Special Issue "Energy Use Efficiency"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Almas Heshmati
Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Economics, Jönköping International Business School (JIBS),Jönköping University, Room B5017,P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden
Interests: applied microeconomics; globalization; development strategy; efficiency; productivity and growth with application to manufacturing and services
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is one of the most important factors of production. Its efficient use is crucial for production and environmental quality. Unlike normal goods with supply management, energy is demand-managed. Efficient energy use or energy efficiency aims to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. Energy use efficiency can be achieved in housing, offices, industrial production, transport and agriculture, as well as in public lighting and services. The use of energy can be reduced by using technology that is energy saving. There are many benefits associated with energy use reduction leading to reduced energy dependency and vulnerability and improved energy security. Various incentive-based programs are provided to the public to promote the development, installation and use of energy efficient technologies and equipment. The policy is to protect air, water and land and to prevent climate change and negative health impacts by reducing the generation and use of energy from fossil fuels and nuclear primary sources. Saving energy to reserve these resources for future generations and conserving natural resources has double dividend effects in the form of cost efficiency and the realization of sustainability. Authors of solid and full-length empirical studies using data at the household, firm, farm, industry, region and country level and advanced methods are invited to submit their research for publication in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Almas Heshmati
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Energy use efficiency
  • Energy policy and incentives
  • Energy cost efficiency
  • Improved environmental quality
  • Energy saving
  • Energy efficient technologies and equipment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Energy Access Using Fuzzy Logic
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3266; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123266 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
This paper describes an innovative method to evaluate energy access in any of size population by applying fuzzy logic. The obtained results allow ranking regions of Mexico according to their overall energy access. The regions were determined by the country’s political division (32 [...] Read more.
This paper describes an innovative method to evaluate energy access in any of size population by applying fuzzy logic. The obtained results allow ranking regions of Mexico according to their overall energy access. The regions were determined by the country’s political division (32 states). The results presented herein are in close correspondence with other studies undertaken. This method is recommended because it is possible to use as an assessment tool due to its representativeness—that is, it poses a heuristic alternative to quantify the level of Energy Access in a particular region through qualitative data. It is also efficient and cost-effective in terms of computer resources. This is extremely important to public policy makers that require more accurate, faster and cheaper methodologies to assess energy access as an indicator of well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Use and Labor Productivity in Ethiopia: The Case of the Manufacturing Industry
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112714 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of energy use on labor productivity in the Ethiopian manufacturing industry. It uses panel data for the manufacturing industry groups to estimate the coefficients using the dynamic panel estimator. The study’s results confirm that energy use increases manufacturing [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of energy use on labor productivity in the Ethiopian manufacturing industry. It uses panel data for the manufacturing industry groups to estimate the coefficients using the dynamic panel estimator. The study’s results confirm that energy use increases manufacturing labor productivity. The coefficients for the control variables are in keeping with theoretical predictions. Capital positively augments productivity in the industries. Based on our results, technology induces manufacturing’s labor productivity. Likewise, more labor employment induces labor productivity due to the dominance of labor-intensive manufacturing industries in Ethiopia. Alternative model specifications provide evidence of a robust link between energy and labor productivity in the Ethiopian manufacturing industry. Our results imply that there needs to be more focus on the efficient use of energy, labor, capital, and technology to increase the manufacturing industry’s labor productivity and to overcome the premature deindustrialization patterns being seen in Ethiopia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Consumption Analysis for Vehicle Production through a Material Flow Approach
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092396 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the energy consumption in the automotive industry, clarifying the effect of its productive processes. For this propose, the material flow of the vehicles has been elaborated, from mining to vehicle assembly. Initially, processes where [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the energy consumption in the automotive industry, clarifying the effect of its productive processes. For this propose, the material flow of the vehicles has been elaborated, from mining to vehicle assembly. Initially, processes where each type of material was used, and the relationship between them, were clarified. Subsequently, material flow was elaborated, while considering materials input in each process. Consequently, the consumption of energy resources (i.e., oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity) was calculated. Open data were utilized, and the effects on the Japanese vehicle market were analyzed as a case study. Our results indicate that the energy that is required for vehicle production is 41.8 MJ/kg per vehicle, where mining and material production processes represent 68% of the total consumption. Moreover, 5.23 kg of raw materials and energy resources are required to produce 1 kg of vehicle. Finally, this study proposed values of energy consumption per mass of part produced, which can be used to facilitate future material and energy analysis for the automotive industry. Those values can be adopted and modified as necessary, allowing for possible changes in future premises to be incorporated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Use Efficiency Past-to-Future Evaluation: An International Comparison
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3804; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193804 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Despite the many benefits that energy consumption brings to the economy, consuming energy also leads nations to expend more resources on environmental pollution. Therefore, energy efficiency has been proposed as a solution to improve national economic competitiveness and sustainability. However, the growth in [...] Read more.
Despite the many benefits that energy consumption brings to the economy, consuming energy also leads nations to expend more resources on environmental pollution. Therefore, energy efficiency has been proposed as a solution to improve national economic competitiveness and sustainability. However, the growth in energy demand is accelerating while policy efforts to boost energy efficiency are slowing. To solve this problem, the efficiency gains in countries where energy consumption efficiency is of the greatest concern such as China, India, the United States, and Europe, especially, emerging economies, is central. Additionally, governments must take greater policy actions. Therefore, this paper studied 25 countries from Asia, the Americas, and Europe to develop a method combining the grey method (GM) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) slack-based measure model (SMB) to measure and forecast the energy efficiency, so that detailed energy efficiency evaluation can be made from the past to the future; moreover, this method can be extended to more countries around the world. The results of this study reveal that European countries have a higher energy efficiency than countries in Americas (except the United States) and Asian countries. Our findings also show that an excess of total energy consumption is the main reason causing the energy inefficiency in most countries. This study contributes to policymaking and strategy makers by sharing the understanding of the status of energy efficiency and providing insights for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of a Power Factor Correction Policy in Improving the Energy Efficiency of Large-Scale Electricity Users in Ghana
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132582 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Confronting an energy crisis, the government of Ghana enacted a power factor correction policy in 1995. The policy imposes a penalty on large-scale electricity users, namely, special load tariff (SLT) customers of the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), whose power factor is below [...] Read more.
Confronting an energy crisis, the government of Ghana enacted a power factor correction policy in 1995. The policy imposes a penalty on large-scale electricity users, namely, special load tariff (SLT) customers of the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), whose power factor is below 90%. This paper investigates the impact of this policy on these firms’ power factor improvement by using panel data from 183 SLT customers from 1994 to 1997 and from 2012. To avoid potential endogeneity, this paper adopts a regression discontinuity design (RDD) with the power factor of the firms in the previous year as a running variable, with its cutoff set at the penalty threshold. The result shows that these large-scale electricity users who face the penalty because their power factor falls just short of the threshold are more likely to improve their power factor in the subsequent year, implying that the power factor correction policy implemented by Ghana’s government is effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
The Technological Progress of the Fuel Consumption Rate for Passenger Vehicles in China: 2009–2016
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122384 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
China has set stringent fuel consumption rate (FCR) targets to address the serious environmental and energy security problems caused by vehicles. Estimating the technological progress and tradeoffs between FCR and vehicle attributes is important for assessing the viability of meeting future targets. In [...] Read more.
China has set stringent fuel consumption rate (FCR) targets to address the serious environmental and energy security problems caused by vehicles. Estimating the technological progress and tradeoffs between FCR and vehicle attributes is important for assessing the viability of meeting future targets. In this paper, we explored the relationship between vehicle FCR and other attributes using a regression model with data from 2009–2016. We also quantified the difference in the tradeoff between local and joint venture brands. The result showed that from 2009 to 2016, if power and curb mass were held constant, 2.3% and 2.9% annual technological progress should have been achieved for local and joint venture brands, respectively. The effectiveness of fuel-efficient technologies for joint venture brands is generally better than that of local brands. Impacts of other attributes on FCR were also assessed. The joint venture brands made more technological progress with FCR improvement than that of local brands. Even if 100% of technological progress (assume the technological progress in the future were the same as that of 2009–2016) investment were used to improve actual FCR after 2016, it would be difficult to meet 2020 target. Accelerating the adoption of fuel-efficient technologies, and controlling weight and performance, are both needed to achieve the 2020 and 2025 targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Rebound Effect for Electricity Consumption of Urban Residents in China Based on the Spatial Spillover Effect
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112069 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Based on methods of price decomposition and spatial econometrics, this paper improves the model for calculating the direct energy rebound effect employing the panel data of China’s urban residents’ electricity consumption for an empirical analysis. Results show that the global spatial correlation of [...] Read more.
Based on methods of price decomposition and spatial econometrics, this paper improves the model for calculating the direct energy rebound effect employing the panel data of China’s urban residents’ electricity consumption for an empirical analysis. Results show that the global spatial correlation of urban residents’ electricity consumption has a significant positive value. The direct rebound effect and its spillover effects are 37% and 13%, respectively. Due to the spatial spillover effects, the realization of energy-saving targets in the local region depends on the implementation effect of energy efficiency policies in the surrounding areas. However, the spatial spillover effect is low, and the direct rebound effect induced by the local region is still the dominant factor affecting the implementation of energy efficiency. The direct rebound effect for urban residents’ electricity consumption eliminating the spatial spillover effect does not show a significant downward trend. The main reason is that the rapid urbanization process at the current stage has caused a rigid residents’ electricity demand and large-scale marginal consumer groups, which offsets the inhibition effect of income growth on the direct rebound effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use Efficiency)
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