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Energies 2018, 11(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020325

Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission

1
National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The International Symposium on Electric Vehicles (ISEV2017))
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Abstract

The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs) have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB) is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC). Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB); energy management strategy; dynamic programming (DP); shift schedule extraction method; hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB); energy management strategy; dynamic programming (DP); shift schedule extraction method; hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhao, M.; Shi, J.; Lin, C.; Zhang, J. Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission. Energies 2018, 11, 325.

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