compared to a potential regulatory carbon price within a country. Second, we evaluate the energy system cost increase based on an internal carbon price across different countries. The results show that with regard to internal carbon prices the additional total system cost compared to potential external carbon prices stays within 9%, 15%, and 59% for Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom, respectively. The increase in the energy system cost in each country varies between 3% and 93%. For all countries, the cost differences can be reduced by allowing the installation of renewables. The integration of renewables via energy storage and power-to-heat technologies depends on the renewable potentials and the availability of carbon capture and storage. If organisations do not account for these differences, it might raise the disapproval of internal carbon prices within the organisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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51 pages, 10745 KiB  
Article
Global-Local Heat Demand Development for the Energy Transition Time Frame Up to 2050
by Dominik Keiner, Larissa D.S.N.S. Barbosa, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Arman Aghahosseini, Ashish Gulagi, Solomon Oyewo, Michael Child, Siavash Khalili and Christian Breyer
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3814; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133814 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Globally, the heat sector has a major share in energy consumption and carbon emission footprint. To provide reliable mitigation options for space heating, domestic hot water, industrial process heat and biomass for cooking for the energy transition time frame up to the year [...] Read more.
Globally, the heat sector has a major share in energy consumption and carbon emission footprint. To provide reliable mitigation options for space heating, domestic hot water, industrial process heat and biomass for cooking for the energy transition time frame up to the year 2050, energy system modeling relies on a comprehensive and detailed heat demand database in high spatial resolution, which is not available. This study overcomes this hurdle and provides a global heat demand database for the mentioned heat demand types and in a resolution of 145 mesoscale regions up to the year 2050 based on the current heat demand and detailed elaboration of parameters influencing the future heat demand. Additionally, heat demand profiles for 145 mesoscale regions are provided. This research finds the total global heat demand will increase from about 45,400 TWhth in 2012 up to about 56,600 TWhth in 2050. The efficiency measures in buildings lead to a peak of space heating demand in around 2035, strong growth in standards of living leads to a steady rise of domestic hot water consumption, and a positive trend for the worldwide economic development induces a growing demand for industrial process heat, counterbalanced by the efficiency gain in already industrialised countries. For the case of biomass for cooking, a phase-out path until 2050 is presented. Literature research revealed a lack of consensus on future heat demand. This research intends to facilitate a more differentiated discussion on heat demand projections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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17 pages, 5080 KiB  
Article
100% Renewable Energy Scenarios for North America—Spatial Distribution and Network Constraints
by Elmar Zozmann, Leonard Göke, Mario Kendziorski, Citlali Rodriguez del Angel, Christian von Hirschhausen and Johanna Winkler
Energies 2021, 14(3), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030658 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5088
Abstract
The urgency to combat climate change and the widely distributed, increasingly competitive renewable resources in North America are strong arguments to explore scenarios for a renewable energy supply in the region. While the current power system of North America is heavily dependent on [...] Read more.
The urgency to combat climate change and the widely distributed, increasingly competitive renewable resources in North America are strong arguments to explore scenarios for a renewable energy supply in the region. While the current power system of North America is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, namely natural gas, coal and oil, and some nuclear power plants, some current policies at the state level, and future federal policies are likely to push the share of different renewable sources available in Mexico, the U.S., and Canada. This paper explores three scenarios for a renewable energy supply, using a bottom-up energy system model with a high level of spatial and time granularity. The scenarios span the extremes with respect to connecting infrastructure: while one scenario only looks at state-level supply and demand, without interconnections, the other extreme scenario allows cross-continental network investments. The model results indicate that the North American continent (a) has sufficient renewable potential to satisfy its energy demand with renewables, independent of the underlying grid assumption, (b) solar generation dominates the generation mix as the least-cost option under given renewable resource availability and (c) simultaneous planning of generation and transmission capacity expansion does not result in high grid investments, but the necessary flexibility to integrate intermittent renewable generation is rather provided by the existing grid in combination with short-term and seasonal storages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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14 pages, 1979 KiB  
Article
A Quantitative Study on the Requirement for Additional Inertia in the European Power System until 2050 and the Potential Role of Wind Power
by Christos Agathokleous and Jimmy Ehnberg
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092309 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
A significant amount of conventional power plants in the European power system is anticipated to be replaced by solar and wind power in the future. This may require alternative sources for inertia support. The purpose of the paper is to learn about the [...] Read more.
A significant amount of conventional power plants in the European power system is anticipated to be replaced by solar and wind power in the future. This may require alternative sources for inertia support. The purpose of the paper is to learn about the consequences on the frequency deviation after a fault in the European power system when more wind and solar are introduced and when wind is considered as a possible provider of inertia. This study quantifies the expected maximum requirement for additional inertia in the future European power system up to 2050. Furthermore, we investigated the possibility of wind power to meet this additional need by providing emulated inertia. The European power system of the EU-28 countries has been clustered to the five synchronous grids, UCTE, Nordic, UK, Baltic and Irish. The future European energy mix is simulated considering twelve different scenarios. Production units are dispatched according to their expected environmental impacts, which closely follow the minimum natural contribution of inertia, in descending order. The available capacity for all the types of production is considered the same as the installed. For all the simulated scenarios the worst case is examined, which means that a sudden disconnection of the largest production unit of the dispatched types is considered. Case study results reveal that, in most cases, additional inertia will be required but wind power may fully cover this need for up to 84% of all simulated horizons among all the scenarios on the UCTE grid, and for up to 98%, 86%, 99% and 86% on the Nordic, UK, Baltic and Irish grids, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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37 pages, 7120 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Similarities between the European Union Countries in Terms of the Structure and Volume of Energy Production from Renewable Energy Sources
by Jarosław Brodny and Magdalena Tutak
Energies 2020, 13(4), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040913 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 91 | Viewed by 8243
Abstract
The European Union (EU) countries, as one of the most economically developed regions in the world, are taking increasingly decisive actions to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the natural environment. This can be exemplified by a new climate strategy referred to [...] Read more.
The European Union (EU) countries, as one of the most economically developed regions in the world, are taking increasingly decisive actions to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the natural environment. This can be exemplified by a new climate strategy referred to as “The European Green Deal”. Its basic assumption is that the EU countries will have achieved climate neutrality by 2050. To do so, it is necessary to make an energy transition involving the widest possible use of renewable energy sources (RES) for energy production. However, activities in this area should be preceded by analyses due to the large diversity of the EU countries in terms of economic development, the number of inhabitants and their wealth as well as geographical location and area. The results of such analyses should support the implementation of adopted strategies. In order to assess the current state of the energy sector in the EU and indicate future directions of activities, research was carried out to analyze the structure and volume of energy production from RES in the EU countries. The aim of the study was to divide the EU countries into similar groups by the structure and volume of energy production from RES. This production was compared with the number of inhabitants of each EU country, its area and the value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This approach allows a new and broader view of the structure of energy production from RES and creates an opportunity to take into account additional factors when developing and implementing new climate strategies. The k-means algorithm was used for the analysis. The presented analyses and obtained results constitute a new approach to studying the diversified energy market in the EU. The results should be used for the development of a common energy and climate policy and economic integration of the EU countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 2695 KiB  
Review
The Emerging Potential of Microgrids in the Transition to 100% Renewable Energy Systems
by Richard Wallsgrove, Jisuk Woo, Jae-Hyup Lee and Lorraine Akiba
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061687 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4361
Abstract
International, national, and subnational laws and policies call for rapidly decarbonizing energy systems around the globe. This effort relies heavily on renewable electricity and calls for a transition that is: (i) flexible enough to accommodate existing and new electricity end uses and users; [...] Read more.
International, national, and subnational laws and policies call for rapidly decarbonizing energy systems around the globe. This effort relies heavily on renewable electricity and calls for a transition that is: (i) flexible enough to accommodate existing and new electricity end uses and users; (ii) resilient in response to climate change and other threats to electricity infrastructure; (iii) cost-effective in comparison to alternatives; and (iv) just in the face of energy systems that are often the result of—or the cause of—procedural, distributive, and historical injustices. Acknowledging the intertwined roles of technology and policy, this work provides a cross-disciplinary review of how microgrids may contribute to renewable electricity systems that are flexible, resilient, cost-effective, and just (including illustrative examples from Korea, California, New York, the European Union, and elsewhere). Following this review of generalized microgrid characteristics, we more closely examine the role and potential of microgrids in two United States jurisdictions that have adopted 100% renewable electricity standards (Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico), and which are actively developing regulatory regimes putatively designed to enable renewable microgrids. Collectively, this review shows that although microgrids have the potential to support the transition to 100% renewable electricity in a variety of ways, the emerging policy structures require substantial further development to operationalize that potential. We conclude that unresolved fundamental policy tensions arise from justice considerations, such as how to distribute the benefits and burdens of microgrid infrastructure, rather than from technical questions about microgrid topologies and operating characteristics. Nonetheless, technical and quantitative future research will be necessary to assist regulators as they develop microgrid policies. In particular, there is a need to develop socio–techno–economic analyses of cost-effectiveness, which consider a broad range of potential benefits and costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
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