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New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F1: Electrical Power System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2022) | Viewed by 7331

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Research and Development Department, National Institute for Research, Development and Testing in Electrical Engineering, ICMET Craiova, 200746 Craiova, Romania
Interests: SCADA control theory; electric drives
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Energetic Doctoral School, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Craiova, 200440 Craiova, Romania
Interests: power quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Automatic Control and Electronics, University of Craiova, 200585 Craiova, Romania
Interests: adaptive systems; vibrational control; nonlinear control; power electronics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Guest Editors are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality”.

Power systems are in constant evolution due to many factors (high rate of renewable energy integration, new electric vehicles, intelligent buildings), and the existence of harmonics in power distribution systems is treated as the most serious issue affecting their stability and reliability. Active power filters compensate the harmonics to improve the power quality and to keep the total harmonic distortion below 5%, as per IEEE-519. Therefore, optimization and control techniques are important for the efficient use of energy systems. As a result, it is necessary to manage complex processes—namely, the energy flows in the electrical grid—for stability, power quality improvement and other technical and economic issues.

Complex processes can be described by nonlinear models (e.g., by using differential equations), and find key control applications in the electrical grid.

At present, there is a great deal of expectation concerning the use of various intelligent control techniques in order to control nonlinear and complex processes, in many cases associated with the emergence of advanced artificial intelligence.

Intelligent control is a computationally efficient procedure for guiding a complex system in an uncertain environment toward a certain goal. Therefore, an intelligent control technique needs to learn about both the process and the environment to be a part of the control system.

There are many definitions and classifications of intelligent control. However, it can be defined as a class of control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like neural networks, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithms, etc.

This Special Issue is proposed to bring together researchers, scientists and engineers from academia and industry in order to disseminate ideas and results related to the use of advanced techniques in the intelligent control of energy flows in the electrical grid for stability and power quality improvement.

This Special Issue will deal with novel optimization and control techniques for electrical power systems quality. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:      

  • Power system control and quality;
  • Neural networks and fuzzy logic control for electrical power systems quality;
  • Reinforcement-learning-based control for electrical power systems quality;
  • Intelligent optimization and applications to electrical power systems quality;
  • Wavelet transform;
  • Energy management system.

Theoretical and practical studies are equally encouraged. Application areas include energy systems (renewable energy, smart grids, electric drives), automotive industry, etc.

Dr. Marcel Nicola
Prof. Dr. Petre-Marin Nicolae
Prof. Dr. Dan Selisteanu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power electronics
  • power systems quality
  • energy system
  • optimization techniques
  • control methods
  • energy storage system
  • renewable energy
  • evolutionary computation
  • genetic algorithms
  • AI

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

45 pages, 13892 KiB  
Article
Powers and Power Factor in Non-Sinusoidal and Non-Symmetrical Regimes in Three-Phase Systems
by Petre-Marian Nicolae, Ileana-Diana Nicolae and Marian-Ştefan Nicolae
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5130; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145130 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
The paper presents several theories related to definitions of powers and power factors in non-sinusoidal and non-symmetrical regimes. The theories must meet some requirements: (a) to facilitate the measuring of power quantities by using acquired electrical waveforms; (b) to support the correct quantification [...] Read more.
The paper presents several theories related to definitions of powers and power factors in non-sinusoidal and non-symmetrical regimes. The theories must meet some requirements: (a) to facilitate the measuring of power quantities by using acquired electrical waveforms; (b) to support the correct quantification of powers and power factors for a fair charge; (c) to support solutions for efficient compensation of non-sinusoidal and non-symmetrical regimes, simultaneous with the power factor compensation along the fundamental harmonic. Only theories meeting the above-mentioned requirements are approached. Aspects specific to power definitions are discussed and commented. Three theories rely on the Fourier decomposition of non-sinusoidal waveforms, valid only for steady signals, whilst the fourth relies on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and can also be applied to unsteady signals. Dedicated original data acquisition systems were used to acquire experimental data for three case studies. Data were analysed with original software tools, based on the Fast Fourier Transform and Discrete Wavelet Transform, implementing the approached theories. Comparisons between results yielded for analogue quantities proved that the approached theories satisfy the requirements for which they were created, except for the fourth theory, which can be used only for compensation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality)
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26 pages, 9560 KiB  
Article
Some Considerations Regarding the Measurement of the Compensation Efficiency in Three-Phase Systems
by Petre-Marian Nicolae, Ileana-Diana Nicolae and Marian-Stefan Nicolae
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5004; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145004 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
The paper approaches some theories related to certain power components and power quality indices of active filtering. A brief review of the specialty literature tied to technical aspects of compensation based on active filtering is provided. Following that, the steps of a design [...] Read more.
The paper approaches some theories related to certain power components and power quality indices of active filtering. A brief review of the specialty literature tied to technical aspects of compensation based on active filtering is provided. Following that, the steps of a design created by the authors to perform active filtering with a shunt filter are provided. The developed filtering system was tested and experimental data were acquired on a test stand for different operational modes. The data acquired with and without filtering were compared in order to evaluate the filter efficiency. Data were analyzed and observations were made relative to the limits of one of the analyzed theories. It was concluded that another theory has to be used in order to define powers and indices for the quality of power/energy. The evaluation of compensation was made from a technical point of view, according to the standards in force for the domain of power/energy quality. It was noticed that electromagnetic interferences might occur between the active filter and the supplying network. Two indices are proposed by authors in order to provide a more accurate value for the active filtering efficiency considering the financial point of view. Examples for their utilization are provided in real cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality)
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22 pages, 6823 KiB  
Article
Power Quality and Electromagnetic Compatibility Aspects at Personal Computers
by Ileana-Diana Nicolae and Petre-Marian Nicolae
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4661; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134661 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
In this article, issues related to electromagnetic compatibility and energy/power quality for a laptop are addressed. Power quality problems are outlined. Testing frameworks (developed by authors) are presented and discussed for a laptop when two different sampling frequencies are used: 80 kHz and [...] Read more.
In this article, issues related to electromagnetic compatibility and energy/power quality for a laptop are addressed. Power quality problems are outlined. Testing frameworks (developed by authors) are presented and discussed for a laptop when two different sampling frequencies are used: 80 kHz and 19.2 kHz. Waveforms corresponding to the voltage across the laptop’s terminals and current absorbed by it were acquired. Recordings and numerical processing, based on original software using Fast Fourier Transform, are discussed, and the analysis of waveforms in both cases is performed. Various power quality indices were calculated. Theoretical and practical aspects related to the determination of power quantities, power flows, and power factor are presented. Some conclusions concerning different ranges of frequencies are presented, along with some considerations for power quality problems. Tests for conducted emissions (single phase and neutral wire respectively) and for the radiated emissions (for horizontal and vertical polarizations) are presented. Comparisons to the emission standards were made. The immunity behavior for a laptop is discussed according to immunity standards. It is shown that new measures (e.g., active filters) are necessary for network protection when connecting a laptop to the network. Some considerations, based on the authors’ observations concerning new standards for power quality and electromagnetic compatibility, are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality)
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32 pages, 25339 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Control of a Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Based on Synergetic and Sliding Mode Controllers Using a Reinforcement Learning Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient Agent
by Marcel Nicola, Claudiu-Ionel Nicola and Dan Selișteanu
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072392 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
This article presents the control of a grid connected PV (GC-PV) array system, starting from a benchmark. The control structure used in this article was a cascade-type structure, in which PI or synergetic (SYN) controllers were used for the inner control loop of [...] Read more.
This article presents the control of a grid connected PV (GC-PV) array system, starting from a benchmark. The control structure used in this article was a cascade-type structure, in which PI or synergetic (SYN) controllers were used for the inner control loop of id and iq currents and PI or sliding mode control (SMC) controllers were used for the outer control loop of the udc voltage from the DC intermediate circuit. This paper presents the mathematical model of the PV array together with the main component blocks: simulated inputs for the PV array; the PV array itself; the MPPT algorithm; the DC-DC boost converter; the voltage and current measurements for the DC intermediate circuit; the load and connection to power grid; the DC-AC converter; and the power grid. It also presents the stages of building and training the reinforcement learning (RL) agent. To improve the performance of the control system for the GC-PV array system without using controllers with a more complicated mathematical description, the advantages provided by the RL agent on process controls could also be used. This technique does not require exact knowledge of the mathematical model of the controlled system or the type of uncertainties. The improvement in the control system performance for the GC-PV array system, both when using simple PI-type controllers or complex SMC- and SYN-type controllers, was achieved using an RL agent based on the Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG). The variant of DDPG used in this study was the Twin-Delayed (TD3). The improvement in performance of the control system were obtained by using the correction command signals provided by the trained RL agent, which were added to the command signals ud, uq and idref. The parametric robustness of the proposed control system based on SMC and SYN controllers for the GC-PV array system was proven in the case of a variation of 30% caused by the three-phase load. Moreover, the results of the numerical simulations are shown comparatively and the validation of the synthesis of the proposed control system was obtained. This was achieved by comparing the proposed system with a software benchmark for the control of a GC-PV array system performed in MATLAB Simulink. The numerical simulations proved the superiority of the performance of control systems that use the RL-TD3 agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Electrical Power Systems Quality)
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