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Open AccessArticle

Modeling an Alternate Operational Ground Source Heat Pump for Combined Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Power Sizing

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Department of Civil Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
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Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112120
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance and Indoor Climate Analysis in Buildings)
This study developed an alternate operational control system for ground source heat pumps (GSHP), which was applied to determine combined space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) power equations at design temperature. A domestic GSHP with an alternate control system was implemented in a whole building simulation model following the heat deficiency for space heating based on degree minute counting. A simulated GSHP system with 200 L storage tank resulted in 13%–26% power reduction compared to the calculation of the same system with existing European standards, which required separate space heating and DHW power calculation. The periodic operation utilized the thermal mass of the building with the same effect in the case of light and heavy-weight building because of the very short cycle of 30 min. Room temperatures dropped during the DHW heating cycle but kept within comfort range. The developed equations predict the total power as a function of occupancy, peak and average DHW consumption with variations of 0%–2.2% compared to the simulated results. DHW heating added the total power in modern low energy buildings by 21%–41% and 13%–26% at design temperatures of −15 °C and −26 °C, respectively. Internal heat gains reduced the power so that the reduction effect compensated the effect of DHW heating in the case of a house occupied by three people. The equations could be used for power sizing of any heat pump types, which has alternate operation principle and hydronic heating system. View Full-Text
Keywords: ground source heat pump; heating power; sizing; DHW heating; space heating; alternate operation ground source heat pump; heating power; sizing; DHW heating; space heating; alternate operation
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Ahmed, K.; Fadejev, J.; Kurnitski, J. Modeling an Alternate Operational Ground Source Heat Pump for Combined Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Power Sizing. Energies 2019, 12, 2120.

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