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Special Issue "Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hossam A. Gabbar

Energy Safety & Control Lab, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, and Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science (Cross-Appointed), University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 905 721 8668 ext 5497
Interests: resilient smart energy grids and micro energy grids planning, control, and protection; advanced plasma generation and application on fusion energy; advanced safety and control systems for nuclear power plants; safety engineering, fault diagnosis and real time simulation; risk-based energy conservation, smart green buildings; process systems engineering of energy and nuclear facilities, and oil and gas production plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will cover nuclear power plant design and operation, as well as technologies. It will provide forum to discuss and present recent research results, technologies, and best practices on nuclear power plants, including fission and fusion technologies. Papers can include small modular reactors designs, technologies, and operation. Nuclear power plant integration with the grid. Research results of advanced maintenance and operation activities will also be included in this Special Issue. The proposed Special Issue will provide advances in research and engineering design, which will support nuclear power plant operating companies, engineering and research institutes, engineering and contracting companies, as well as researchers and students from academia, including universities and colleges. The proposed Special Issue will also bridge research with educational programs, as well as engineering practices, in all disciplines within nuclear power.

Prof. Dr. Hossam A. Gabbar (Gaber)
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access bimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nuclear power plant design
  • safety and protection systems
  • nuclear technologies
  • electrical systems in nuclear power plants
  • mechanical systems in nuclear power plants
  • nuclear fusion technologies
  • nuclear fission technologies
  • instrumentation and control
  • small modular reactor (SMR)
  • nuclear power plant operation
  • nuclear reactor designs
  • nuclear reactor physics
  • radiation detection and protection systems
  • thermal systems
  • plasma systems
  • nuclear power plan integration with the grid

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Automatic Generation Control of Nuclear Heating Reactor Power Plants
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2782; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102782
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
A nuclear heating reactor (NHR) is a typical integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with advanced design features such as an integral primary circuit, self-pressurization, full-power-range natural circulation, and hydraulic control rods. Through adjusting its electric power output according to the variation of demand,
[...] Read more.
A nuclear heating reactor (NHR) is a typical integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with advanced design features such as an integral primary circuit, self-pressurization, full-power-range natural circulation, and hydraulic control rods. Through adjusting its electric power output according to the variation of demand, NHR power plants can be adopted to stablize the fluctuation of grid frequency caused by the intermittent nature of renewable generation, which is useful for deepening the penetration of renewables. The flexibility of an NHR power plant relies on the automatic generation control (AGC) function of the plant coordination control system, whose central is the AGC law. In this paper, the plant control system with AGC function is designed for NHR plants, where the AGC is realized based on the stabilizers of grid frequency and main steam pressure. Then, the AGC problem is transferred to the disturbance attenuation problem of a second-order dynamic system, and an active disturbance attenuation control (ADRC), which is just the addition of a feedback control given by a proportional‒integral (PI) law and a feedforward control driven by a disturbance observer (DO), is then proposed. Finally, this ADRC is applied to realize the AGC function for NHR-200II reactor power plant, and numerical simulation results show the implementation feasibility and satisfactory performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Matrix Control for the Thermal Power of MHTGR-Based Nuclear Steam Supply System
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102651
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) based nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS) is constituted by an MHTGR, a once-through steam generator (OTSG) and can generate superheated steam for industrial heat or electric power generation. The wide range closed-loop stability is achieved by
[...] Read more.
The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) based nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS) is constituted by an MHTGR, a once-through steam generator (OTSG) and can generate superheated steam for industrial heat or electric power generation. The wide range closed-loop stability is achieved by the recently proposed coordinated control law, in which the neutron flux and the temperatures of both main steam and primary coolant are chosen as controlled variables, and the flowrates of both primary and secondary loop and the control rod speed are chosen as manipulated variables. However, the thermal power is only controlled in open loop manner and hence could be further optimized through feedback. Motivated by this, a dynamic matrix control (DMC) is proposed for optimizing the thermal power of MHTGR based NSSS. A simple step-response model with the thermal power response data is utilized in designing the DMC. The design objective of DMC is to optimize the deviation of the thermal power from its reference under its rate constraint. Then, by the virtue of strong stability of existing control law and optimization ability of DMC, a cascade control structure is implemented for the thermal power optimization, with the coordinated control law in the inner loop and DMC in the outer loop. Numerical simulation results show the satisfactory improvement of thermal power response. This cascade control structure inherits the advantages of both proportional-integral-differential (PID) control and DMC, by which the zeros offset and the short settling time of thermal power are realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Feasibility of Energy Supply by Small Modular Nuclear Reactors on Small Islands: Case Studies of Jeju, Tasmania and Tenerife
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102587
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) offer the promise of providing carbon-free electricity and heat to small islands or isolated electricity grids. However, the economic feasibility of SMRs is highly system-dependent and has not been studied in this context. We selected three case-study islands
[...] Read more.
Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) offer the promise of providing carbon-free electricity and heat to small islands or isolated electricity grids. However, the economic feasibility of SMRs is highly system-dependent and has not been studied in this context. We selected three case-study islands for such an evaluation: Jeju, Tasmania and Tenerife based on their system complexity. We generated 100,000 electricity-mix cases stochastically for each island and examined the system-level generation-cost changes by incrementing the average generation cost of SMRs from USD$60 to 200 MWh−1. SMRs were found to be economically viable when average generation cost was <$100 MWh−1 for Jeju and <$140 MWh−1 for Tenerife. For Tasmania the situation was complex; hydroelectric power is an established competitor, but SMRs might be complementary in a future “battery of the nation” scenario where most of the island’s hydro capacity was exported to meet peak power demand on the mainland grid. The higher average generation cost of SMRs makes it difficult for them to compete economically with a fossil fuel/renewable mix in many contexts. However, we have demonstrated that SMRs can be an economically viable carbon-free option for a small island with a limited land area and high energy demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Partial Redesign of an Accelerator Driven System Target for Optimizing the Heat Removal and Minimizing the Pressure Drops
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082090
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to be a good solution for safe nuclear waste transmutation. One of the most important challenges for this kind of machine is the target design, particularly for what concerning the target cooling system. In order to optimize this
[...] Read more.
Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to be a good solution for safe nuclear waste transmutation. One of the most important challenges for this kind of machine is the target design, particularly for what concerning the target cooling system. In order to optimize this component a CFD-based approach has been chosen. After the definition of a reference design (Be target cooled by He), some parameters have been varied in order to optimize the thermal-fluid-dynamic features. The final optimized target design has an increased security margin for what regarding Be melting and reduces the maximum coolant velocity (and consequently even more the pressure drops). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle X-Pinch Plasma Generation Testing for Neutron Source Development and Nuclear Fusion
Energies 2018, 11(4), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040988
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (40504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nuclear fusion is a sought-out technology in which two light elements are fused together to create a heavier element and releases energy. Two primary nuclear fusion technologies are being researched today: magnetic and inertial confinement. However, a new type of nuclear fusion technology
[...] Read more.
Nuclear fusion is a sought-out technology in which two light elements are fused together to create a heavier element and releases energy. Two primary nuclear fusion technologies are being researched today: magnetic and inertial confinement. However, a new type of nuclear fusion technology is currently being research: multi-pinch plasma beams. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, there is research on multi-pinch plasma beam technology as an alternative to nuclear fusion. The objective is to intersect two plasma arcs at the center of the chamber. This is a precursor of nuclear fusion using multi-pinch. The innovation portion of the students’ work is the miniaturization of this concept using high energy electrical DC pulses. The experiment achieved the temperature of 2300 K at the intersection. In comparison to the simulation data, the temperature from the simulation is 7000 K at the intersection. Additionally, energy harvesting devices, both photovoltaics and a thermoelectric generator, were placed in the chamber to observe the viable energy extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Power, Including Fission and Fusion Technologies)
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