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Special Issue "Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Buildings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jarek Kurnitski

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy performance; indoor climate; zero energy buildings; HVAC systems; building simulation
Guest Editor
Dr. Martin Thalfeldt

Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Website | E-Mail
Interests: HVAC systems; building simulation; energy performance; zero energy buildings
Guest Editor
Dr. Andrea Ferrantelli

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: heat transfer; theoretical modelling; building simulation; energy performance; thermal comfort

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to energy performance, HVAC and other technical systems, and indoor climate analyses in buildings. Articles dealing with new, low energy and nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB) are especially welcomed. On the background of this issue are NZEB requirements recently established and soon taken into use in all EU Member States, as well as similar developments in Japan, US and other countries. NZEB definitions, system boundaries, performance levels and energy calculation input data show no consensus at a European level, indicating a need for benchmarking for future harmonization in the common market. Therefore, it is difficult to understand which countries have set stringent requirements leading to best possible energy performances. Climate differences provide an additional challenge. Revised EPBD directives stress that specification of adequate ventilation and comfort levels is the responsibility of Member States, which calls for comparative analyses how indoor environmental quality (IEQ) criteria is set nationally and how good IEQ is achieved in practice in new high performance buildings. Benchmarking, assessment of technical solutions needed for NZEB, performance analyses and energy flexibility measures in the context of new smart readiness indicators are some examples of topics that are welcome in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Jarek Kurnitski
Dr. Martin Thalfeldt
Dr. Andrea Ferrantelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy performance
  • HVAC systems 
  • indoor climate 
  • nearly zero energy buildings

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Air Pressure Conditions on the Performance of Single Room Ventilation Units in Multi-Story Buildings
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132633
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Single room ventilation units with heat recovery is one of the ventilation solutions that have been used in renovated residential buildings in Estonia. In multi-story buildings, especially in a cold climate, the performance of units is affected by the stack effect and wind-induced [...] Read more.
Single room ventilation units with heat recovery is one of the ventilation solutions that have been used in renovated residential buildings in Estonia. In multi-story buildings, especially in a cold climate, the performance of units is affected by the stack effect and wind-induced pressure differences between the indoor and the outdoor air. Renovation of the building envelope improves air tightness and the impact of the pressure conditions is amplified. The aim of this study was to predict the air pressure conditions in typical renovated multi-story apartment buildings and to analyze the performance of room-based ventilation units. The field measurements of air pressure differences in a renovated 5-story apartment building during the winter season were conducted and the results were used to simulate whole-year pressure conditions with IDA-ICE software. Performance of two types of single room ventilation units were measured in the laboratory and their suitability as ventilation renovation solutions was assessed with simulations. The results show that one unit stopped its operation as a heat recovery ventilator. In order to ensure satisfactory indoor climate and heat recovery using wall mounted units the pressure difference values were determined and proposed for correct design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Measurements and Numerical Simulation for the Definition of the Thermal Stratification and Ventilation Performance in a Mechanically Ventilated Sports Hall
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122243
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Sports halls must meet strict requirements for energy and indoor air quality (IAQ); therefore, there is a great challenge in the design of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of such buildings. IAQ in sports halls may be affected by thermal [...] Read more.
Sports halls must meet strict requirements for energy and indoor air quality (IAQ); therefore, there is a great challenge in the design of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of such buildings. IAQ in sports halls may be affected by thermal stratification, pollutants from different sources, the maintenance of building, and the HVAC system of the building, as well as by the activities performed inside the building. The aim of this study is to investigate thermal stratification conditions in accordance with the performance of the HVAC systems in the basketball training hall of Žalgirio Arena, Kaunas in Lithuania. Field measurements including temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration were implemented between January and February in 2017. The temperature and relative humidity were measured at different heights (0.1, 1.7, 2.5, 3.9, 5.4, and 6.9 m) and at five different locations in the arena. Experimental results show that mixing the ventilation application together with air heating results in higher temperatures in the occupied zone than in the case of air heating without ventilation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations revealed that using the same heating output as for warm air heating and underfloor heating, combined with mechanical mixing or displacement ventilation, ensures higher temperatures in the occupied zone, creating a potential for energy saving. An increase of air temperature was noticed from 3.9 m upwards. Since CO2 concentration near the ceiling was permissible, the study concluded that it is possible to recycle the air from the mentioned zone and use it again by mixing with the air of lower layers, thus saving energy for air heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ Measurements of Energy Consumption and Indoor Environmental Quality of a Pre-Retrofitted Student Dormitory in Athens
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112210
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
In the following years all European Union member states should bring into force national laws on the energy performance of buildings. Moreover, university campus dormitories are buildings of great importance, due to their architectural characteristics and their social impact. In this study, the [...] Read more.
In the following years all European Union member states should bring into force national laws on the energy performance of buildings. Moreover, university campus dormitories are buildings of great importance, due to their architectural characteristics and their social impact. In this study, the energy performance along with the indoor environmental conditions of a dormitory of a university has been analysed. The in situ measurements included temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, total volatile organic compounds, and electrical consumption; lastly, the energy signature of the whole building was investigated. The study focused on the summer months, during which significantly increased thermal needs of the building were identified. The ground floor was found to be the floor with the highest percentage of thermal conditions within the comfort range, and the third floor the lowest. Lastly, a significant correlation between electrical consumption and the outdoor temperature was presented, highlighting the lack of thermal insulation. Overall, it was clear that a redesign of the cooling and heating system, the installation of a ventilation system, and thermal insulation are essential for improving the energy efficiency of this building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulations and Empirical Data for the Evaluation of Daylight Factors in Existing Buildings in Sweden
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112200
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Point Daylight Factor (DFP) has been used for daylighting design in Sweden for more than 40 years. Progressive densification of urban environments, in combination with stricter regulations on energy performance and indoor environmental quality of buildings, creates complex daylight design challenges [...] Read more.
Point Daylight Factor (DFP) has been used for daylighting design in Sweden for more than 40 years. Progressive densification of urban environments, in combination with stricter regulations on energy performance and indoor environmental quality of buildings, creates complex daylight design challenges that cannot be adequately solved with DFP. To support a development of the current and future daylight indicators in the Swedish context, the authors have developed a comprehensive methodology for the evaluation of daylight levels in existing buildings. The methodology comprises sample buildings of various use and their digital replicas in 3D, detailed numerical simulations and correlations of diverse DF metrics in existing buildings, a field investigation on residents’ satisfaction with available daylight levels in their homes, and a comparison between the numerical and experimental data. The study was deliberately limited to the evaluation of DF metrics for their intuitive understanding and easy evaluation in real design projects. The sample buildings represent typical architectural styles and building technologies between 1887 and 2013 in Gothenburg and include eight residential buildings, two office buildings, two schools, two student apartment buildings, and two hospitals. Although the simulated DFP is 1.4% on average, i.e., above the required 1%, large variations have been found between the studied 1200 rooms. The empirical data generally support the findings from the numerical simulations, but also bring unique insights in the residences’ preferences for rooms with good daylight. The most remarkable result is related to kitchens, typically the spaces with the lowest DF values, based on simulations, while the residents wish them to be the spaces with the most daylight. Finally, the work introduces a new DF metric, denoted DFW, which allows daylighting design in early stages when only limited data on the building shape and windows’ arrangement are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling an Alternate Operational Ground Source Heat Pump for Combined Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Power Sizing
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112120
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
This study developed an alternate operational control system for ground source heat pumps (GSHP), which was applied to determine combined space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) power equations at design temperature. A domestic GSHP with an alternate control system was implemented in [...] Read more.
This study developed an alternate operational control system for ground source heat pumps (GSHP), which was applied to determine combined space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) power equations at design temperature. A domestic GSHP with an alternate control system was implemented in a whole building simulation model following the heat deficiency for space heating based on degree minute counting. A simulated GSHP system with 200 L storage tank resulted in 13%–26% power reduction compared to the calculation of the same system with existing European standards, which required separate space heating and DHW power calculation. The periodic operation utilized the thermal mass of the building with the same effect in the case of light and heavy-weight building because of the very short cycle of 30 min. Room temperatures dropped during the DHW heating cycle but kept within comfort range. The developed equations predict the total power as a function of occupancy, peak and average DHW consumption with variations of 0%–2.2% compared to the simulated results. DHW heating added the total power in modern low energy buildings by 21%–41% and 13%–26% at design temperatures of −15 °C and −26 °C, respectively. Internal heat gains reduced the power so that the reduction effect compensated the effect of DHW heating in the case of a house occupied by three people. The equations could be used for power sizing of any heat pump types, which has alternate operation principle and hydronic heating system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy and Economics Analyses of Condenser Evaporative Precooling for Various Climates, Buildings and Refrigerants
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112079
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Condenser evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit option for existing packaged rooftop air conditioning application units. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive study to assess energy savings and peak power reductions of condenser evaporative cooling. Condenser evaporative cooling leads to a [...] Read more.
Condenser evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit option for existing packaged rooftop air conditioning application units. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive study to assess energy savings and peak power reductions of condenser evaporative cooling. Condenser evaporative cooling leads to a lower temperature of the air entering the condenser of a rooftop unit, which results in smaller compressor power consumption. Using EnergyPlus building energy simulations, we mapped the impacts on energy savings and energy reductions at peak ambient temperatures in three building types and 16 locations with levels of pad effectiveness and demonstrated the effects on air conditioner using either R22 or R410A as refrigerants. Economics and control strategy to maximize the cost saving were also investigated. The results demonstrate that energy savings are much greater for HVAC systems with the refrigerant R410A than they are with R22, and evaporative pre-cooling provides the opportunity for annual energy savings and peak demand reductions, with significant potential in hot, dry climates. Additionally, we validated an improved mathematical model for estimating the condenser pre-cooling wet bulb efficiency which shows clear advantage over the current EnergyPlus model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Measurements and Time Diaries as Complementary Measures to Improve Resolution of BES
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112072
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Building energy simulation (BES) models rely on a variety of different input data, and the more accurate the input data are, the more accurate the model will be in predicting energy use. The objective of this paper is to show a method for [...] Read more.
Building energy simulation (BES) models rely on a variety of different input data, and the more accurate the input data are, the more accurate the model will be in predicting energy use. The objective of this paper is to show a method for obtaining higher accuracy in building energy simulations of existing buildings by combining time diaries with data from logged measurements, and also to show that more variety is needed in template values of user input data in different kinds of buildings. The case studied in this article is a retirement home in Linköping, Sweden. Results from time diaries and interviews were combined with logged measurements of electricity, temperature, and CO2 levels to create detailed occupant behavior schedules for use in BES models. Two BES models were compared, one with highly detailed schedules of occupancy, electricity use, and airing, and one using standardized input data of occupant behavior. The largest differences between the models could be seen in energy losses due to airing and in household electricity use, where the one with standardized user input data had a higher amount of electricity use and less losses due to airing of 39% and 99%, respectively. Time diaries and interviews, together with logged measurements, can be great tools to detect behavior that affects energy use in buildings. They can also be used to create detailed schedules and behavioral models, and to help develop standardized user input data for more types of buildings. This will help improve the accuracy of BES models so the energy efficiency gap can be reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting the Smart Readiness Indicator—A Methodology to Integrate A Quantitative Assessment of the Load Shifting Potential of Smart Buildings
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101955
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
With the third revision of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) issued in July 2018, the assessment of buildings now has to include a Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) to consider the fact that buildings must play an active role within the context [...] Read more.
With the third revision of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) issued in July 2018, the assessment of buildings now has to include a Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) to consider the fact that buildings must play an active role within the context of an intelligent energy system. In order to support the development of the SRI, this article describes a methodology for a simplified quantitative assessment of the load shifting potential of buildings. The aim of the methodology is to provide a numerical, model-based approach, which allows buildings to be categorized based on their energy storage capacity, load shifting potential and their subsequent interaction with the grid. A key aspect is the applicability within the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) in order to provide an easy to use calculation, which is applied in addition to the already established energy efficiency, building services and renewable energy assessments. The developed methodology is being applied to theoretical use cases to validate the approach. The results show that a simplified model can provide an adequate framework for a quantitative assessment for the Smart Readiness Indicator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment—Heating Mode
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101835
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type [...] Read more.
A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type air distribution system. These three different systems are examined and compared to one another to evaluate their performance based on local thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness when operating in heating mode. The evaluated test room is an office environment with two workstations. One of the office walls, which has three windows, faces a cold climate chamber. The results show that CIJV and HDV perform similar to a mixing ventilation in terms of ventilation effectiveness close to the workstations. As for local thermal comfort evaluation, the results show a small advantage for CIJV in the occupied zone. Comparing C2-CIJV to C2-CMV the average draught rate (DR) in the occupied zone is 0.3% for C2-CIJV and 5.3% for C2-CMV with the highest difference reaching as high as 10% at the height of 1.7 m. The results indicate that these systems can perform as well as mixing ventilation when used in offices that require moderate heating. The results also show that downdraught from the windows greatly impacts on the overall airflow and temperature pattern in the room. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Effects of Enhanced Uniformity Control of Greenhouse Environment Variables on Crop Growth
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091749
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 28 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
In order to ensure high crop yield and good quality in greenhouse horticulture, the major environment control variables, such as temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration, etc., need to be controlled properly, in order to reduce harmful effects on crop growth by minimizing [...] Read more.
In order to ensure high crop yield and good quality in greenhouse horticulture, the major environment control variables, such as temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration, etc., need to be controlled properly, in order to reduce harmful effects on crop growth by minimizing the fluctuation of the thermal condition. Even though a hot water-based heating system is evidently superior to a hot air-based heating system, in terms of the thermally stable condition or energy saving, a hot air-based heating system has occupied the domestic market due to its economic efficiency from an initial investment cost saving. However, the intrinsic drawbacks of a hot air-based heating system, being more frequent variation of thermal variables and an inordinate disturbance on crops due to its convective heat delivery nature, are believed to be the main reasons for the insufficient crop yield and/or the quality deterioration. In addition, the current thermal environment monitoring system in a greenhouse, in which a sole sensor node usually covers a large part of cultivating area, seems to have a profound need of improvement in order to resolve those problems, in that the assumption of thermal uniform condition, which is adequate for a sole sensor node system, cannot be ensured in some cases. In this study, the qualitative concept of the new control variable—the degree of uniformity—is suggested as an indicator to seek ways of enhancing the crop yield and its quality based on the multiple sensor nodes system with a wireless sensor network. In contrast to a conventional monitoring system, for which a newly suggested concept of qualitative variable cannot be estimated at all, the multiple sensor nodes-based thermal monitoring system can provide more accurate and precise sensing, which enables the degree of uniformity to be checked in real-time and thus more precise control becomes possible as a consequence. From the analysis of the results of the experiment and simulation, it is found that the crops in plastic vinyl houses can be exposed to a serious level of non-uniform thermal condition. For instance, the temperature difference in the longitudinal and widthwise direction is 3.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively for the case of 75 × 8 m dimension greenhouse during a typical winter season, and it can be hypothesized that this level of non-uniformity might cause considerable damage to crop growth. In this paper, several variants of control systems, within the framework of the multiple sensor nodes system, is proposed to provide a more thermally-stable cultivating environment and the experimental verification is carried out for different scales of test greenhouses. The results showed that a simple change of heating mode (i.e., from a hot air- to a hot water-based heating system) can bring about a significant improvement for the non-uniformity of temperature (more or less 80%), and an additional countermeasure, with local heat flux control, can lead to a supplementary cut of non-uniformity up to 90%. Among the several variants of local heat flux control systems, the hydraulic proportional mass flow control valve system was proven to represent the best performance, and it can be hypothesized that the newly suggested qualitative variable—the degree of uniformity—with the multiple sensor nodes system can be a good alternative for seeking enhanced cultivating performance, being higher crop yield and better quality along with energy cost saving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence Subjective Human Parameters in the Calculation of Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption of Buildings
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081531
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
In the present work, we analyze the influence of the designer’s choice of values for the human metabolic index (met) and insulation by clothing (clo) that can be selected within the ISO 7730 for the calculation of the energy demand of buildings. To [...] Read more.
In the present work, we analyze the influence of the designer’s choice of values for the human metabolic index (met) and insulation by clothing (clo) that can be selected within the ISO 7730 for the calculation of the energy demand of buildings. To this aim, we first numerically modeled, using TRNSYS, two buildings in different countries and climatologies. Then, we consistently validated our simulations by predicting indoor temperatures and comparing them with measured data. After that, the energy demand of both buildings was obtained. Subsequently, the variability of the set-point temperature concerning the choice of clo and met, within limits prescribed in ISO 7730, was analyzed using a Monte Carlo method. This variability of the interior comfort conditions has been finally used in the numerical model previously validated, to calculate the changes in the energy demand of the two buildings. Therefore, this work demonstrated that the diversity of possibilities offered by ISO 7730 for the choice of clo and met results, depending on the values chosen by the designer, in significant differences in indoor comfort conditions, leading to non-negligible changes in the calculations of energy consumption, especially in the case of big buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of the Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment—Cooling Mode
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071354
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical [...] Read more.
The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical points, air velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature, and tracer gas decay measurements were conducted for all systems. The results show that the new method behaves as a displacement ventilation system, with high air change effectiveness and stratified flow pattern and temperature field. Both local air change effectiveness and air exchange effectiveness of the corner impinging jet showed high quality and promising results, which is a good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The results also indicate that there is a possibility to slightly lower the airflow rates for the new air distribution system, while still meeting the requirements for thermal comfort and indoor air quality, thereby reducing fan energy usage. The draught rate was also lower for corner impinging jet compared to the other tested air distribution methods. The findings of this research show that the corner impinging jet method can be used for office ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Temperature Distribution on the Face Skin in Case of Advanced Personalized Ventilation System
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071185
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy saving is one of the most important research directions in the building sector. Personalized ventilation systems are energy conscious solutions providing fresh air for the occupants. As a side effect, cooling energy can be saved due to higher convective heat removal. Using [...] Read more.
Energy saving is one of the most important research directions in the building sector. Personalized ventilation systems are energy conscious solutions providing fresh air for the occupants. As a side effect, cooling energy can be saved due to higher convective heat removal. Using the data gathered from previous experiments performed with the developed personalized ventilation system, a ±1.408 °C accurate simulation model was created in ANSYS 19.2 Academic version in order to determine the temperature distribution on the face. In this paper, the method and the first results are presented. It was clearly demonstrated by measurements and simulations that the personalized ventilation equipment used has a considerable effect on the skin temperature of the face. The developed model can be used to analyze the skin temperature on the faces of people using the novel, personalized ventilation equipment. This way the time spent on examination can be reduced considerably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Correlation of Ventilative Cooling Potentials and Building Energy Savings in Various Climatic Zones
Energies 2019, 12(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060968
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
The introduction of cool outdoor air can help in reducing the energy consumption for cooling during summer. Ventilative cooling potentials (VCPs) have been defined in various ways in the literature to represent potential cooling hours in specified outdoor temperature ranges. However, the energy-saving [...] Read more.
The introduction of cool outdoor air can help in reducing the energy consumption for cooling during summer. Ventilative cooling potentials (VCPs) have been defined in various ways in the literature to represent potential cooling hours in specified outdoor temperature ranges. However, the energy-saving potential of ventilative cooling can differ between buildings in the same climatic zone depending on the buildings’ thermal characteristics and system operations. In this study, new VCPs are introduced with an index of temperature shift based on adaptive thermal comfort. This index can be determined based on the balance temperature difference of the buildings, which is defined as the heat gain in the building divided by the thermal transmission and air exchange characteristics of the building envelope under quasi-steady state conditions. The proposed method was also compared with those reported in the literature, including a computer-based VCP tool. It is the objective of the present study to investigate the correlation between VCPs and actual energy savings via ventilative cooling. Simulations were conducted in an office building for a four-month period during summer to calculate the energy saved via ventilative cooling in comparison with that achieved with a mechanical cooling system. Eight cities representing four different climatic conditions were considered: tropical, dry, temperate, and continental. Our results revealed a strong correlation between the energy savings and the proposed VCPs in the case of a proper temperature shift estimation in all climatic zones. The computerized VCP tool also exhibited good correlation with the calculated energy savings and with the VCPs proposed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Data-Driven Approach for Enhancing the Efficiency in Chiller Plants: A Hospital Case Study
Energies 2019, 12(5), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050827
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Large buildings cause more than 20% of the global energy consumption in advanced countries. In buildings such as hospitals, cooling loads represent an important percentage of the overall energy demand (up to 44%) due to the intensive use of heating, ventilation and air [...] Read more.
Large buildings cause more than 20% of the global energy consumption in advanced countries. In buildings such as hospitals, cooling loads represent an important percentage of the overall energy demand (up to 44%) due to the intensive use of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems among other key factors, so their study should be considered. In this paper, we propose a data-driven analysis for improving the efficiency in multiple-chiller plants. Coefficient of performance (COP) is used as energy efficiency indicator. Data analysis, based on aggregation operations, filtering and data projection, allows us to obtain knowledge from chillers and the whole plant, in order to define and tune management rules. The plant manager software (PMS) that implements those rules establishes when a chiller should be staged up/down and which chiller should be started/stopped according different efficiency criteria. This approach has been applied on the chiller plant at the Hospital of León. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Space Heating Model Suitable for the Automated Model Generation of Existing Multifamily Buildings—A Case Study in Nordic Climate
Energies 2019, 12(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030485
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline [...] Read more.
Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline models can be auto-generated from, and calibrated by, publicly accessible data sources. The proposed modeling framework consists of a thermal network, a typical hydronic radiator heating system, a simulation procedure, and data handling procedures. The thermal network is a lumped and simplified version of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. The data handling consists of procedures to acquire and make use of satellite-based solar radiation data, meteorological reanalysis data (air temperature, ground temperature, wind, albedo, and thermal radiation), and pre-processing procedures of boundary conditions to account for impact from shading objects, window blinds, wind- and stack-driven air leakage, and variable exterior surface heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model was compared with simulations conducted with the detailed building energy simulation software IDA ICE. The results show that the proposed model is able to accurately reproduce hourly energy use for space heating, indoor temperature, and operative temperature patterns obtained from the IDA ICE simulations. Thus, the proposed model can be expected to be able to model space heating, provided by hydronic heating systems, of existing buildings to a similar degree of confidence as established simulation software. Compared to IDA ICE, the developed model required one-thousandth of computation time for a full-year simulation of building model consisting of a single thermal zone. The fast computation time enables the use of the developed model for computation time sensitive applications, such as Monte-Carlo-based calibration methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Energy Renovation on the Change of Indoor Temperature and Energy Use
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3179; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113179
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the renovation of apartment buildings is to lower the energy consumption of those buildings, mainly the heating energy consumption. There are few analyses regarding those other energy consumptions which are also related to the primary energy need for calculating the [...] Read more.
The aim of the renovation of apartment buildings is to lower the energy consumption of those buildings, mainly the heating energy consumption. There are few analyses regarding those other energy consumptions which are also related to the primary energy need for calculating the energy efficiency class, including the primary energy need of calculated heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and household electricity. Indoor temperature is directly connected with heating energy consumption, but it is not known yet how much it will change after renovation. One of the research issues relates to the change of electricity and DHW usage after renovation and to the question of whether this change is related to the users’ behavior or to changes to technical solutions. Thirty-five renovated apartment buildings have been analyzed in this study, where the data of indoor temperature, airflow, and energy consumption for DHW with and without circulation and electricity use in apartments and common rooms has been measured. During research, it turned out that the usage of DHW without circulation and the usage of household electricity do not change after renovation. Yet there is a major increase in indoor temperature and DHW energy use in buildings that did not have circulation before the renovation. In addition, a small increase in the use of electricity in common areas was discovered. This study will offer changes in calculations for the energy efficiency number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Power Scheduling in Smart Homes Using Jaya Based Optimization with Time-of-Use and Critical Peak Pricing Schemes
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3155; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113155
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Presently, the advancements in the electric system, smart meters, and implementation of renewable energy sources (RES) have yielded extensive changes to the current power grid. This technological innovation in the power grid enhances the generation of electricity to meet the demands of industrial, [...] Read more.
Presently, the advancements in the electric system, smart meters, and implementation of renewable energy sources (RES) have yielded extensive changes to the current power grid. This technological innovation in the power grid enhances the generation of electricity to meet the demands of industrial, commercial and residential sectors. However, the industrial sectors are the focus of power grid and its demand-side management (DSM) activities. Neglecting other sectors in the DSM activities can deteriorate the total performance of the power grid. Hence, the notion of DSM and demand response by way of the residential sector makes the smart grid preferable to the current power grid. In this circumstance, this paper proposes a home energy management system (HEMS) that considered the residential sector in DSM activities and the integration of RES and energy storage system (ESS). The proposed HEMS reduces the electricity cost through scheduling of household appliances and ESS in response to the time-of-use (ToU) and critical peak price (CPP) of the electricity market. The proposed HEMS is implemented using the Earliglow based algorithm. For comparative analysis, the simulation results of the proposed method are compared with other methods: Jaya algorithm, enhanced differential evolution and strawberry algorithm. The simulation results of Earliglow based optimization method show that the integration of RES and ESS can provide electricity cost savings up to 62.80% and 20.89% for CPP and ToU. In addition, electricity cost reduction up to 43.25% and 13.83% under the CPP and ToU market prices, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
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