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Article

Development of a Space Heating Model Suitable for the Automated Model Generation of Existing Multifamily Buildings—A Case Study in Nordic Climate

1
School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, 72123 Västerås, Sweden
2
Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB, 63005 Eskilstuna, Sweden
3
Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030485
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline models can be auto-generated from, and calibrated by, publicly accessible data sources. The proposed modeling framework consists of a thermal network, a typical hydronic radiator heating system, a simulation procedure, and data handling procedures. The thermal network is a lumped and simplified version of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. The data handling consists of procedures to acquire and make use of satellite-based solar radiation data, meteorological reanalysis data (air temperature, ground temperature, wind, albedo, and thermal radiation), and pre-processing procedures of boundary conditions to account for impact from shading objects, window blinds, wind- and stack-driven air leakage, and variable exterior surface heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model was compared with simulations conducted with the detailed building energy simulation software IDA ICE. The results show that the proposed model is able to accurately reproduce hourly energy use for space heating, indoor temperature, and operative temperature patterns obtained from the IDA ICE simulations. Thus, the proposed model can be expected to be able to model space heating, provided by hydronic heating systems, of existing buildings to a similar degree of confidence as established simulation software. Compared to IDA ICE, the developed model required one-thousandth of computation time for a full-year simulation of building model consisting of a single thermal zone. The fast computation time enables the use of the developed model for computation time sensitive applications, such as Monte-Carlo-based calibration methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy performance modeling; gray box; satellite-based solar radiation data; meteorological reanalysis data; ISO 52016-1 energy performance modeling; gray box; satellite-based solar radiation data; meteorological reanalysis data; ISO 52016-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lundström, L.; Akander, J.; Zambrano, J. Development of a Space Heating Model Suitable for the Automated Model Generation of Existing Multifamily Buildings—A Case Study in Nordic Climate. Energies 2019, 12, 485. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030485

AMA Style

Lundström L, Akander J, Zambrano J. Development of a Space Heating Model Suitable for the Automated Model Generation of Existing Multifamily Buildings—A Case Study in Nordic Climate. Energies. 2019; 12(3):485. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030485

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lundström, Lukas, Jan Akander, and Jesús Zambrano. 2019. "Development of a Space Heating Model Suitable for the Automated Model Generation of Existing Multifamily Buildings—A Case Study in Nordic Climate" Energies 12, no. 3: 485. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030485

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