Special Issue "Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Federico Rossi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Engineering Department, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: Thermal sciences; energy technology; building physics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Beatrice Castellani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: energy storage and energy systems; natural gas hydrates; clathrate hydrates; CO2 capture; energy efficiency; waste management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural gas hydrates mostly located on the sea bed constitute the largest reservoir of natural gas on the planet and represent an important solution for the transition from the actual energy scenario to a renewable one.

Methane, contained in hydrates’ crystalline structure, can be replaced by carbon dioxide, so that the obtained fuel is neutral in terms of climate-changing emissions and therefore equivalent to renewable energy sources.

Authors are invited to submit papers in the field of gas hydrates as an energy resource by focusing on the following topics:

  • Chemical and physical aspects for a deeper comprehension of the kinetics and thermodynamics of methane delivery and CO2 hydrate formation and stability
  • Geological aspects, in particular the mechanical properties of CO2 and CH4 hydrate sediments as well as the mechanical properties of gas hydrates during the CH4–CO2 exchange process; prospection and detection aspects.
  • Engineering aspects related to: natural gas extraction, CO2 injection and replacement process, drilling problems.
  • Environmental sustainability evaluations.
  • Economic and political aspects of gas hydrate exploitation; effects on energy scenarios and markets.

Thank you very much!

Dr. Federico Rossi
Dr. Beatrice Castellani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gas hydrate
  • natural gas
  • methane
  • production and reservoirs
  • sustainability
  • energy resource
  • CO2 replacement
  • Environmental impact
  • Economic analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Research into Dissociation Zones of Gas Hydrate Deposits with a Heterogeneous Structure in the Black Sea
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051345 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 399
Abstract
Ukraine is an energy-dependent country, with less that 50% of its energy consumption fulfilled by its own resources. Natural gas is of paramount importance, especially for industry and society. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for alternative and potential energy sources, [...] Read more.
Ukraine is an energy-dependent country, with less that 50% of its energy consumption fulfilled by its own resources. Natural gas is of paramount importance, especially for industry and society. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for alternative and potential energy sources, such as gas hydrate deposits in the Black Sea, which can reduce the consumption of imported gas. It is necessary to refine the process parameters of the dissociation of gas hydrate deposits with a heterogeneous structure. The analyzed known geological–geophysical data devoted to the study of the offshore area and the seabed give grounds to assert the existence of a significant amount of hydrate deposits in the Black Sea. An integrated methodological approach is applied, which consists of the development of algorithms for analytical and laboratory studies of gas volumes obtained during the dissociation of deposits with a heterogeneous structure. These data are used for the computer modelling of the dissociation zone in the Surfer-8.0 software package based on the data interpolation method, which uses three methods for calculating the volumes of modelling bodies. A 3D grid-visualization of the studied part of the gas hydrate deposit has been developed. The dissociation zone parameters of gas hydrate deposits with different shares of rock intercalation, that is, the minimum and maximum diameters, have been determined, and the potentially recoverable gas volumes have been assessed. The effective time of the process of gas hydrate deposit dissociation has been substantiated. The obtained research results of the dissociation process of gas hydrate deposits can be used in the development of new technological schemes for gas recovery from the deep-water Black Sea area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Article
Gas Hydrate System Offshore Chile
Energies 2021, 14(3), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030709 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
In recent decades, the Chilean margin has been extensively investigated to better characterize the complex geological setting through the geophysical data. The analysis of seismic lines allowed us to identify the occurrence of gas hydrates and free gas in many places along the [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the Chilean margin has been extensively investigated to better characterize the complex geological setting through the geophysical data. The analysis of seismic lines allowed us to identify the occurrence of gas hydrates and free gas in many places along the margin and the change of the pore fluid due to the potential hydrate dissociation. The porosity reduction due to the hydrate presence is linked to the slope to identify the area more sensitive in case of natural phenomena or induced by human activities that could determine gas hydrate dissociations and/or leakage of the free gas trapped below the gas-hydrate stability zone. Clearly, the gas hydrate reservoir could be a strategic energy reserve for Chile. The steady-state modelling pointed out that the climate change could determine gas hydrate dissociation, triggering slope failure. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of high concentrations of gas hydrate in correspondence of important seafloor slope. The dissociation of gas hydrate could change the petrophysical characteristics of the subsoil triggering slopes, which already occurred in the past. Consequently, it is required to improve knowledge about the behavior of the gas hydrate system in a function of complex natural phenomena before the exploitation of this important resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Article
Design of Small LNG Supply Chain by Multi-Period Optimization
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6704; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246704 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 421
Abstract
A mathematical model for the design of small-scale supply chains for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been developed. It considers the maritime delivery of LNG from supply ports to satellite terminals and land-based transports from the terminals to consumers on or off the [...] Read more.
A mathematical model for the design of small-scale supply chains for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been developed. It considers the maritime delivery of LNG from supply ports to satellite terminals and land-based transports from the terminals to consumers on or off the coast. Both tactical and strategic aspects in the supply chain design are addressed by optimizing the maritime routing of a heterogeneous fleet of ships, truck connections, and the locations of the satellite terminals. The objective is to minimize the overall cost, including operation and investment costs for the selected time horizon. The model is expressed as a mixed-integer linear programming problem, applying a multi-period formulation to determine optimal storage sizes and inventory at the satellite terminals. Two case studies illustrate the model, where optimal LNG supply chains for a region with sparsely distributed island (without land transports) and a coastal region at a gulf (with both sea and land transports) are designed. The model is demonstrated to be a flexible tool suited for the initial design and feasibility analysis of small-scale LNG supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Article
Shuffled Complex Evolution-Based Performance Enhancement and Analysis of Cascade Liquefaction Process for Large-Scale LNG Production
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102511 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Among all large-scale natural gas (NG) liquefaction processes, the mixed fluid cascade (MFC) process is recognized as a best-alternative option for the LNG production, mainly due its competitive performance. However, from a thermodynamic point of view, the MFC process is still far from [...] Read more.
Among all large-scale natural gas (NG) liquefaction processes, the mixed fluid cascade (MFC) process is recognized as a best-alternative option for the LNG production, mainly due its competitive performance. However, from a thermodynamic point of view, the MFC process is still far from its potential maximum energy efficiency due to non-optimal execution of design variables. Therefore, the energy efficiency enhancement of the MFC process remains an ongoing issue. The design optimization after fixing the main configuration of the process is one of the most economic, but challenging exercises during the design stages. In this study, shuffled complex evolution (SCE) is studied to find the optimal design of the MFC process corresponding to minimal energy consumption in refrigeration cycles. The MFC process is simulated using Aspen Hysys® v10 and then coupled with the SCE approach, which is coded in MATLAB® 2019a. The refrigerant composition and operating pressures for each cycle of the MFC process were optimized considering the approach temperature inside the LNG heat exchanger as a constraint. The resulting optimal MFC process saved 19.76% overall compression power and reduced the exergy destruction up to 28.76%. The thermodynamic efficiency (figure of merit) of the SCE-optimized process was 25% higher than that of the published base case. Furthermore, the optimization results also imply that there is a trade-off between the thermodynamic performance improvement and the computational cost (no. of iterations). In conclusion, SCE exhibited potential to improve the performance of highly nonlinear and complex processes such as LNG processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Article
The Research on a Driving Device for Natural Gas Hydrate Pressure Core
Energies 2020, 13(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010221 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
Precise pressure core motion, including translation and rotation, is the basis and core part of the Analysis and Transfer System of Natural Gas Hydrate Pressure Core, which is crucial to nondestructive analyses, core cutting, and transfer. This paper mainly proposes a driving device, [...] Read more.
Precise pressure core motion, including translation and rotation, is the basis and core part of the Analysis and Transfer System of Natural Gas Hydrate Pressure Core, which is crucial to nondestructive analyses, core cutting, and transfer. This paper mainly proposes a driving device, whereby a pressure core, up to 3 m long, can be transferred from pressure core drilling tools to proceed to nondestructive analyses and transferring the cores into other chambers. The lead screw is one of the most important components of this driving device. Therefore, the modal analyses of the lead screw are performed, which can help researchers to analyze the stability of this device. The analyzed data shows that the different positions of the slider have a great impact on the natural frequency of the lead screw. Furthermore, the lead screw with a support slider has a larger natural frequency than that without a support slider. According to data analysis, we can derive that the device with the support slider has a much larger rigidity, which can contribute to the stability of the device. To verify the feasibility of this device, the deformation of the lead screw was tested by the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer array. Experimental results show that the deformation of the lead screw with the support slider is much less than that without the support slider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Article
Innovative System for Heat Recovery and Combustion Gas Cleaning
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4255; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224255 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The Polish as well as the global energy economy, including in particular heat generation, is to a great extent based on facilities for the combustion of liquid and gaseous fuels. Globally, a considerable part, and in Poland a vast majority of these facilities [...] Read more.
The Polish as well as the global energy economy, including in particular heat generation, is to a great extent based on facilities for the combustion of liquid and gaseous fuels. Globally, a considerable part, and in Poland a vast majority of these facilities are much worn out, and, consequently, they work with low efficiency producing considerable amounts of pollutants, which have a very negative impact on the environment. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to develop innovative solutions that enhance the efficiency of fuel combustion and at the same time reduce emission of pollutants. The paper presents a solution which renders it possible to increase the efficiency of fuel conversion by heating up substrates of combustion processes, heat recovery from combustion gases as a result of their cooling and water vapor condensation and which contributes to a reduction of pollution. The solution brings about significant fuel consumption savings and thus a considerable enhancement of economic and ecological efficiency of heat sources is achieved. The solution is specially dedicated to heat sources of low and medium power. The technology developed and described herein will also allow an elimination of environmental burdens caused by inefficient heat sources already in operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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Review

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Review
A Review on CO2 Capture Technologies with Focus on CO2-Enhanced Methane Recovery from Hydrates
Energies 2021, 14(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020387 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Natural gas is considered a helpful transition fuel in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of other conventional power plants burning coal or liquid fossil fuels. Natural Gas Hydrates (NGHs) constitute the largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. Methane contained [...] Read more.
Natural gas is considered a helpful transition fuel in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of other conventional power plants burning coal or liquid fossil fuels. Natural Gas Hydrates (NGHs) constitute the largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. Methane contained within the crystalline structure can be replaced by carbon dioxide to enhance gas recovery from hydrates. This technical review presents a techno-economic analysis of the full pathway, which begins with the capture of CO2 from power and process industries and ends with its transportation to a geological sequestration site consisting of clathrate hydrates. Since extracted methane is still rich in CO2, on-site separation is required. Focus is thus placed on membrane-based gas separation technologies widely used for gas purification and CO2 removal from raw natural gas and exhaust gas. Nevertheless, the other carbon capture processes (i.e., oxy-fuel combustion, pre-combustion and post-combustion) are briefly discussed and their carbon capture costs are compared with membrane separation technology. Since a large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facility requires CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure, a technical, cost and safety assessment of CO2 transportation over long distances is carried out. Finally, this paper provides an overview of the storage solutions developed around the world, principally studying the geological NGH formation for CO2 sinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Resource Potential of Gas Hydrates)
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