Special Issue "The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Suleiman M Sharkh
Website
Guest Editor
Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield Southampton, SO17 1BJ
Interests: electric machines and electromagnetic devices; power electronics; micro grid control and energy management
Prof. Zhenpo Wang
Website
Guest Editor
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, No.5 Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China
Interests: electrical/hybrid driven system; battery safety management system; big data analysis on electric vehicles; V2G control system
Assoc. Prof. Xi Zhang
Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Interests: electric vehicles; wireless charging; battery modeling and management technology; intelligent vehicles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We cordially invite you to contribute to our Special Issue of Energies on the theme of “The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles”.

In order to build cleaner and more efficient vehicles, automobile technology, worldwide, tends to develop in the directions of fuel decarburization, energy diversification and power electrition. Electric vehicles (EVs), which represent energy-saving and new energy automobiles, become an effective way to solve the problems of air pollution, oil shortages, larger power demands, and the sustainable development of the automobile industry, hence, attracting worldwide attention and progressing at a rapid rate. For the purpose of knowing the latest development trends, promoting international academic communication, and discussing key technologies of electric vehicles, the 2017 International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017) was held in Sweden, 26–29 July, 2017. The conference website is: http://www.iceee.net/isev/index.html

The theme of ISEV2017 was “Researching, Engineering, Developing and Application of Electric Vehicles”. ISEV2017 featured keynote speeches, workshops, and paper sessions. Topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  1. Power Electronics and Electric Motor Drives
  2. Electric Machines and Actuators
  3. Thermal Management, Packing, and Optimization for Traction Drive Systems
  4. Battery, Battery Management, Charging Systems and Infrastructures
  5. Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Architectures
  6. Connected and Automated Vehicles, Smart Mobility, and Vehicle Security
  7. Smart Grid, Electrical Infrastructure and V2G
  8. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles
  9. Electrification of Heavy-Duty and Off-Road Vehicles
  10. Modeling, Simulation and Control
  11. Design optimization for vehicle structures
  12. Codes, Standards, Policies, and Regulations for Transportation Electrification.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rui Xiong
Prof. Suleiman M Sharkh
Prof. Zhenpo Wang
Assoc. Prof. Xi Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design optimization
  • Power Electronics
  • Electric Machines
  • Wireless power transfer
  • Traction Drive Systems
  • Batteries
  • Battery Management
  • Charging Systems and Infrastructures
  • Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • Connected and Automated Vehicles
  • Smart Grid and V2G
  • Transportation Electrification
  • Design optimization for vehicle structures
  • Modeling, Simulation and Control for electric vehicles

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Research Progress on Electric and Intelligent Vehicles
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071762 - 04 Jul 2018
Abstract
This editorial summarizes the content of the Special Issue entitled “The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017)”, which was published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The Special Issue was compiled in 2017 and accepted a total of 26 papers. Lithium-ion battery, energy management of [...] Read more.
This editorial summarizes the content of the Special Issue entitled “The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017)”, which was published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The Special Issue was compiled in 2017 and accepted a total of 26 papers. Lithium-ion battery, energy management of electric vehicles, and motor control in electric vehicles were the most discussed topics, introducing brand new methods with very sound results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))

Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Power Coupling System for Electric Tracked Vehicles during High-Speed Steering with Optimization-Based Torque Distribution Control
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061538 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
It is significant to improve the steering maneuverability of dual-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTVs), which have wide applications in the tracked vehicle industry. In this paper, we focus on the problem of insufficient propulsion motor power during high-speed steering. Some correction formulas are [...] Read more.
It is significant to improve the steering maneuverability of dual-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTVs), which have wide applications in the tracked vehicle industry. In this paper, we focus on the problem of insufficient propulsion motor power during high-speed steering. Some correction formulas are introduced to improve the accuracy of the mathematical model. A steering coupling system and an optimization-based torque distribution control strategy is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The 2MDTV model and the proposed control strategy are built in the multi-body software RecurDyn and the control software Matlab/Simulink, respectively. According to the real-time steering simulation by the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) method, the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more power during high-speed steering. The results show the speed during steering is quite high though, the stability of the vehicle can be achieved due to using the torque distribution strategy, and the steering maneuverability of the vehicle is also improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Control Strategy for Vehicle Inductive Wireless Charging Based on Load Adaptive and Frequency Adjustment
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051222 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wireless charging system for electric vehicles is a hot research issue in the world today. Since the existing research on wireless charging is mostly forward-looking aimed at low-power appliances like household appliances, while electric vehicles need a high-power, high-efficiency, and strong coupling wireless [...] Read more.
Wireless charging system for electric vehicles is a hot research issue in the world today. Since the existing research on wireless charging is mostly forward-looking aimed at low-power appliances like household appliances, while electric vehicles need a high-power, high-efficiency, and strong coupling wireless charging system. In this paper, we have specifically designed a 6.6 KW wireless charging system for electric vehicles and have proposed a control strategy suitable for electric vehicles according to its power charging characteristics and existing common wired charging protocol. Firstly, the influence of the equivalent load and frequency bifurcation on a wireless charging system is analyzed in this paper. Secondly, an adaptive load control strategy matching the characteristics of the battery, and the charging pile is put forward to meet the constant current and constant voltage charging requirements to improve the system efficiency. In addition, the frequency adjustment control strategy is designed to realize the real-time dynamic optimization of the entire system. It utilizes the improved methods of rapid judgment, variable step length matching and frequency splitting recognition, which are not adopted in early related researches. Finally, the results of 6.6 kW test show that the control strategy works perfectly since system response time can be reduced to less than 1 s, and the overall efficiency of the wireless charging system and the grid power supply module can reach up to 91%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Architecture Optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Future High-Efficiency Engine
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051148 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The great development of engine technologies can help to improve the engine characteristics and performance: a better thermal efficiency and an extending fuel economy area, which will subsequently decrease the fuel consumption and thus influence the overall architecture of the vehicle. In this [...] Read more.
The great development of engine technologies can help to improve the engine characteristics and performance: a better thermal efficiency and an extending fuel economy area, which will subsequently decrease the fuel consumption and thus influence the overall architecture of the vehicle. In this paper, an investigation is carried out to assess the influence of the high-efficiency engine on the transmission gear numbers. First, according to the relevant studies and the integration of the advanced engine technology, a future engine fuel consumption map is obtained, based on which, the preliminary simulations are applied to explore the best match between the transmission and the proposed future engine from the perspective of fuel consumption. The simulation results indicate that the transmission with four gears is the best option to match the future engine while maintaining good fuel economy and meeting the driving demands. Then, based on this conclusion, a new hybrid powertrain architecture, which includes four gears for the engine, is introduced and analyzed in detail, with the advantage of seamless gear shift due to the compensation torque of the motor. Finally, to further examine the fuel economy and gear shift quality of the proposed powertrain, the dynamic model is established and the simulation results demonstrate that the new powertrain architecture shows a good fuel consumption performance and the gear shift process can be achieved without power interruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Wavelet Based Denoising for the Estimation of the State of Charge for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051144 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
In practical electric vehicle applications, the noise of original discharging/charging voltage (DCV) signals are inevitable, which comes from electromagnetic interference and the measurement noise of the sensors. To solve such problems, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based state of charge (SOC) estimation method [...] Read more.
In practical electric vehicle applications, the noise of original discharging/charging voltage (DCV) signals are inevitable, which comes from electromagnetic interference and the measurement noise of the sensors. To solve such problems, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based state of charge (SOC) estimation method is proposed in this paper. Through a multi-resolution analysis, the original DCV signals with noise are decomposed into different frequency sub-bands. The desired de-noised DCV signals are then reconstructed by utilizing the inverse discrete wavelet transform, based on the sure rule. With the de-noised DCV signal, the SOC and the parameters are obtained using the adaptive extended Kalman Filter algorithm, and the adaptive forgetting factor recursive least square method. Simulation and experimental results show that the SOC estimation error is less than 1%, which indicates an effective improvement in SOC estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Design Optimization of an Electric Variable Transmission for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051118 - 02 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
An electric variable transmission (EVT) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is investigated in this paper. With a special double rotor structure, the EVT splits and reintegrates the output power of the internal combustion engine (ICE) to run at its optimum working efficiency. However, [...] Read more.
An electric variable transmission (EVT) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is investigated in this paper. With a special double rotor structure, the EVT splits and reintegrates the output power of the internal combustion engine (ICE) to run at its optimum working efficiency. However, the high electromagnetic coupling degree causes torque ripple and affects the dynamic performance of the EVT. After introducing the configuration and working principle, the torque mathematical model of the EVT in an ABC three-phase coordinate system is proposed to analyze the cause of this torque ripple. Besides, a finite element method-based (FEM) structural optimization design for reducing the torque ripple and improving the working stability is presented. The magnetic field distribution, induced voltage and torque property validate the rationality of optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Direct Torque Control Method Based on Asymmetric Boundary Layer Sliding Mode Control for PMSM
Energies 2018, 11(3), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030657 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
A novel direct torque control (DTC) method based on sliding-mode-control (SMC) strategy is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is used in electric vehicles (EVs). In order to improve the dynamic response time and enhance the robustness performance against the external [...] Read more.
A novel direct torque control (DTC) method based on sliding-mode-control (SMC) strategy is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is used in electric vehicles (EVs). In order to improve the dynamic response time and enhance the robustness performance against the external loading disturbances and motor parameter’s variation, a kind of SMC-based torque controller and speed controller are designed to regulate the torque angle increment and the speed respectively. The torque controller is designed based on a sliding mode controller with an asymmetric boundary layer to reduce the overshoot. Compared with other DTC methods based on space vector modulation (SVM) in the literature, the proposed DTC scheme adopts the asymmetric boundary layer SMC instead of the proportional-integral (PI) regulator. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed SMC-based DTC method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Using SoC Online Correction Method Based on Parameter Identification to Optimize the Operation Range of NI-MH Battery for Electric Boat
Energies 2018, 11(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030586 - 08 Mar 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper discusses a design of a Battery Management System (BMS) solution for extending the life of Nickel-Metal Hydride (NI-MH) battery. Combined with application of electric boat, a State of Charge (SoC) optimal operation range control method based on high precision energy metering [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a design of a Battery Management System (BMS) solution for extending the life of Nickel-Metal Hydride (NI-MH) battery. Combined with application of electric boat, a State of Charge (SoC) optimal operation range control method based on high precision energy metering and online SoC correction is proposed. Firstly, a power metering scheme is introduced to reduce the original energy measurement error. Secondly, by establishing a model based parameter identification method and combining with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method, the estimation accuracy of SoC is guaranteed. Finally, SoC optimal operation range control method is presented to make battery running in the optimal range. After two years of operation, the battery managed by proposed method has much better status, compared to batteries that use AH integral method and fixed SoC operating range. Considering the SoC estimation of NI-MH battery is more difficult becausing special electrical characteristics, proposed method also would have a very good reference value for other types of battery management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Height Adjustment of Vehicles Based on a Static Equilibrium Position State Observation Algorithm
Energies 2018, 11(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020455 - 21 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, a static state observer algorithm based on the static equilibrium position is proposed, which can realize accurate control of electric vehicle height adjustment with existing road excitation. The existence of road excitation can lead to deflection variation of the electronically [...] Read more.
In this paper, a static state observer algorithm based on the static equilibrium position is proposed, which can realize accurate control of electric vehicle height adjustment with existing road excitation. The existence of road excitation can lead to deflection variation of the electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS). The use of only dynamic deflection as the reference for the electric vehicle height adjustment will produce great errors. Therefore, this paper provides an observation algorithm, which can realize the accurate control of vehicle height. Firstly, the static equilibrium position equation of suspension is derived according to the theory of hydrodynamics and characteristics of pneumatic chamber. Secondly, a vehicle dynamics model with seven degrees of freedom (7-DOF) is established and the kinetic equations are discretized. Then, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm is used to obtain the static equilibrium position of vehicle. According to the vehicle static equilibrium position obtained by UKF, the height of the vehicle is adjusted by using a fuzzy controller. The simulation and experimental results show that this proposed algorithm can realize the control of vehicle height with an accuracy of over 96%, which ensures the excellent driving performance of vehicles under different road conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission
Energies 2018, 11(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020325 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs) have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. [...] Read more.
The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs) have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB) is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC). Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Study on a Battery Thermal Management System Based on a Thermoelectric Effect
Energies 2018, 11(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020279 - 24 Jan 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
As is known to all, a battery pack is significantly important for electric vehicles. However, its performance is easily affected by temperature. In order to address this problem, an enhanced battery thermal management system is proposed, which includes two parts: a modified cooling [...] Read more.
As is known to all, a battery pack is significantly important for electric vehicles. However, its performance is easily affected by temperature. In order to address this problem, an enhanced battery thermal management system is proposed, which includes two parts: a modified cooling structure and a control unit. In this paper, more attention has been paid to the structure part. According to the heat generation mechanism of a battery and a thermoelectric chip, a simplified heat generation model for a single cell and a special cooling model were created in ANSYS 17.0. The effects of inlet velocity on the performance of different heat exchanger structures were studied. The results show that the U loop structure is more reasonable and the flow field distribution is the most uniform at the inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s. Then, on the basis of the above heat exchanger and the liquid flow velocity, the cooling effect of the improved battery temperature adjustment structure and the traditional liquid temperature regulating structure were analyzed. It can be seen that the liquid cooling structure combined with thermoelectric cooling demonstrates a better performance. With respect to the control system, the corresponding hardware and software were also developed. In general, the design process for this enhanced battery thermal management system can provide a wealth of guidelines for solving similar problems. The H commutation circuit, matrix switch circuit, temperature measurement circuit, and wireless communication modules were designed in the control system and the temperature control strategy was also developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
A Bi-Level Optimization Approach to Charging Load Regulation of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Based on a Battery Energy Storage System
Energies 2018, 11(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010229 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Fast charging stations enable the high-powered rapid recharging of electric vehicles. However, these stations also face challenges due to power fluctuations, high peak loads, and low load factors, affecting the reliable and economic operation of charging stations and distribution networks. This paper introduces [...] Read more.
Fast charging stations enable the high-powered rapid recharging of electric vehicles. However, these stations also face challenges due to power fluctuations, high peak loads, and low load factors, affecting the reliable and economic operation of charging stations and distribution networks. This paper introduces a battery energy storage system (BESS) for charging load control, which is a more user-friendly approach and is more robust to perturbations. With the goals of peak-shaving, total electricity cost reduction, and minimization of variation in the state-of-charge (SOC) range, a BESS-based bi-level optimization strategy for the charging load regulation of fast charging stations is proposed in this paper. At the first level, a day-ahead optimization strategy generates the optimal planned load curve and the deviation band to be used as a reference for ensuring multiple control objectives through linear programming, and even for avoiding control failure caused by insufficient BESS energy. Based on this day-ahead optimal plan, at a second level, real-time rolling optimization converts the control process to a multistage decision-making problem. The predictive control-based real-time rolling optimization strategy in the proposed model was used to achieve the above control objectives and maintain battery life. Finally, through a horizontal comparison of two control approaches in each case study, and a longitudinal comparison of the control robustness against different degrees of load disturbances in three cases, the results indicated that the proposed control strategy was able to significantly improve the charging load characteristics, even with large disturbances. Meanwhile, the proposed approach ensures the least amount of variation in the range of battery SOC and reduces the total electricity cost, which will be of a considerable benefit to station operators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Test Application of an Auxiliary Power-Integrated System
Energies 2018, 11(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010187 - 12 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper focuses on the design and test technique of an auxiliary power unit (APU) for a range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV). The APU system is designed to improve RE-EV power and economy; it integrates the power system, generator system, battery system, and APU [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the design and test technique of an auxiliary power unit (APU) for a range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV). The APU system is designed to improve RE-EV power and economy; it integrates the power system, generator system, battery system, and APU controller. The parameters of the APU parts are computed and optimized considering the vehicle power demand and the matching characteristic of the engine and generator. The hardware and software systems are developed for the APU-integrated control system. The APU test bench, combined with the displaying part, the control part, and the bench with its accessory, is constructed. Communication connection in the APU system is established by controller area network (CAN) bus. The APU controller outputs a corresponding signal to the engine control unit (ECU) and motor controller. To verify the rationality of the control strategy and the validity of the control logic, the engine speed control and integrated control experiment of the APU system are completed on the test bench. The test results showed that the test control system is reliable and the relevant control logic is in agreement with simulation analysis. The APU-integrated system could be well suited for application in RE-EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Entropy-Based Voltage Fault Diagnosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2018, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010136 - 05 Jan 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The battery is a key component and the major fault source in electric vehicles (EVs). Ensuring power battery safety is of great significance to make the diagnosis more effective and predict the occurrence of faults, for the power battery is one of the [...] Read more.
The battery is a key component and the major fault source in electric vehicles (EVs). Ensuring power battery safety is of great significance to make the diagnosis more effective and predict the occurrence of faults, for the power battery is one of the core technologies of EVs. This paper proposes a voltage fault diagnosis detection mechanism using entropy theory which is demonstrated in an EV with a multiple-cell battery system during an actual operation situation. The preliminary analysis, after collecting and preprocessing the typical data periods from Operation Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicle (OSMC-EV) in Beijing, shows that overvoltage fault for Li-ion batteries cell can be observed from the voltage curves. To further locate abnormal cells and predict faults, an entropy weight method is established to calculate the objective weight, which reduces the subjectivity and improves the reliability. The result clearly identifies the abnormity of cell voltage. The proposed diagnostic model can be used for EV real-time diagnosis without laboratory testing methods. It is more effective than traditional methods based on contrastive analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Battery Voltage, Power, and Surface Temperature Prediction Using a Model-Based Extreme Learning Machine
Energies 2018, 11(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010086 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
A battery’s state-of-power (SOP) refers to the maximum power that can be extracted from the battery within a short period of time (e.g., 10 s or 30 s). However, as its use in applications is growing, such as in automatic cars, the ability [...] Read more.
A battery’s state-of-power (SOP) refers to the maximum power that can be extracted from the battery within a short period of time (e.g., 10 s or 30 s). However, as its use in applications is growing, such as in automatic cars, the ability to predict a longer usage time is required. To be able to do this, two issues should be considered: (1) the influence of both the ambient temperature and the rise in temperature caused by Joule heat, and (2) the influence of changes in the state of charge (SOC). In response, we propose the use of a model-based extreme learning machine (Model-ELM, MELM) to predict the battery future voltage, power, and surface temperature for any given load current. The standard ELM is a kind of single-layer feedforward network (SLFN). We propose using a set of rough models to replace the active functions (such as logsig()) in the ELM for better generalization performance. The model parameters and initial SOC in these “rough models” are randomly selected within a given range, so little prior knowledge about the battery is required. Moreover, the identification of the complex nonlinear system can be transferred into a standard least squares problem, which is suitable for online applications. The proposed method was tested and compared with RLS (Recursive Least Square)-based methods at different ambient temperatures to verify its superiority. The temperature prediction accuracy is higher than ±1.5 °C, and the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the power prediction is less than 0.25 W. It should be noted that the accuracy of the proposed method does not rely on the accuracy of the state estimation such as SOC, thereby improving its robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
ACT-R Cognitive Model Based Trajectory Planning Method Study for Electric Vehicle’s Active Obstacle Avoidance System
Energies 2018, 11(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010075 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The active obstacle avoidance system is one of the important components of the electric vehicle active safety system. In order to realize the active obstacle avoidance system driving the vehicle smoothly and without collision in complex road situation, a new dynamical trajectory planning [...] Read more.
The active obstacle avoidance system is one of the important components of the electric vehicle active safety system. In order to realize the active obstacle avoidance system driving the vehicle smoothly and without collision in complex road situation, a new dynamical trajectory planning method based on ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational) cognitive model is introduced. Firstly, the ACT-R cognitive architecture is introduced and the trajectory planning method’s framework structure based on ACT-R cognitive model is built. Secondly, the modeling method of ACT-R cognitive model is introduced, the main module of ACT-R cognitive model includes the initialized behavior module, trajectory planning module, estimated behavioral module, and weight adjustment behavior module. Finally, the verification of the trajectory planning method is conducted by the simulation and experiment results. The simulation and experiment results showed that the method of AR (ACT-R) is effective and feasible. The AR method is better than the methods that are based on the OC (Optimal Control) and FN (fuzzy neural network fusion); this paper’s method has more human behavior characteristics and can meet the demand of different constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Effect on Vehicle Turbocharger Exhaust Gas Energy Utilization for the Performance of Centrifugal Compressors under Plateau Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122121 - 13 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper is focused on the performance of centrifugal compressors for vehicle turbochargers operating at high altitude. The reasons for turbocharged diesel engine power loss increases and bad economy performance caused by exhaust gas energy utilization are investigated. The atmosphere’s impact on the [...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the performance of centrifugal compressors for vehicle turbochargers operating at high altitude. The reasons for turbocharged diesel engine power loss increases and bad economy performance caused by exhaust gas energy utilization are investigated. The atmosphere’s impact on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor’s energy distribution characteristics under the plateau is discussed. The key parameters that affect compressor characteristics are concluded in a theoretical method. A simulation calculation model is established to accurately predict compressor performance at high altitude. By comparing the experimental results, the calculation results are validated. The details of the internal flow fields analysis, including critical parameters of a compressor operating at high altitude, are analyzed. The results show that with the increase of altitude from 0 m to 4500 m, the peak efficiency of the compressor is reduced by 2.4%, while the peak pressure ratio is increased by 7%. The main influence characters of the plateau environment on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance, such as blade loads, exergy utilization and entropy distribution are concluded. The key factors for compressor performance and compressor energy flow control design method operated at high altitude are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Integration Design and Optimization Control of a Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Electric Wheels with In-Wheel Motor
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122069 - 05 Dec 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
This paper presents an integration design scheme and an optimization control strategy for electric wheels to suppress the in-wheel vibration and improve vehicle ride comfort. The in-wheel motor is considered as a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA), which is isolated from the unsprung mass [...] Read more.
This paper presents an integration design scheme and an optimization control strategy for electric wheels to suppress the in-wheel vibration and improve vehicle ride comfort. The in-wheel motor is considered as a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA), which is isolated from the unsprung mass by using a spring and a damper. The proposed DVA system is applicable for both the inner-rotor motor and outer-rotor motor. Parameters of the DVA system are optimized for the typical conditions, by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, to achieve an acceptable vibration performance. Further, the DVA actuator force is controlled by using the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method, to adaptively suppress the wheel vibration and reduce the wallop acting on the in-wheel motor (IWM) as well. In addition, a suspension actuator force is also controlled, by using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method, to enhance the suspension performance and meanwhile improve vehicle ride comfort. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DVA system effectively suppresses the wheel vibration and simultaneously reduces the wallop acting on the IWM. Also, the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method performs better than the conventional ones, and the LQR-based suspension exhibits excellent performance in vehicle ride comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Unified Brake Service by a Hierarchical Controller for Active Deceleration Control in an Electric and Automated Vehicle
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122052 - 04 Dec 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Unified brake service is a universal service for generating certain brake force to meet the demand deceleration and is essential for an automated driving system. However, it is rather difficult to control the pressure in the wheel cylinders to reach the target deceleration [...] Read more.
Unified brake service is a universal service for generating certain brake force to meet the demand deceleration and is essential for an automated driving system. However, it is rather difficult to control the pressure in the wheel cylinders to reach the target deceleration of the automated vehicle, which is the key issue of the active deceleration control system (ADC). This paper proposes a hierarchical control method to actively control vehicle deceleration with active-brake actuators. In the upper hierarchical, the target pressure of wheel cylinders is obtained by dynamic equations of a pure electric vehicle. In the lower hierarchical, the solenoid valve instructions and the pump speed of hydraulic control unit (HCU) are determined to satisfy the desired pressure with the feedback of measured wheel cylinder pressure by pressure sensors. Results of road experiments of a pure electric and automated vehicle indicate that the proposed method realizes the target deceleration accurately and efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Continuous-Time Model Predictive Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motors for a Wide-Speed Range
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122051 - 04 Dec 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper proposes an improved continuous-time model predictive control (CTMPC) of permanent magnetic synchronous motors (PMSMs) for a wide-speed range, including the constant torque region and the flux-weakening (FW) region. In the constant torque region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an improved continuous-time model predictive control (CTMPC) of permanent magnetic synchronous motors (PMSMs) for a wide-speed range, including the constant torque region and the flux-weakening (FW) region. In the constant torque region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are decoupled without the limitation of DC-link voltage. However, in the FW region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are cross-coupled together with the limitation of DC-link voltage. A nonlinear PMSMs mathematic model in the FW region is presented based on the voltage angle. The solving of the nonlinear mathematic model of PMSMs in FW region will lead to heavy computation load for digital signal processing (DSP). To overcome such a problem, a linearization method of the voltage angle is also proposed to reduce the computation load. The selection of transiting points between the constant torque region and FW regions is researched to improve the performance of the driven system. Compared with the proportional integral (PI) controller, the proposed CTMPC has obvious advantages in dealing with systems’ nonlinear constraints and improving system performance by restraining overshoot current under step torque changing. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in achieving good steady-state performance and smooth switching between the constant torque and FW regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Speed Synchronization Control of Integrated Motor–Transmission Powertrain over CAN through Active Period-Scheduling Approach
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111831 - 10 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper deals with the speed synchronization control of integrated motor–transmission (IMT) powertrain systems in pure electric vehicles (EVs) over a controller area network (CAN) subject to both network-induced delays and network congestion. A CAN has advantages over point-to-point communication; however, it imposes [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the speed synchronization control of integrated motor–transmission (IMT) powertrain systems in pure electric vehicles (EVs) over a controller area network (CAN) subject to both network-induced delays and network congestion. A CAN has advantages over point-to-point communication; however, it imposes network-induced delays and network congestion into the control system, which can deteriorate the shifting quality and make system integration difficult. This paper presents a co-design scheme combining active period scheduling and discrete-time slip mode control (SMC) to deal with both network-induced delays and network congestion of the CAN, which improves the speed synchronization control for high shifting quality and prevents network congestion for the system’s integration. The results of simulations and hardware-in-loop experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which can ensure satisfactory speed synchronization performance while significantly reducing the network’s utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111796 - 08 Nov 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC) construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC) and established the corresponding [...] Read more.
This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC) construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC) and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS). The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC) and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC) show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV) optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km) at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km) at rush hour)). Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111772 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is proposed. [...] Read more.
Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS) of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
A Human-Machine-Cooperative-Driving Controller Based on AFS and DYC for Vehicle Dynamic Stability
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111737 - 30 Oct 2017
Cited by 53
Abstract
It is a difficult and important project to coordinate active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC), which has great potential to improve vehicle dynamic stability. Moreover, the balance between driver’s operation and advanced technologies’ intervention is a critical problem. This [...] Read more.
It is a difficult and important project to coordinate active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC), which has great potential to improve vehicle dynamic stability. Moreover, the balance between driver’s operation and advanced technologies’ intervention is a critical problem. This paper proposes a human-machine-cooperative-driving controller (HMCDC) with a hierarchical structure for vehicle dynamic stability and it consists of a supervisor, an upper coordination layer, and two lower layers (AFS and DYC). The range of AFS additional angle is constrained, with consideration of the influence of AFS on drivers’ feeling. First, in the supervisor, a nonlinear vehicle model was utilized to predict vehicle states, and the reference yaw rate, and side slip angle values were calculated. Then, the upper coordination layer decides the control object and control mode. At last, DYC and AFS calculate brake pressures and the range of active steering angle, respectively. The proposed HMCDC is evaluated by co-simulation of CarSim and MATLAB. Results show that the proposed controller could improve vehicle dynamic stability effectively for the premise of ensuring the driver’s intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111723 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was [...] Read more.
This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr), the number of cycles (c), and the heat transfer coefficient (h) under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessArticle
Ride Comfort Optimization of In-Wheel-Motor Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Vibration Absorbers
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101647 - 19 Oct 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
This paper presents an in-wheel vibration absorber for in-wheel-motor electric vehicles (IWM EVs), and a corresponding control strategy to improve vehicle ride comfort. The proposed in-wheel vibration absorber, designed for suppressing the motor vibrations, is composed of a spring, an annular rubber bushing, [...] Read more.
This paper presents an in-wheel vibration absorber for in-wheel-motor electric vehicles (IWM EVs), and a corresponding control strategy to improve vehicle ride comfort. The proposed in-wheel vibration absorber, designed for suppressing the motor vibrations, is composed of a spring, an annular rubber bushing, and a controllable damper. The parameters of the in-wheel spring and rubber bushing are determined by an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm, which is executed under the typical driving conditions and can absorb vibration passively. To deal with negative interaction effects between vehicle suspension and in-wheel absorber, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm is developed to control suspension damper, and meanwhile a fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method is developed to control in-wheel damper as well. Through four evaluation indexes, i.e., vehicle body vertical acceleration, suspension dynamic deflection, wheel dynamic load, and motor wallop, simulation results show that, compared to the conventional electric wheel, the proposed suspension LQR control effectively improves vehicle ride comfort, and the in-wheel absorber exhibits excellent performance in terms of wheel and motor vibration suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Open AccessConference Report
Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus
Energies 2018, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010034 - 24 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, [...] Read more.
In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator) in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV), and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV), based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV). In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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