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Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A5: Hydrogen Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 49605
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Guest Editor
Gas- und Wärme-Institut Essen e.V. (GWI), Hafenstrasse 101, 45356 Essen, Germany
Interests: power-to-gas; hydrogen; energy technology; energy science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most of you—maybe even all of you—share my enthusiasm for hydrogen and power-to-gas technologies as key ingredients for a clean energy supply of the future, I assume.

I also know that all of you have fantastic ongoing or finished projects on specific aspects of the broad topic. Many of the interesting insights you shared with me in the past are still waiting for an opportunity to be recognized by experts around the world, as well as the public.

When Energies contacted me with an invitation to become their Guest Editor in a Special Issue completely dedicated to power-to-gas, I thought about all the results waiting for publication on your and my desks and could not say no. This is how I have come to contact you today with the kind invitation to join me and take the chance to make some noise about power-to-gas-related results from our various research projects.

The title of the Special Issue will be broad to give space for as many interesting pieces of research as possible, no matter how small or detailed they may appear at first glance. We shall invite technical as well as theoretical papers, and all suggestions, regional contexts, and technologies related to hydrogen and power-to-gas are welcome to be suggested by all of you.

I would be pleased to hear from you and wish you all the best, first and foremost good health and a strong mind to overcome the COVID-19 crisis and push forward toward a green energy transition together.

Dr. Johannes Schaffert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power-to-gas
  • P2G
  • PtG
  • hydrogen
  • H2
  • decarbonization
  • energy transition
  • E-fuels
  • energy conversion
  • energy storage
  • energy system
  • energy technology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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9 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems
by Johannes Schaffert
Energies 2023, 16(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010135 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Hydrogen is expected to become a key component in the decarbonized energy systems of the future [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

50 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
Residential Fuel Transition and Fuel Interchangeability in Current Self-Aspirating Combustion Applications: Historical Development and Future Expectations
by Yan Zhao, Vince McDonell and Scott Samuelsen
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3547; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103547 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
To reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, new technologies are emerging to reduce fossil fuel usage and to adopt more renewable energy sources. As the major aspects of fuel consumption, power generation, transportation, and industrial applications have been given significant attention. The past [...] Read more.
To reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, new technologies are emerging to reduce fossil fuel usage and to adopt more renewable energy sources. As the major aspects of fuel consumption, power generation, transportation, and industrial applications have been given significant attention. The past few decades witnessed astonishing technological advancement in these energy sectors. In contrast, the residential sector has had relatively little attention despite its significant utilization of fuels for a much longer period. However, almost every energy transition in human history was initiated by the residential sector. For example, the transition from fuelwood to cheap coal in the 1700s first took place in residential houses due to urbanization and industrialization. The present review demonstrates the energy transitions in the residential sector during the past two centuries while portending an upcoming energy transition and future energy structure for the residential sector. The feasibility of the 100% electrification of residential buildings is discussed based on current residential appliance adoption, and the analysis indicates a hybrid residential energy structure is preferred over depending on a single energy source. Technical considerations and suggestions are given to help incorporate more renewable energy into the residential fuel supply system. Finally, it is observed that, compared to the numerous regulations on large energy-consumption aspects, standards for residential appliances are scarce. Therefore, it is concluded that establishing appropriate testing methods is a critical enabling step to facilitate the adoption of renewable fuels in future appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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16 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
Current Legislative Framework for Green Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis Plants in Germany
by Lena Maria Ringsgwandl, Johannes Schaffert, Nils Brücken, Rolf Albus and Klaus Görner
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051786 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5403
Abstract
(1) The German energy system transformation towards an entirely renewable supply is expected to incorporate the extensive use of green hydrogen. This carbon-free fuel allows the decarbonization of end-use sectors such as industrial high-temperature processes or heavy-duty transport that remain challenging to be [...] Read more.
(1) The German energy system transformation towards an entirely renewable supply is expected to incorporate the extensive use of green hydrogen. This carbon-free fuel allows the decarbonization of end-use sectors such as industrial high-temperature processes or heavy-duty transport that remain challenging to be covered by green electricity only. However, it remains unclear whether the current legislative framework supports green hydrogen production or is an obstacle to its rollout. (2) This work analyzes the relevant laws and ordinances regarding their implications on potential hydrogen production plant operators. (3) Due to unbundling-related constraints, potential operators from the group of electricity transport system and distribution system operators face lacking permission to operate production plants. Moreover, ownership remains forbidden for them. The same applies to natural gas transport system operators. The case is less clear for natural gas distribution system operators, where explicit regulation is missing. (4) It is finally analyzed if the production of green hydrogen is currently supported in competition with fossil hydrogen production, not only by the legal framework but also by the National Hydrogen Strategy and the Amendment of the Renewable Energies Act. It can be concluded that in recent amendments of German energy legislation, regulatory support for green hydrogen in Germany was found. The latest legislation has clarified crucial points concerning the ownership and operation of electrolyzers and the treatment of green hydrogen as a renewable energy carrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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31 pages, 9196 KiB  
Article
Impact of Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends on Partially Premixed Combustion Equipment: NOx Emission and Operational Performance
by Paul Glanville, Alex Fridlyand, Brian Sutherland, Miroslaw Liszka, Yan Zhao, Luke Bingham and Kris Jorgensen
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051706 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 8460
Abstract
Several North American utilities are planning to blend hydrogen into gas grids, as a short-term way of addressing the scalable demand for hydrogen and as a long-term decarbonization strategy for ‘difficult-to-electrify’ end uses. This study documents the impact of 0–30% hydrogen blends by [...] Read more.
Several North American utilities are planning to blend hydrogen into gas grids, as a short-term way of addressing the scalable demand for hydrogen and as a long-term decarbonization strategy for ‘difficult-to-electrify’ end uses. This study documents the impact of 0–30% hydrogen blends by volume on the performance, emissions, and safety of unadjusted equipment in a simulated use environment, focusing on prevalent partially premixed combustion designs. Following a thorough literature review, the authors describe three sets of results: operating standard and “ultra-low NOx” burners from common heating equipment in “simulators” with hydrogen/methane blends up to 30% by volume, in situ testing of the same heating equipment, and field sampling of a wider range of equipment with 0–10% hydrogen/natural gas blends at a utility-owned training facility. The equipment was successfully operated with up to 30% hydrogen-blended fuels, with limited visual changes to flames, and key trends emerged: (a) a decrease in the input rate from 0 to 30% H2 up to 11%, often in excess of the Wobbe Index-based predictions; (b) NOx and CO emissions are flat or decline (air-free or energy-adjusted basis) with increasing hydrogen blending; and (c) a minor decrease (1.2%) or increase (0.9%) in efficiency from 0 to 30% hydrogen blends for standard versus ultra-low NOx-type water heaters, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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65 pages, 32992 KiB  
Article
An Overview of Promising Alternative Fuels for Road, Rail, Air, and Inland Waterway Transport in Germany
by Janos Lucian Breuer, Juri Scholten, Jan Christian Koj, Felix Schorn, Marc Fiebrandt, Remzi Can Samsun, Rolf Albus, Klaus Görner, Detlef Stolten and Ralf Peters
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041443 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 9608
Abstract
To solve the challenge of decarbonizing the transport sector, a broad variety of alternative fuels based on different concepts, including Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid, and propulsion systems, have been developed. The current research landscape is investigating either a selection of fuel options or a [...] Read more.
To solve the challenge of decarbonizing the transport sector, a broad variety of alternative fuels based on different concepts, including Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid, and propulsion systems, have been developed. The current research landscape is investigating either a selection of fuel options or a selection of criteria, a comprehensive overview is missing so far. This study aims to close this gap by providing a holistic analysis of existing fuel and drivetrain options, spanning production to utilization. For this purpose, a case study for Germany is performed considering different vehicle classes in road, rail, inland waterway, and air transport. The evaluated criteria on the production side include technical maturity, costs, as well as environmental impacts, whereas, on the utilization side, possible blending with existing fossil fuels and the satisfaction of the required mission ranges are evaluated. Overall, the fuels and propulsion systems, Methanol-to-Gasoline, Fischer–Tropsch diesel and kerosene, hydrogen, battery-electric propulsion, HVO, DME, and natural gas are identified as promising future options. All of these promising fuels could reach near-zero greenhouse gas emissions bounded to some mandatory preconditions. However, the current research landscape is characterized by high insecurity with regard to fuel costs, depending on the predicted range and length of value chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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22 pages, 5804 KiB  
Article
Integrating System and Operator Perspectives for the Evaluation of Power-to-Gas Plants in the Future German Energy System
by Johannes Schaffert, Hans Christian Gils, Max Fette, Hedda Gardian, Christine Brandstätt, Thomas Pregger, Nils Brücken, Eren Tali, Marc Fiebrandt, Rolf Albus and Frank Burmeister
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031174 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
In which way, and in which sectors, will renewable energy be integrated in the German Energy System by 2030, 2040, and 2050? How can the resulting energy system be characterised following a −95% greenhouse gas emission reduction scenario? Which role will hydrogen play? [...] Read more.
In which way, and in which sectors, will renewable energy be integrated in the German Energy System by 2030, 2040, and 2050? How can the resulting energy system be characterised following a −95% greenhouse gas emission reduction scenario? Which role will hydrogen play? To address these research questions, techno-economic energy system modelling was performed. Evaluation of the resulting operation of energy technologies was carried out from a system and a business point of view. Special consideration of gas technologies, such as hydrogen production, transport, and storage, was taken as a large-scale and long-term energy storage option and key enabler for the decarbonisation of the non-electric sectors. The broad set of results gives insight into the entangled interactions of the future energy technology portfolio and its operation within a coupled energy system. Amongst other energy demands, CO2 emissions, hydrogen production, and future power plant capacities are presented. One main conclusion is that integrating the first elements of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure into the German energy system, already, by 2030 is necessary for ensuring the supply of upscaling demands across all sectors. Within the regulatory regime of 2020, it seems that this decision may come too late, which jeopardises the achievement of transition targets within the horizon 2050. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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30 pages, 5529 KiB  
Article
Multidisciplinary Assessment of a Novel Carbon Capture and Utilization Concept including Underground Sun Conversion
by Andreas Zauner, Karin Fazeni-Fraisl, Philipp Wolf-Zoellner, Argjenta Veseli, Marie-Theres Holzleitner, Markus Lehner, Stephan Bauer and Markus Pichler
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031021 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
The current work investigates the feasibility of a novel Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) approach—also known as Underground Sun Conversion (USC) or geo-methanation. The overall objective of the current work is a comprehensive assessment on the technical, economic and legal aspects as well [...] Read more.
The current work investigates the feasibility of a novel Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) approach—also known as Underground Sun Conversion (USC) or geo-methanation. The overall objective of the current work is a comprehensive assessment on the technical, economic and legal aspects as well as greenhouse gas impacts to be concerned for establishing USC technology concept. This is achieved by applying multidisciplinary research approach combining process simulation, techno-economic and greenhouse gas assessment as well as legal analysis allows answering questions about technical, economic feasibility and greenhouse gas performance as well as on legal constraints related to large scale CCU using geo-methanation in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. CO2 from the industry and renewable H2 from the electrolyser are converted to geomethane in an underground gas storage and used in industry again to close the carbon cycle. Process simulation results showed the conversion rates vary due to operation mode and gas cleaning is necessary in any case to achieve natural gas grid compliant feed in quality. The geomethane production costs are found to be similar or even lower than the costs for synthetic methane from Above Ground Methanation (AGM). The GHG-assessment shows a significant saving compared to fossil natural gas and conventional power-to-gas applications. From a legal perspective the major challenge arises from a regulative gap of CCU in the ETS regime. Accordingly, a far-reaching exemption from the obligation to surrender certificates would be fraught with many legal and technical problems and uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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13 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Hydrogen Admixture into Natural Gas on Residential and Commercial Gas Appliances
by Jörg Leicher, Johannes Schaffert, Hristina Cigarida, Eren Tali, Frank Burmeister, Anne Giese, Rolf Albus, Klaus Görner, Stéphane Carpentier, Patrick Milin and Jean Schweitzer
Energies 2022, 15(3), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030777 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6974
Abstract
Hydrogen as a carbon-free fuel is commonly expected to play a major role in future energy supply, e.g., as an admixture gas in natural gas grids. Which impacts on residential and commercial gas appliances can be expected due to the significantly different physical [...] Read more.
Hydrogen as a carbon-free fuel is commonly expected to play a major role in future energy supply, e.g., as an admixture gas in natural gas grids. Which impacts on residential and commercial gas appliances can be expected due to the significantly different physical and chemical properties of hydrogen-enriched natural gas? This paper analyses and discusses blends of hydrogen and natural gas from the perspective of combustion science. The admixture of hydrogen into natural gas changes the properties of the fuel gas. Depending on the combustion system, burner design and other boundary conditions, these changes may cause higher combustion temperatures and laminar combustion velocities, while changing flame positions and shapes are also to be expected. For appliances that are designed for natural gas, these effects may cause risk of flashback, reduced operational safety, material deterioration, higher nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx), and efficiency losses. Theoretical considerations and first measurements indicate that the effects of hydrogen admixture on combustion temperatures and the laminar combustion velocities are often largely mitigated by a shift towards higher air excess ratios in the absence of combustion control systems, but also that common combustion control technologies may be unable to react properly to the presence of hydrogen in the fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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9 pages, 2095 KiB  
Article
[NiFe]-(Oxy)Sulfides Derived from NiFe2O4 for the Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
by David Tetzlaff, Vasanth Alagarasan, Christopher Simon, Daniel Siegmund, Kai junge Puring, Roland Marschall and Ulf-Peter Apfel
Energies 2022, 15(2), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020543 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
The development of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts is regarded as a key factor for realizing industrial-scale hydrogen production powered by renewable energy sources. Inspired by nature, which uses Fe- and Ni-containing enzymes for efficient hydrogen generation, Fe/Ni-containing chalcogenides, such as oxides and sulfides, received increasing [...] Read more.
The development of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts is regarded as a key factor for realizing industrial-scale hydrogen production powered by renewable energy sources. Inspired by nature, which uses Fe- and Ni-containing enzymes for efficient hydrogen generation, Fe/Ni-containing chalcogenides, such as oxides and sulfides, received increasing attention as promising electrocatalysts to produce hydrogen. We herein present a novel synthetic procedure for mixed Fe/Ni (oxy)sulfide materials by the controlled (partial) sulfidation of NiFe2O4 (NFO) nanoparticles in H2S-containing atmospheres. The variation in H2S concentration and the temperature allows for a precise control of stoichiometry and phase composition. The obtained sulfidized materials (NFS) catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with increased activity in comparison to NFO, up to −10 and −100 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of approx. 250 and 450 mV, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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16 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
Mapping Bio-CO2 and Wind Resources for Decarbonized Steel, E-Methanol and District Heat Production in the Bothnian Bay
by Hannu Karjunen, Eero Inkeri and Tero Tynjälä
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8518; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248518 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock for various chemical and industrial processes, as well as an energy carrier. Dedicated hydrogen infrastructure is envisioned to conceptualize in hydrogen valleys, which link together the suppliers and consumers of hydrogen, heat, oxygen, and electricity. One potential hydrogen [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock for various chemical and industrial processes, as well as an energy carrier. Dedicated hydrogen infrastructure is envisioned to conceptualize in hydrogen valleys, which link together the suppliers and consumers of hydrogen, heat, oxygen, and electricity. One potential hydrogen valley is the Bay of Bothnia, located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden. The region is characterized as having excellent wind power potential, a strong forest cluster with numerous pulp and paper mills, and significant iron ore and steel production. The study investigates the hydrogen-related opportunities in the region, focusing on infrastructural requirements, flexibility, and co-operation of different sectors. The study found that local wind power capacity is rapidly increasing and will eventually enable the decarbonization of the steel sector in the area, along with moderate Power-to-X implementation. In such case, the heat obtained as a by-product from the electrolysis of hydrogen would greatly exceed the combined district heat demand of the major cities in the area. To completely fulfil its district heat demand, the city of Oulu was simulated to require 0.5–1.2 GW of electrolyser capacity, supported by heat pumps and optionally with heat storages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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17 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Coupled Power and Gas Systems with Hydrogen-Enriched Natural Gas
by Yifei Lu, Thiemo Pesch and Andrea Benigni
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7680; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227680 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Due to the increasing share of renewable energy sources in the electrical network, the focus on decarbonization has extended into other energy sectors. The gas sector is of special interest because it can offer seasonal storage capacity and additional flexibility to the electricity [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing share of renewable energy sources in the electrical network, the focus on decarbonization has extended into other energy sectors. The gas sector is of special interest because it can offer seasonal storage capacity and additional flexibility to the electricity sector. In this paper, we present a new simulation method designed for hydrogen-enriched natural gas network simulation. It can handle different gas compositions and is thus able to accurately analyze the impact of hydrogen injections into natural gas pipelines. After describing the newly defined simulation method, we demonstrate how the simulation tool can be used to analyze a hydrogen-enriched gas pipeline network. An exemplary co-simulation of coupled power and gas networks shows that hydrogen injections are severely constrained by the gas pipeline network, highlighting the importance and necessity of considering different gas compositions in the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Power-to-Gas Energy Systems)
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