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Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 26529

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Engineering, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2. CPES INESCTEC-Center for Power and Energy System, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: power system quality; harmonic distortion; monitorization systems; renewables; microgeneration; electrical machines
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Co-Guest Editor
GECAD-Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development, Rua DR. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: demand response; electricity markets; energy communities; renewable energy integration; real-time simulation; smart grids; virtual power players
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro and INESC-TEC, UTAD’s Pole, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: smart grid; electricity markets; artificial intelligence; machine learning; multi-agent systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
GECAD–Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development, Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP/IPP), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: distribution network planning; operation and reconfiguration; smart grids; smart cities; electric mobility; distributed energy resources management; power systems reliability; future power systems; optimization; electricity markets and intelligent house management systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The power quality delivered by the distribution companies to consumers has always been a relevant issue, especially to industrial consumers where power quality is directly related to productivity. However, until a few years ago, power quality was mostly synonymous with continuity of service, the main concern was minimization of power interruptions. Since last decade of the twentieth century, the power quality has become a strategic issue for all sectors involved in this market, from distribution companies to consumers, with a particular emphasis on industrial consumers as well as equipment manufacturers.

The concept of power quality involves a wide range of electromagnetic phenomena that can occur in the power grid. Such changes may occur in different parts of the electrical power system, at customer facilities or in the distribution network. In recent years the electric power market has undergone huge transformations, electricity production has become decentralized and consumers (who can now also be producers) have the opportunity to choose their supplier. The integration of renewable-based microgeneration systems into distribution grids has brought various disturbances to the grid (harmonics, voltage unbalance, voltage fluctuations, frequency deviations, etc.), leading to increasingly degraded power quality.

This Special issue focuses on the analysis of the consequences that renewables-based microgeneration systems have on networks. Find new solutions for networks management (network optimization models, efficiency and losses), integrating consumers and micro-producers in order to keep quality parameters at high levels. The grid integration of Storage Systems and Electric Vehicles can also be addressed.

Prof. Dr. José Manuel Ribeiro Baptista
Dr. Tiago Pinto
Dr. Bruno Canizes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power quality
  • Harmonic distortion
  • Renewable energy
  • Microgeneration
  • Smart grids
  • Power systems management
  • Storage systems integration
  • Network optimization models

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 202 KiB  
Editorial
Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems: A New Paradigm of Electrical Grids
by José Baptista, Pedro Faria, Bruno Canizes and Tiago Pinto
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3195; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093195 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The power quality delivered by the distribution companies to consumers has always been a relevant issue, especially to industrial consumers, where power quality is directly related to productivity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

32 pages, 11402 KiB  
Article
Discrete Wavelet Transform for the Real-Time Smoothing of Wind Turbine Power Using Li-Ion Batteries
by Andrea Mannelli, Francesco Papi, George Pechlivanoglou, Giovanni Ferrara and Alessandro Bianchini
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082184 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Energy Storage Systems (EES) are key to further increase the penetration in energy grids of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind, by smoothing out power fluctuations. In order this to be economically feasible; however, the ESS need to be sized correctly and [...] Read more.
Energy Storage Systems (EES) are key to further increase the penetration in energy grids of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind, by smoothing out power fluctuations. In order this to be economically feasible; however, the ESS need to be sized correctly and managed efficiently. In the study, the use of discrete wavelet transform (Daubechies Db4) to decompose the power output of utility-scale wind turbines into high and low-frequency components, with the objective of smoothing wind turbine power output, is discussed and applied to four-year Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) real data from multi-MW, on-shore wind turbines provided by the industrial partner. Two main research requests were tackled: first, the effectiveness of the discrete wavelet transform for the correct sizing and management of the battery (Li-Ion type) storage was assessed in comparison to more traditional approaches such as a simple moving average and a direct use of the battery in response to excessive power fluctuations. The performance of different storage designs was compared, in terms of abatement of ramp rate violations, depending on the power smoothing technique applied. Results show that the wavelet transform leads to a more efficient battery use, characterized by lower variation of the averaged state-of-charge, and in turn to the need for a lower battery capacity, which can be translated into a cost reduction (up to −28%). The second research objective was to prove that the wavelet-based power smoothing technique has superior performance for the real-time control of a wind park. To this end, a simple procedure is proposed to generate a suitable moving window centered on the actual sample in which the wavelet transform can be applied. The power-smoothing performance of the method was tested on the same time series data, showing again that the discrete wavelet transform represents a superior solution in comparison to conventional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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18 pages, 5232 KiB  
Article
MARTINE—A Platform for Real-Time Energy Management in Smart Grids
by Zita Vale, Pedro Faria, Omid Abrishambaf, Luis Gomes and Tiago Pinto
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071820 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2529
Abstract
This paper presents MARTINE (Multi-Agent based Real-Time INfrastruture for Energy), a simulation, emulation and energy management platform for the study of problems related to buildings and smart grids. Relevant advances related to buildings and smart grid management and operation have been proposed, focusing [...] Read more.
This paper presents MARTINE (Multi-Agent based Real-Time INfrastruture for Energy), a simulation, emulation and energy management platform for the study of problems related to buildings and smart grids. Relevant advances related to buildings and smart grid management and operation have been proposed, focusing either on software models for decision support or on physical infrastructure and control approaches. These two perspectives are, however, complementary, and no practical assessment can be achieved without a suitable interaction and analysis of the impact that decision-making models have on physical resources, and vice-versa. MARTINE overcomes this limitation by integrating, in a single platform: real buildings with the associated devices and resources; emulated components that complement the ones present in the buildings; simulated resources, players and buildings using multi-agent systems, real-time simulation with hardware in the loop capabilities, which enables integrating virtual and physical components; and a knowledge layer that incorporates all the required decision support and energy management models. MARTINE thus provides a comprehensive platform for the study and management of energy resources. The advantages of this platform are demonstrated in this paper through three use cases, related to agriculture irrigation, practical implementation of demand response and load modeling using various network configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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21 pages, 4818 KiB  
Article
Total Productive Maintenance Approach to an Increase of the Energy Efficiency of a Hotel Facility and Mitigation of Water Consumption
by Olga Orynycz and Karol Tucki
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061706 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Increasing greenhouse gas emissions and more and more restrictive European Union regulations necessitate the reduction of energy demand in buildings, including hotels. A more economical way of managing and operating a facility may lead to competitive advantage and a reduction in the negative [...] Read more.
Increasing greenhouse gas emissions and more and more restrictive European Union regulations necessitate the reduction of energy demand in buildings, including hotels. A more economical way of managing and operating a facility may lead to competitive advantage and a reduction in the negative impact on the environment. This study indicated that the hotel facility wastes significant amounts of water and energy, and the main sources of losses were determined. The design assumption was to achieve savings by introducing technical improvements in the most energy and water-consuming areas. The modification consisted of replacing some of the lighting, fittings, and ventilation. The results of the achieved water and energy savings were compared with the consumption recorded in 2019. The very satisfactory final results were obtained, showing savings about 20% higher than assumed by the hotel management. Taking into account the replacement of lighting in staircases and underground garages, in addition to the replacement of ventilation in the hotel building, the maximum possible daily saving due to the changes mentioned is estimated at approximately 68% for lighting and ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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17 pages, 6203 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Medium Voltage Network for Propagation of Supraharmonics Resonance
by Shimi Sudha Letha, Angela Espin Delgado, Sarah K. Rönnberg and Math H. J. Bollen
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041093 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Power converters with high switching frequency used to integrate renewable power sources to medium and low voltage networks are sources of emission in the supraharmonic range (2 to 150 kHz). When such converters are connected to a medium voltage (MV) network these supraharmonics [...] Read more.
Power converters with high switching frequency used to integrate renewable power sources to medium and low voltage networks are sources of emission in the supraharmonic range (2 to 150 kHz). When such converters are connected to a medium voltage (MV) network these supraharmonics propagate through the MV network and can impact network and customer equipment over a wide range. This paper evaluates an existing Swedish MV electrical network and studies the pattern of supraharmonic resonance and the propagation of supraharmonics. The MV network consists of eight feeders including a small wind farm. Simulations reveal that, the bigger the MV network, the more resonant frequencies, but also the lower the amplitude of the resonance peaks in the driving point impedance. It was also identified that for short feeders as length increases, the magnitude of the transfer impedance at supraharmonic frequency decreases. For further increment in feeder length, the magnitude increases or becomes almost constant. For very long feeders, the transfer impedance further starts decreasing. The eight feeders in the network under study are similar but show completely different impedance versus frequency characteristics. Measurements at the MV side of the wind farm show time varying emissions in the supraharmonic range during low power production. The impact of these emissions coupled with system resonance is examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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14 pages, 6018 KiB  
Article
Risk Mitigation of Poor Power Quality Issues of Standalone Wind Turbines: An Efficacy Study of Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) Control
by Saqib Mehmood, Amin Qureshi and Anders S. Kristensen
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4485; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174485 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
This paper validates and presents the efficiency and performance of Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) control as a mitigating control in managing risks of high volatility of electric current flows from the wind turbine generator to the distributed load. High volatility/fluctuations of electricity (high [...] Read more.
This paper validates and presents the efficiency and performance of Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) control as a mitigating control in managing risks of high volatility of electric current flows from the wind turbine generator to the distributed load. High volatility/fluctuations of electricity (high current, voltage disturbance) and frequency are hazards that can trip off or, in extreme cases, burn down a whole wind turbine generator. An advanced control scheme is used to control a Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-based three-phase induction generator with a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). For the purpose of risk mitigation of harmonics, this scheme converts three-phase input quantity to two-phase Direct Current (DC) quantity (dq) so that the reactive power compensation decreases the harmonics level. Thus, no other analog filters are required to produce the reconstructed signal of fundamental frequency. In this paper, the values of Proportional Integral (PI) regulators are calculated through the “MONTE CARLO” optimization tool. Furthermore, risk analysis is carried out using bowtie, risk matrix and ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) methods, which is the novelty based on the parametric study of this research work. The results reveal that by inducting proposed SRF control into the Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), the risks of high fluctuations and disturbances in signals are reduced to an acceptable level as per the standards of IEEE 519-2014 and EN 50160. The proposed work is validated through running simulations in MATLAB/Simulink with and without controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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19 pages, 4724 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Pitch Angle Controller Approaches for Stable Wind Turbine Power under Variable Wind Speed
by Md Rasel Sarkar, Sabariah Julai, Chong Wen Tong, Moslem Uddin, M.F. Romlie and GM Shafiullah
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3622; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143622 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3132
Abstract
The production of maximum wind energy requires controlling various parts of medium to large-scale wind turbines (WTs). This paper presents a robust pitch angle control system for the rated wind turbine power at a wide range of simulated wind speeds by means of [...] Read more.
The production of maximum wind energy requires controlling various parts of medium to large-scale wind turbines (WTs). This paper presents a robust pitch angle control system for the rated wind turbine power at a wide range of simulated wind speeds by means of a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller. In addition, ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and classical Ziegler–Nichols (Z-N) algorithms have been used for tuning the PID controller parameters to obtain within rated stable output power of WTs from fluctuating wind speeds. The proposed system is simulated under fast wind speed variation, and its results are compared with those of the PID-ZN controller and PID-PSO to verify its effeteness. The proposed approach contains several benefits including simple implementation, as well as tolerance of turbine parameters and several nonparametric uncertainties. Robust control of the generator output power with wind-speed variations can also be considered a significant advantage of this strategy. Theoretical analyses, as well as simulation results, indicate that the proposed controller can perform better in a wide range of wind speed compared with the PID-ZN and PID-PSO controllers. The WT model and hybrid controllers (PID-ACO and PID-PSO) have been developed in MATLAB/Simulink with validated controller models. The hybrid PID-ACO controller was found to be the most suitable in comparison to the PID-PSO and conventional PID. The root mean square (RMS) error calculated between the desired power and the WT’s output power with PID-ACO is found to be 0.00036, which is the smallest result among the studied controllers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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18 pages, 7733 KiB  
Article
Long- and Short-Term Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Sources
by Dawid Buła, Dariusz Grabowski, Andrzej Lange, Marcin Maciążek and Marian Pasko
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3610; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143610 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Network working conditions are influenced noticeably by the connection of renewable energy sources to distribution networks. This becomes more and more important due to the increase in renewable energy source penetration over the last few years. This in turn can lead to a [...] Read more.
Network working conditions are influenced noticeably by the connection of renewable energy sources to distribution networks. This becomes more and more important due to the increase in renewable energy source penetration over the last few years. This in turn can lead to a mass effect. As a result, the classical open network model with simple unidirectional direction of energy flow has been replaced with an active model that includes many local energy sources. This paper deals with the analysis of long- and short-term changes in power and energy generated by three types of renewable energy sources with similar rated power and which operate in the same region (i.e., located no more than tens of kilometers away). The obtained results can be a starting point for a broader evaluation of the influence of renewable energy sources on power quality in power systems, which can be both positive (supply reliability) and negative (voltage fluctuations and higher harmonics in current and voltage waveforms). It is important not only to correctly place but also to assure the diversity of such sources as it has been confirmed by the source variability coefficient. The long-term analysis allows us also to estimate the annual repeatability of energy production and, furthermore, the profitability of investment in renewable sources in a given region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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21 pages, 8328 KiB  
Article
Development of an Efficient Tool for Solar Charging Station Management for Electric Vehicles
by Simon Steinschaden and José Baptista
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112979 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
One important goal of the climate commitment in the European Union (EU) is to reduce primary energy demand in the transport sector and increase the use of renewables, since around 33% of primary energy is consumed in this sector. Therefore, the EU ordered [...] Read more.
One important goal of the climate commitment in the European Union (EU) is to reduce primary energy demand in the transport sector and increase the use of renewables, since around 33% of primary energy is consumed in this sector. Therefore, the EU ordered its member states to raise the number of electric vehicles (EVs) within Europe. Consequently, the energy demand for electricity will rise as a function of the number of EVs. To avoid local grid overload and guarantee a higher percentage of clean energy, EV charging stations can be supported by a combined system of grid-connected photovoltaic modules and battery storage. In this paper, the focus lies on the feasibility and economic aspects of such systems. To provide an overview of the different e-charging station combinations, a support tool was modelled and developed, making it possible to size and manage EVs charging stations with only a few input parameters. Thanks to its easy handling, the tool suits a wide spectrum of users. Due to enhanced optional settings, this tool is suitable for detailed input parameters for professionals as well. Input categories are basically divided into the photovoltaic (PV) system, battery storage, the charging station itself, and investment analysis. The tool supports decisions for solar charging stations designed for different parking locations like offices, schools, and public and private places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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19 pages, 10208 KiB  
Article
Impact Evaluation of Grid-Connected PV Systems on PQ Parameters by Comparative Analysis based on Inferential Statistics
by German Osma-Pinto, María García-Rodríguez, Jeisson Moreno-Vargas and Cesar Duarte-Gualdrón
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071668 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
The intermittent injection of power and the nature of power electronic devices used for photovoltaic (PV) systems can affect the power quality (PQ) of the grid to which they are connected. This study proposes to quantify and evaluate the impact of PV injection [...] Read more.
The intermittent injection of power and the nature of power electronic devices used for photovoltaic (PV) systems can affect the power quality (PQ) of the grid to which they are connected. This study proposes to quantify and evaluate the impact of PV injection on the PQ of a low-voltage (LV) network by applying a statistical analysis through hypothesis testing for the mean comparison of populations of parameters with and without a PV system. The effects of PV power injection and load demand at the point of common coupling on PQ are monitored. The methodology includes the selection and monitoring of PQ, the use of a matrix for classification of data with similar load and PV power injection conditions, and the application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test. This methodology was applied to evaluate the impact of a 9.8 kWp PV system on the PQ of an LV network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality of Renewable Energy Source Systems)
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